Peanut stunt virus
|Peanut stunt virus (PSV)|
|Group:||Group IV ((+)ssRNA)|
|Species:||Peanut stunt virus|
Peanut stunt virus (PSV) is a plant pathogenic virus  in the family Bromoviridae. It is a member of the genus Cucumovirus , the type member of which is Cucumber mosaic virus . The three members of this genus are positive-stranded RNA viruses with a multipartite genome (3-4 parts). The virus particles have an isometric or spherical shape.
Distribution and Host Range
PSV was first named as a new disease of groundnuts or peanuts ( Arachis hypogaea ) in 1966. Disease symptoms on the above ground parts of the peanut plants were described as severe dwarfing or stunting – hence the name Peanut stunt virus. Fruit production was also severely reduced. Virginia peanut fields, where this disease was first observed in 1964, had yield reductions of 10-50%.
Severe stunting of peanuts had also been observed in North Carolina in 1964. The peanut disease in N. Carolina was reported to be caused by the PSV in 1967. The later report also stated that this virus caused disease in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and in white clover (Trifolium repens).
After its first description, PSV was quickly diagnosed in beans in Washington State, white clover in South Carolina, peanuts, beans and white clover in Georgia, peanuts in Alabama, and white clover in Florida. Strains of PSV have now been identified in Africa (Morocco), Europe (France, Poland, Russia, and Spain) and Asia (India, Japan, Korea and China ) as well as in the United States.
PSV is an economically important pathogen of plants in the family Leguminosae. In addition to beans, peanuts, and clover (7 different species of Trifolium ), PSV has been reported to naturally infect peas (Pisum sativum), soybeans (Glycine max), alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and lupine (Lupinus luteus). In 2002, PSV was reported to infect rhizoma or perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata) in N. Florida and S. Georgia.
Host range studies have shown that fourteen other plant families can be infected with this virus including agriculturally important crops in the plant families Cucurbitaceae (squash, cucumber, watermelon) and Solanceae (tomatoes, peppers, tobacco). Cultivated Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and celery (Apium graveolens) have also been reported to be naturally infected.
PSV is transmitted from plant to plant by several species of aphids (Aphis craccivora, A. spiraecola and Myzus persicae) in a stylet-borne manner. It can also be transmitted by mechanical inoculation. It has been shown to be transmitted by seeds in peanuts at a very low level  but this is not considered to be very important to the spread of this virus.
The virus can be introduced into a susceptible field crop by aphids from a nearby reservoir (infected perennial hosts like clover, alfalfa or perennial peanuts) and then is spread further into the field by aphids. It can be spread in perennial crops by harvesting (mechanical transmission) and possibly by root grafts.
Correct diagnosis of any plant disease requires some expertise. Plants suspected of a viral infection should be sent to a plant diagnostic laboratory where the presence or absence of the virus can be confirmed by serological ( ELISA ), genetic (PCR), or host range tests. Antiserum and sequence data are available for this virus.
Other references for Peanut stunt virus in Perennial Peanuts
Blount, A.R., R.K. Sprenkel, R.N. Pittman, B.A. Smith, R.N. Morgan. W. Dankers, and T.M. Momol 2002. Peanut Stunt Virus Reported on Perennial Peanut in North Florida and Southern Georgia. IFAS Pub. SS-AGR-37.
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- Miller, L.E. and Troutman, J.L. 1966. Stunt disease of peanuts in Virginia. Plant Disease Reporter 50:139-143.
- Cooper, W.E. 1966. A destructive virus disease of peanut. Plant Disease Reporter 50:136
- Hebert, T.T. 1967. Epidemiology of peanut stunt virus in North Carolina. (Abstr.) Phytopathology 57: 461.
- Mink, G.I., Hebert, T.T., and Silbernagel, M.J. 1967. A strain of peanut stunt virus isolated in Washington (Abstr.) Phytopathology 57: 1400.
- Choopanya, D. 1968. Distribution of peanut stunt virus in white clover in South Carolina and its relationship to peanut culture. Plant Disease Reporter 52: 926-928.
- Kuhn, C.W. 1971. Peanut stunt virus in Georgia. Plant Disease Reporter 55:453
- Rogers, K. M. and Mixon, A.C. 1972. Peanut stunt virus in Alabama. Plant Disease Reporter 56:415-416
- Batchelor, D.L., Young, T.R., and Purcifull, D.E. 1974. Identification of peanut stunt virus in Florida. Plant Disease Reporter 58: 830-831.
- Bananej, K., Hajimorad, M. R. and Shahraeen, N. 1995. Isolation and characterization of a cucumovirus resembling peanut stunt virus from Iran. P. 107. In Proc. 12th Iranian Plant Protection Congress.
- Xu, Z. and Zhang, Z. 1988. Distribution of peanut virus diseases and detection of virus by serology in China. Oil Crops China 2:56-61.
- Choopanya, D. and Halpin, J.E. 1968. Host range of peanut stunt virus in Trifolium spp. Phytopathology 58:726.
- Blount, A.R. Pittman, R.N, Smith, B.A., Morgan, R. N., Dankers, W., Sprenkel, R.K., Momol, M.T. 2002. First Report of Peanut Stunt Virus in Perennial Peanut in North Florida and Southern Georgia. Plant Disease 86:326.
- ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Peanut stunt virus
- Gooding, G.V., Jr. 1968. Burley tobacco naturally infected with peanut stunt virus in Virginia. Plant Dis. Rep. 54:183-184.
- Twardowicz-Jakusz, A. and Pospieszny, H. 1983. Comparison of two strains of peanut stunt virus isolated from celery and yellow lupine in Poland. Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci. 29:423-427.
- Troutman, J.L., W.K. Bailey, and C.A. Thomas. 1967. Seed Transmission of Peanut Stunt Virus. Phytopathology 57: 1280-1281.