Pearl River Delta

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Pearl River Delta (PRD)
珠江三角洲
Delta do Rio das Pérolas
Metropolitan region and area
Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
2014 NASA Earth Observatory image of Pearl River Delta.jpg
Map of the metropolitan region Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area in Green
Map of the metropolitan region Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area in Green
RegionsGuangdong
Hong Kong
Macau
Major SettlementsGuangzhou
Shenzhen
Zhuhai
Foshan
Dongguan
Zhongshan
Jiangmen
Huizhou
Zhaoqing
Hong Kong
Macau
Government
 • Governor of GuangdongMa Xingrui
 • Chief Executive of Hong KongCarrie Lam
 • Chief Executive of MacauFernando Chui
Area
 • Metro39,380 km2 (15,200 sq mi)
Language
 •  Cantonese and other Yuehai dialects, Mandarin, English, Portuguese, Macanese Patois
Time zoneUTC+8 (CST, HKT, MST)
Pearl River Delta
Chinese name
Chinese珠江三角洲
Chinese abbreviation
Chinese珠三角
Literal meaningZhu (Pearl River) Delta
Second alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese粤江平原
Traditional Chinese粵江平原
Literal meaningYue (Guangdong) river plain
Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macau Greater Bay Area
Simplified Chinese粤港澳大湾区
Traditional Chinese粵港澳大灣區
Portuguese name
PortugueseDelta do Rio das Pérolas

The Pearl River Delta Metropolitan Region (PRD, Chinese: 珠江三角洲都會區; pinyin: Zhūjiāng sānjiǎozhōu) is the low-lying area surrounding the Pearl River estuary, where the Pearl River flows into the South China Sea. It is one of the most densely urbanized regions in the world, and is often considered an emerging megacity. The region's economy is referred to as Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, while the Chinese government's development plans consider it part of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area.

The PRD is a megalopolis, with future development into a single mega metropolitan area, yet itself is at the southern end of a larger megalopolis running along the southern coast of China, which include metropolises such as Chaoshan, Zhangzhou-Xiamen, Quanzhou-Putian and Fuzhou. The nine largest cities of the PRD had a combined population of 57.15 million at the end of 2013, comprising 53.69% of the provincial population.[1] According to the World Bank Group, the PRD has become the largest urban area in the world in both size and population.[2]

This region was also the source of much Chinese emigration from the 19th to the mid 20th centuries, including to the Western world, where they formed many Chinatowns. Today, much of the Chinese diaspora in the US, Canada, Australia, Latin America, and much of Southeast Asia traces their ancestry to this region. Its dominant language is Cantonese.

Geography[edit]

River delta[edit]

The river delta, also known as the Golden Delta of Guangdong,[3] is formed by three major rivers, the Xi Jiang (West River), Bei Jiang (North River), and Dong Jiang (East River). The flat lands of the delta are criss-crossed by a network of tributaries and distributaries of the Pearl River. The Pearl River Delta is actually two alluvial deltas, separated by the core branch of the Pearl River. The Bei Jiang and Xi Jiang converge to flow into the South China Sea and Pearl River in the west, while the Dong Jiang only flows into the Pearl River proper in the east.

The Xi Jiang begins exhibiting delta-like characteristics as far west as Zhaoqing, although this city is not usually considered a part of the PRD region. After passing through the Lingyang Gorge and converging with the Bei Jiang, the Xi Jiang opens up and flows as far east as Nansha Qu and as far west as Xinhui. Major distributaries of the Xi include Donghui Shuidao, Jiya Shuidao, Hutiaomen Shuidao, Yinzhou Hu, and the main branch of the Xi Jiang. Jiangmen and Zhongshan are the major cities found in the western section of the delta.[citation needed]

The Bei Jiang enters the delta plains at Qingyuan but doesn't begin to split until near Sanshui. From here the two main distributaries are Tanzhou Shuidao and Shunde Shuidao which form multiple mouths along the west side of the Pearl River's estuary. Two other distributaries, Lubao Yong and Xinan Yong, split from the Bei further north and converge with the Liuxi He to form the main branch of the Pearl River just north of Guangzhou. The other major city in the north section of the delta is Foshan.[citation needed]

The Dong Jiang flows through Huizhou into the delta. It begins diverging northeast of Dongguan into many distributaries, including the Dongguan Shuidao. Distributuares enter the Pearl River as far north as Luogang and as far south as Hu Men (Tiger Gate).

Saltwater crocodiles were present within the Pearl River estuary during antiquity.

Location and demographics[edit]

As well as the delta itself, the term Pearl River Delta refers to the dense network of cities that covers nine prefectures of the province of Guangdong, namely Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Dongguan, Zhongshan, Foshan, Huizhou, Jiangmen and Zhaoqing, and the SARs of Hong Kong and Macau. The 2010/2011 State of the World Cities report, published by the United Nations Human Settlements Programme, estimates the population of the delta region at 120 million people; it is rapidly urbanising.[4]

The eastern side of the PRD (Shenzhen, Dongguan), dominated by foreign capital, is the most developed economically. The western areas (Foshan, Zhuhai, Zhongshan, Jiangmen), dominated by local private capital, are open for development. New transport links between Hong Kong, Macau and Zhuhai in the PRD are expected to open up new areas for development, further integrate the cities, and facilitate trade within the region. The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge, currently under construction, and the proposed Shenzhen-Zhongshan Bridge, currently in the planning phase, will be amongst the longest bridges in the world with a total length of approximately 50 km (31 mi)each.

An 1888 map of the mouth of the Pearl River Delta, showing the locations of Macau and Hong Kong

Until c. 1985, the PRD had been mainly dominated by farms and small rural villages, but after the economy was reformed and opened, a flood of investment turned it into the land's economic powerhouse. The PRD's startling growth was fueled by foreign investment coming largely from Hong Kong manufacturers that moved their operations into the PRD. In 2003, Hong Kong companies employed 11 million workers in their PRD operations. Lately there have been extreme labour shortages in the region due to runaway economic growth which caused wages to rise by about 20 to 30 percent in the past two years.[5]

Economy[edit]

The Pearl River Delta has been one of the most economically dynamic regions of the People's Republic of China since the launch of China’s reform programme in 1979. With annual gross domestic product growth of 13.45 percent over three decades since 1978, it is 3.5 percentage points higher than the national average. Since 1978, almost 30% of all foreign investment in China was in the PRD.[6] In 2007 its GDP rose to US$448 billion which makes its economy about the size of Taiwan's[7] and by 2017 this figure has increased to US$1.5 trillion ( or US$3.0 trillion in PPP)[8], about the same size as Russia. The abundance of employment opportunities created a pool of wealthy, middle-income, professional consumers with an annual per capita income that puts them among China's wealthiest.[9] Since the onset of China’s reform program, the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone has been the fastest growing portion of the fastest growing province in the fastest growing large economy in the world.[10]

Dongguan, Zhongshan, Nanhai, and Shunde (the later two are now districts of Foshan) the four cities known as the Four Guangdong Dragons for its high growth rates and rapid development from late the 1980s to the 2000s.

According to the 2000 national Census, the Zone had a population of 40.8 million people. Per capita income has been growing substantially in recent years, as have consumer expenditures.

Although the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone encompasses only 0.4 percent of the land area and only 3.2 percent of the 2000 Census population of mainland China, it accounted for 8.7 percent of GDP, 35.8 percent of total trade, and 29.2 percent of utilised foreign capital in 2001. These figures show the remarkable level of economic development to which the Pearl River Delta has been subjected in order to become an 'Economic Zone', as well as the international orientation of the region’s economy. This orientation has attracted numerous investors from all over the world who use the Greater Pearl River Delta region as a platform for serving global and Chinese markets.

As of 2008, the Central Government has introduced new labor laws, environmental and other regulations to reduce pollution, industrial disputes, produce safer working conditions and protect the environment. The costs of producing low margin and commodity goods have increased. This is on top of the rising cost for energy, food, transport and the appreciation of the Renminbi against the falling US Dollar. Some manufacturers will need to cut costs by moving up the value chain or moving to more undeveloped regions.[11]

The industrial cities in the Pearl River Delta has been called the "Factory of the World" or the "World's Factory" due the presence of industrial parks populated with factories from foreign investments.[12][13] The target market of the delta region's exports, however, has become increasingly domestic rather than foreign.[14]

Significance of manufacturing[edit]

Several streets in Guangzhou specialize in selling electronic components to the manufacturers of electric and electronic goods

The Pearl River Delta has become the world's workshop and is a major manufacturing base for products such as electronic products (such as watches and clocks), toys, garments and textiles, plastic products, and a range of other goods. Much of this output is invested by foreign entities and is geared for the export market. The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone accounts for approximately one third of China's trade value.

Private-owned enterprises have developed quickly in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone and are playing an ever-growing role in the region's economy, particularly after year 2000 when the development environment for private-owned enterprises has been greatly relaxed.

Nearly five percent of the world's goods were produced in the Greater Pearl River Delta in 2001, with a total export value of US$289 billion. Over 70,000 Hong Kong companies have factory plants there.[11]

Transportation[edit]

Public transport[edit]

Urban rail transport[edit]

PRD is served by five different metro systems throughout the metropolitan area consisting of Guangzhou Metro, Shenzhen Metro, MTR, FMetro, and Dongguan Rail Transit. Both Guangzhou and Hong Kong are also served by tram systems: Guangzhou Trams, Hong Kong Tramways, MTR Light Rail, and Peak Tram.

Currently, four additional metro and tram systems are under construction: Macau Light Rail Transit, Shenzhen Trams, Zhuhai Trams, and Foshan Trams. Also, three additional systems are under planning stage: Zhongshan Metro, Huizhou Metro, and Zhuhai Metro.

Buses, taxis and motorcycles[edit]

All cities are served by buses and taxis, while some cities may still offer motorcycle service.

Air transport[edit]

PRD is covered by seven civilian airports, with five in Mainland China and two in special administrative regions. Two of the Mainland Airports have international flights.

Mainland China:

Special administrative regions:

Railway and intercity-rail transport[edit]

The entire PRD is fully covered by railway, high-speed rail, or intercity-rail services.

River transport[edit]

There are daily high-speed catamaran services throughout the PRD region.

Cities[edit]

City Romanization Stats Information & Subdivisions City Map Image
Guangzhou
广州 / 廣州
Pinyin: Guǎngzhōu
Canton: Guong2zau1
Yale: Gwóngjāu
Jyutping: Gwong2zau1
Population: 12,700,800
Area: 7,434 km2
Density: 1,708.47/km2
Also known to many English speakers as Canton, Guangzhou is the capital of Guangdong province. It is a port on the Pearl River, navigable to the South China Sea, and is cultural and political center of the Pearl River Delta.


Districts: Yuexiu, Liwan, Haizhu, Tianhe, Baiyun, Huangpu, Panyu, Huadu, Nansha, Zengcheng, Conghua
New Area: Nansha

Administrative Division Guangzhou 2.png Guangzhou montage.png
Shenzhen
深圳
Pinyin: Shēnzhèn
Canton: Sem1zen3
Yale: Sāmjan
Jyutping: Sam1zan3
Population: 10,357,938
Area: 1,991 km2
Density: 5,202.37/km2
Shenzhen is a Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in China. It has been one of the fastest growing cities in the world. It also has one of the busiest ports in the world.


Districts: Futian, Luohu, Nanshan, Yantian, Bao'an, Longgang, Pingshan, Longhua, Guangming
New District: Dapeng

Administrative Division Shenzhen 2.png Shenzhen city montage.png
Hong Kong
香港
Pinyin: Xiānggǎng
Canton: Hêng1gong2
Yale: Hēunggóng
Jyutping: Hoeng1gong2
Population: 7,061,200
Area: 1,104 km2
Density: 6,396.01/km2
Hong Kong Island was first occupied by British forces in 1841, and then formally ceded from China under the Treaty of Nanjing at the end of the war. Hong Kong remained a crown colony of the United Kingdom until 1997 when it was returned to China. Hong Kong is known as one of the world's leading financial capitals also a major business and cultural hub.


Districts: Central and Western, Eastern, Southern, Wan Chai, Kowloon City, Kwun Tong, Sham Shui Po, Wong Tai Sin, Yau Tsim Mong, Islands, Kwai Tsing, North, Sai Kung, Sha Tin, Tai Po, Tsuen Wan, Tuen Mun, Yuen Long

Map of Hong Kong 18 Districts.svg TE-Collage Hong Kong.png
Macau
澳门 / 澳門
Pinyin: Àomén
Canton: Ou3mun4
Yale: Oumùhn
Jyutping: Ou3mun4
Population: 544,600
Area: 30 km2
Density: 18,153.33/km2
Macau was first Portuguese settlement in China on 1557. Macau remained a colony of Portugal until 1999 when it was returned to China. Macau has developed into a notable tourist industry that boasts a wide range of hotels, resorts, stadiums, restaurants and casinos. This makes it one of the richest cities in the world.


Freguesia: Nossa Senhora de Fátima, Santo António, São Lázaro, , São Lourenço, Nossa Senhora do Carmo, São Francisco Xavier
Zone: Cotai

MapOfMacauMunicipalities.svg Macau montage.png
Dongguan
东莞 / 東莞
Pinyin: Dōngguǎn
Canton: Dung1gun2
Yale: Dūnggún
Jyutping: Dung1gun2
Population: 8,220,237
Area: 2,465 km2
Density: 3,334.78/km2
Dongguan borders the provincial capital of Guangzhou to the north, Huizhou to the northeast, Shenzhen to the south, and the Pearl River to the west. It is also home to the world's largest shopping mall, South China Mall.


Subdistricts: Dongcheng, Guancheng, Nancheng, Wanjiang
Towns: Chang'an, Changping, Chashan, Dalang, Dalingshan, Daojiao, Dongkeng, Fenggang, Gaobu, Hengli, Hongmei, Houjie, Huangjiang, Humen, Liaobu, Machong, Qiaotou, Qingxi, Qishi, Shatian, Shijie, Shilong, Shipai, Tangxia, Wangniudun, Xiegang, Zhangmutou, Zhongtang

Administrative Division Dongguan.png Dongguan montage.jpg
Foshan
佛山
Pinyin: Fóshān
Canton: Fed1san1
Yale: Fātsāan
Jyutping: Fat1saan1
Population: 7,194,311
Area: 3,848 km2
Density: 1,869.62/km2
Foshan is an old town dated back many centuries. It was famous for its porcelain industry. It is now the third largest city in Guangdong'. The city is relatively affluent when compared to other Chinese cities, and it is home to many large private enterprises. Foshan recently has seen a transformation brought by China's booming economy. City administration is considered especially progressive in seeking foreign direct investment especially in Nanhai District which has closes ties with Guangzhou to form a Guangzhou-Foshan metro in the near future.


Districts: Chancheng, Nanhai, Shunde, Sanshui, Gaoming

Administrative Division Foshan.png Foshan montage.jpg
Zhuhai
珠海
Pinyin: Zhūhǎi
Canton: Ju6oi2
Yale: Jyūhói
Jyutping: Zyu1hoi2
Population: 1,560,229
Area: 1,724 km2
Density: 905.00/km2
Zhuhai plays a similar role to Shenzhen and became the first of the Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in China. Since the late 1970s it has been one of the fastest-growing cities in the Pearl River Delta due to its proximity to Macau.


Districts: Xiangzhou, Doumen, Jinwan
New Area: Hengqin

Administrative Division Zhuhai 2.png Zhuhai montage.jpg
Zhongshan
中山
Pinyin: Zhōngshān
Canton: Zung1san1
Yale: Jūngsāan
Jyutping: Zung1saan1
Population: 3,120,884
Area: 1,783 km2
Density: 1,750.35/km2
Zhongshan is a mid-size city named after Sun Yat-sen (who had the alternate name Sun Zhongshan), who is widely considered to be the "Father of modern China" and was born in Zhongshan's Cuiheng village in 1866. Zhongshan serves as a midway point between Guangzhou and Macau. Zhongshan is known in China for making lamps.


Subdistricts: Dongqu, Nanqu, Shiqi, Xiqu, Wuguishan Subdistrict, ZTHIDZ (Zhongshangang)
Towns: Banfu, Dachong, Dongfeng, Dongsheng, Fusha, Gangkou, Guzhen, Henglan,l Huangpu, Nanlang, Nantou, Minzhong, Sanjiao, Sanxiang, Shaxi, Shenwan, Tanzhou, Xiaolan
New Area: Cuiheng

Administrative Division Zhongshan.png Zhongshan montage.jpg
Jiangmen
江门 / 江門
Pinyin: Jiāngmén
Canton: Gong1mun4
Yale: Gōngmùhn
Jyutping: Gong1mun4
Population: 4,448,871
Area: 9,443 km2
Density: 471.12/km2
Jiangmen Port is the second largest river port in Guangdong province. The local government plans to develop a harbour industrial zone with heavy industries such as petrochemical and machinery industries. The port of Jiangmen was known as Kong-Moon when it was forced to open to western trade in 1902. One legacy of this period is a historic waterfront district lined with buildings in the treaty port style. The city has an ongoing renewal project which has restored many of these buildings.


Districts: Jianghai, Pengjiang, Xinhui
County-level Cities: Enping, Taishan, Kaiping, Heshan

Administrative Division Jiangmen.png Jiangmen montage.jpg
Huizhou
惠州
Pinyin: Hùizhōu
Canton: Wei6zeo1
Yale: Waihjāu
Jyutping: Wai6zau1
Population: 4,597,002
Area: 10,922 km2
Density: 420.89/km2
Huizhou is the most eastern city in the Pearl River Delta region. Huizhou is known for its West Lake scenery. Huizhou gained benefit from the Chinese economic reform of the late 1980s. The blossoming real estate market attracted capital investment from Hong Kong and Taiwan. In the provincial economic development strategy, Huizhou is regarded as a site for a world-class petrochemical industry, as well as a hub for developing information technology, and expanding exports and trade.


Districts: Huicheng, Huiyang
Counties: Boluo, Huidong, Longmen

Administrative Division Huizhou.png Huizhou montage.png
Zhaoqing
肇庆 / 肇慶
Pinyin: Zhàoqìng
Canton: Xiu6 hing3
Yale: Siuhhing
Jyutping: Siu6 hing3
Population: 3,918,085
Area: 14,891 km2
Density: 263.11/km2
Zhaoqing is the most western city in the Pearl River Delta region. It is well known for being a regional tourist hub, a medium-sized provincial "college town" as well as an up-and-coming manufacturing center. Residents from Guangzhou, Shenzhen and other nearby cities, as well as people from Hong Kong and Macau, are known to visit the city on weekend getaways and excursions.


Districts: Duanzhou, Dinghu, Gaoyao
Counties: Guangning, Huaiji, Fengkai, Deqing
County-level City: Sihui

Administrative Division Zhaoqing.png Zhaoqing-7stars.JPG

Subdivision[edit]

Name City Type Population
(2010~2011)
Area
(km2)
Density
(/km2)
Baiyun Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 46,768 3.08 15,184
Beijing Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 53,135 0.51 104,186
Dadong Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 83,491 1.02 81,853
Datang Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 46,124 1.06 43,513
Daxin[a] Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 0.60
Dengfeng Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 92,218 4.98 18,517
Dongfeng[b] Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 92,218 1.40
Dongshan Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 74,299 2.30 32,303
Guangta Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 68,128 0.44 154,836
Guangwei[c] Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 0.79
Hongqiao Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 42,258 1.52 27,801
Huale Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 47,126 1.28 36,817
Huanghuagang Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 99,569 4.43 22,476
Jianshe Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 52,110 0.93 56,032
Kuangquan Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 90,036 3.01 29,912
Liuhua Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 17,253 1.81 9,532
Liurong Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 83,996 0.87 96,547
Shishu[d] Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 0.51
Meihuacun Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 85,400 1.73 49,364
Nonglin Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 50,152 1.08 46,437
Renmin Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 69,274 1.51 45,876
Zhuguang Guangzhou (Yuexiu) Subdistrict 56,329 0.93 60,568
Baihedong Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 48,238 3.10 15,560
Caihong Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 54,348 1.06 51,271
Chajiao Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 54,918 4.05 13,560
Changhua Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 32,778 1.61 20,359
Chongkou Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 48,097 4.20 11,451
Dongjiao Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 35,889 4.60 7,801
Dongsha Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 29,013 7.90 3,672
Duobao Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 32,581 0.86 37,884
Fengyuan Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 59,337 0.78 76,073
Hailong Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 31,801 9.49 3,351
Huadi Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 39,635 1.63 24,315
Hualin Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 46,309 0.72 64,318
Jinhua Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 54,670 1.16 47,129
Lingnan Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 27,560 0.90 30,622
Longjin Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 43,518 0.53 82,109
Nanyuan Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 70,066 1.85 37,873
Qiaozhong Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 31,643 4.40 71,91
Shamian Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 3,397 0.30 11,323
Shiweitang Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 57,192 5.18 11,040
Xicun Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 45,069 3.27 13,782
Zhanqian Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 27,431 0.96 28,573
Zhongnan Guangzhou (Liwan) Subdistrict 24,710 7.00 3,530
Binjiang Guangzhou (Haizhu) Subdistrict 72,324 16.07 4,500
Changgang Guangzhou (Haizhu) Subdistrict 97,986 1.96 49,992
Chigang Guangzhou (Haizhu) Subdistrict 114,978 5.73 20,065
Fengyang Guangzhou (Haizhu) Subdistrict 162,641 9.30 17,488
Guanzhou Guangzhou (Haizhu) Subdistrict 57,869 11.20 5,166
Haichuang Guangzhou (Haizhu) Subdistrict 62,884 1.45 43,368
Huazhou Guangzhou (Haizhu) Subdistrict 49,742 12.20 4,077
Jianghai Guangzhou (Haizhu) Subdistrict 115,157 5.30 21,727
Jiangnanzhong Guangzhou (Haizhu) Subdistrict 75,220 2.36 31,872
Longfeng Guangzhou (Haizhu) Subdistrict 102,561 2.38 43,092
Nanhuaxi Guangzhou (Haizhu) Subdistrict 37,960 1.10 34,509
Nanshitou Guangzhou (Haizhu) Subdistrict 123,043 4.80 25,633
Nanzhou Guangzhou (Haizhu) Subdistrict 84,726 12.30 6,888
Pazhou Guangzhou (Haizhu) Subdistrict 29,851 10.00 2,985
Ruibao Guangzhou (Haizhu) Subdistrict 125,399 6.30 19,904
Shayuan Guangzhou (Haizhu) Subdistrict 67,322 1.44 46,751
Sushe Guangzhou (Haizhu) Subdistrict 67,103 1.68 39,942
Xingang Guangzhou (Haizhu) Subdistrict 111,897 3.85 29,064
Changxing Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 66,098 13.21 5,003
Chebei Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 102,787 5.60 18,354
Fenghuang Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 19,534 22.99 849
Huangcun Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 29,501 6.17 4,781
Liede Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 22,522 3.10 7,265
Linhe Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 59,732 3.80 15,718
Longdong Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 70,055 11.70 5,987
Qianjin Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 59,700 4.90 12,183
Shadong Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 29,522 2.16 13,667
Shahe Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 42,814 1.26 33,979
Shipai Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 177,198 4.30 41,208
Tangxia Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 177,864 7.42 23,970
Tianhenan Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 62,912 2.08 30,246
Tianyuan Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 54,769 4.03 13,590
Wushan Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 131,795 10.59 12,445
Xiancun Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 51,284 4.07 12,600
Xinghua Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 68,139 4.28 15,920
Xintang Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 41,207 14.95 2,756
Yuancun Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 81,831 5.37 15,238
Yuangang Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 30,610 3.23 9,476
Zhuji Guangzhou (Tianhe) Subdistrict 52,552 10.01 5,249
Jingtai Guangzhou (Baiyun) Subdistrict 82,226 11.40 7,212
Songzhou Guangzhou (Baiyun) Subdistrict 106,274 9.30 11,427
Tongde Guangzhou (Baiyun) Subdistrict 105,310 3.60 29,252
Huangshi Guangzhou (Baiyun) Subdistrict 117,339 5.71 20,549
Tangjing Guangzhou (Baiyun) Subdistrict 89,895 4.23 21,251
Xinshi Guangzhou (Baiyun) Subdistrict 76,146 3.36 21,449
Yuncheng[e] Guangzhou (Baiyun) Subdistrict not established 3.74
Sanyuanli Guangzhou (Baiyun) Subdistrict 100,149 6.80 14,727
Tonghe Guangzhou (Baiyun) Subdistrict 89,362 24.25 3,685
Jingxi Guangzhou (Baiyun) Subdistrict 91,970 5.51 16,691
Yongping Guangzhou (Baiyun) Subdistrict 124,000 14.44 8,587
Junhe Guangzhou (Baiyun) Subdistrict 124,909 19.80 6,308
Jinsha Guangzhou (Baiyun) Subdistrict 52,657 10.20 5,162
Shijing Guangzhou (Baiyun) Subdistrict 69,674 3.48 5,321
Baiyunhu[f] Guangzhou (Baiyun) Subdistrict not established 16.00
Shimen[g] Guangzhou (Baiyun) Subdistrict not established 19.80
Jiahe Guangzhou (Baiyun) Subdistrict 43,848 4.00 8,769
Helong[h] Guangzhou (Baiyun) Subdistrict not established 6.00
Renhe Guangzhou (Baiyun) Town 127,795 74.10 1,724
Taihe Guangzhou (Baiyun) Town 208,589 155.37 1,342
Jianggao Guangzhou (Baiyun) Town 161,343 95.71 1,685
Zhongluotan Guangzhou (Baiyun) Town 192,322 169.40 1,135
Dasha Guangzhou (Huangpu) Subdistrict 44,641 13.10 3,407
Huangpu Guangzhou (Huangpu) Subdistrict 64,255 7.38 8,706
Hongshan Guangzhou (Huangpu) Subdistrict 42,127 7.30 5,770
Yuzhu Guangzhou (Huangpu) Subdistrict 59,529 9.11 6,534
Wenchong Guangzhou (Huangpu) Subdistrict 46,877 10.07 4,655
Nangang Guangzhou (Huangpu) Subdistrict 76,747 13.74 5,585
Changzhou Guangzhou (Huangpu) Subdistrict 36,478 11.50 3,172
Suidong Guangzhou (Huangpu) Subdistrict 45,025 13.58 3,315
Lilian Guangzhou (Huangpu) Subdistrict 42,251 6.58 6,421
Luogang Guangzhou (Huangpu) Subdistrict 45,717 80.10 570
Xiagang Guangzhou (Huangpu) Subdistrict 44,528 14.54 3,062
Dongqu Guangzhou (Huangpu) Subdistrict 85,235 54.00 1,578
Lianhe Guangzhou (Huangpu) Subdistrict 49,867 51.76 963
Yonghe Guangzhou (Huangpu) Subdistrict 55,044 34.00 1,618
Jiulong Guangzhou (Huangpu) Town 93,265 175.10 532
Shiqiao Guangzhou (Panyu) Subdistrict 168,701 20.15 8,372
Zhongcun Guangzhou (Panyu) Subdistrict 104,598 23.41 4,468
Shibi Guangzhou (Panyu) Subdistrict 32,989 27.01 1,221
Dashi Guangzhou (Panyu) Subdistrict 116,107 19.34 6,003
Luopu Guangzhou (Panyu) Subdistrict 89,294 25.38 3,518
Dalong Guangzhou (Panyu) Subdistrict 129,515 24.80 5,222
Donghuan Guangzhou (Panyu) Subdistrict 52,965 11.00 4,815
Qiaonan Guangzhou (Panyu) Subdistrict 72,695 17.85 4,072
Shatou Guangzhou (Panyu) Subdistrict 35,201 18.10 1,944
Xiaoguwei Guangzhou (Panyu) Subdistrict 131,470 20.15 6,524
Nancun Guangzhou (Panyu) Town 129,076 47.00 2,746
Xinzao Guangzhou (Panyu) Town 27,248 14.12 1,929
Hualong Guangzhou (Panyu) Town 53,142 55.70 954
Shilou Guangzhou (Panyu) Town 90,381 126.50 714
Shiqi Guangzhou (Panyu) Town 97,434 71.26 1,367
Shawan Guangzhou (Panyu) Town 88,695 37.45 2,368
Xinhua Guangzhou (Huadu) Subdistrict 381,311 29.81 6,764
Huacheng[i] Guangzhou (Huadu) Subdistrict not established 26.56
Xinya[j] Guangzhou (Huadu) Subdistrict 20,520 32.98 235
Xiuquan[k] Guangzhou (Huadu) Subdistrict not established 54.19
Timian Guangzhou (Huadu) Town 9,516 91.20 104
Huashan Guangzhou (Huadu) Town 99,262 116.40 852
Tanbu Guangzhou (Huadu) Town 55,797 113.33 492
Chini Guangzhou (Huadu) Town 56,609 160.03 353
Shiling Guangzhou (Huadu) Town 203,254 136.31 1,491
Huadong Guangzhou (Huadu) Town 118,736 208.44 569
Nansha Guangzhou (Nansha) Subdistrict 112,151 57.80 1,940
Zhujiang Guangzhou (Nansha) Subdistrict 28,575 41.50 688
Longxue[l] Guangzhou (Nansha) Subdistrict not established 128.90
Wanqingsha Guangzhou (Nansha) Town 44,891 319.20 100
Huangge Guangzhou (Nansha) Town 43,791 76.50 572
Hengli Guangzhou (Nansha) Town 30,492 54.00 564
Dongchong Guangzhou (Nansha) Town 147,228 92.00 1,600
Dagang Guangzhou (Nansha) Town 125,011 90.07 1,387
Lanhe Guangzhou (Nansha) Town 73,078 74.48 981
Jiekou Guangzhou (Conghua) Subdistrict 96,846 21.84 4,434
Chengjiao Guangzhou (Conghua) Subdistrict 79,085 160.00 494
Jiangbu Guangzhou (Conghua) Subdistrict 95,843 127.00 754
Wenquan Guangzhou (Conghua) Town 55,194 210.90 261
Liangkou Guangzhou (Conghua) Town 32,829 530.60 61
Lütian Guangzhou (Conghua) Town 23,430 393.00 59
Taiping Guangzhou (Conghua) Town 94,369 210.32 448
Aotou Guangzhou (Conghua) Town 111,308 410.00 271
Licheng Guangzhou (Zengcheng) Subdistrict 191,777 132.27 1,449
Zengjiang Guangzhou (Zengcheng) Subdistrict 78,072 86.18 905
Zhucun Guangzhou (Zengcheng) Subdistrict 43,557 93.90 463
Yongning[m] Guangzhou (Zengcheng) Subdistrict not established 104.14
Zhengguo Guangzhou (Zengcheng) Town 40,387 236.40 170
Shitan Guangzhou (Zengcheng) Town 121,674 184.00 661
Xintang Guangzhou (Zengcheng) Town 391,287 85.09 4,598
Zhongxin Guangzhou (Zengcheng) Town 78,293 236.00 331
Paitan Guangzhou (Zengcheng) Town 58,337 289.50 201
Xiaolou Guangzhou (Zengcheng) Town 33,725 136.00 247
Xiancun[n] Guangzhou (Zengcheng) Town not established 56.65
Huangbei Shenzhen (Luohu) Subdistrict 113,382 7.50 15,117
Guiyuan Shenzhen (Luohu) Subdistrict 82,694 10.90 7,586
Dongmen Shenzhen (Luohu) Subdistrict 90,454 2.10 43,073
Cuizhu Shenzhen (Luohu) Subdistrict 110,459 3.45 32,017
Dongxiao Shenzhen (Luohu) Subdistrict 100,779 3.48 28,959
Nanhu Shenzhen (Luohu) Subdistrict 90,500 2.63 34,410
Sungang Shenzhen (Luohu) Subdistrict 64,004 4.03 15,881
Donghu Shenzhen (Luohu) Subdistrict 84,556 29.05 2,910
Liantang Shenzhen (Luohu) Subdistrict 85,569 13.10 6,531
Qingshuihe Shenzhen (Luohu) Subdistrict 101,024 13.62 7,417
Shatou Shenzhen (Futian) Subdistrict 226,061 18.90 11,960
Nanyuan Shenzhen (Futian) Subdistrict 108,398 3.00 36,132
Yuanling Shenzhen (Futian) Subdistrict 88,261 3.67 24,049
Huafu Shenzhen (Futian) Subdistrict 70,834 5.75 12,318
Futian Shenzhen (Futian) Subdistrict 234,861 12.25 19,172
Xiangmihu Shenzhen (Futian) Subdistrict 89,471 9.98 8,965
Lianhua Shenzhen (Futian) Subdistrict 168,392 9.60 17,540
Meilin Shenzhen (Futian) Subdistrict 168,506 34.30 4,912
Huaqiangbei Shenzhen (Futian) Subdistrict 54,067 2.90 18,643
Fubao Shenzhen (Futian) Subdistrict 106,811 3.75 28,482
Nantou Shenzhen (Nanshan) Subdistrict 163,237 16.80 9,716
Nanshan Shenzhen (Nanshan) Subdistrict 152,312 23.90 6,372
Shahe Shenzhen (Nanshan) Subdistrict 121,350 22.32 5,436
Xili Shenzhen (Nanshan) Subdistrict 187,832 49.16 3,820
Shekou Shenzhen (Nanshan) Subdistrict 87,304 12.29 7,103
Zhaoshang Shenzhen (Nanshan) Subdistrict 79,650 18.36 4,338
Yuehai Shenzhen (Nanshan) Subdistrict 157,807 14.40 10,958
Taoyuan Shenzhen (Nanshan) Subdistrict 138,853 40.00 3,471
Xin'an Shenzhen (Bao'an) Subdistrict 410,056 30.90 13,270
Xixiang Shenzhen (Bao'an) Subdistrict 580,736 106.00 5,478
Songgang Shenzhen (Bao'an) Subdistrict 398,153 64.00 6,221
Shajing Shenzhen (Bao'an) Subdistrict 529,041 60.00 8,817
Fuyong Shenzhen (Bao'an) Subdistrict 472,792 66.20 7,141
Shiyan Shenzhen (Bao'an) Subdistrict 248,139 64.60 3,841
Hangcheng[o] Shenzhen (Bao'an) Subdistrict not established
Fuhai[p] Shenzhen (Bao'an) Subdistrict not established
Xinqiao[q] Shenzhen (Bao'an) Subdistrict not established
Yanluo[r] Shenzhen (Bao'an) Subdistrict not established
Guangming Shenzhen (Guangming) Subdistrict 66,549 55.80 1,192
Gongming Shenzhen (Guangming) Subdistrict 414,358 100.30 4,131
Xinhu[s] Shenzhen (Guangming) Subdistrict not established
Fenghuang[t] Shenzhen (Guangming) Subdistrict not established
Yutang[u] Shenzhen (Guangming) Subdistrict not established
Matian[v] Shenzhen (Guangming) Subdistrict not established
Longhua Shenzhen (Longhua) Subdistrict 367,521 24.80 14,819
Minzhi Shenzhen (Longhua) Subdistrict 281,652 30.69 9,177
Dalang Shenzhen (Longhua) Subdistrict 277,689 37.20 7,464
Guanlan Shenzhen (Longhua) Subdistrict 452,598 34.60 13,080
Guanhu[w] Shenzhen (Longhua) Subdistrict not established
Fucheng[x] Shenzhen (Longhua) Subdistrict not established
Longcheng Shenzhen (Longgang) Subdistrict 260,696 77.68 3,356
Longgang Shenzhen (Longgang) Subdistrict 215,273 64.84 3,320
Henggang Shenzhen (Longgang) Subdistrict 94,801 40.40 2,346
Buji Shenzhen (Longgang) Subdistrict 359,770 30.58 11,764
Bantian Shenzhen (Longgang) Subdistrict 221,767 28.51 7,778
Nanwan Shenzhen (Longgang) Subdistrict 197,431 24.68 7,999
Pinghu Shenzhen (Longgang) Subdistrict 228,217 41.80 5,459
Pingdi Shenzhen (Longgang) Subdistrict 94,765 53.14 1,783
Baolong[y] Shenzhen (Longgang) Subdistrict not established
Jihua[z] Shenzhen (Longgang) Subdistrict not established
Yuanshan[aa] Shenzhen (Longgang) Subdistrict not established
Pingshan Shenzhen (Pingshan) Subdistrict 205,999 127.22 1,619
Kengzi Shenzhen (Pingshan) Subdistrict 94,801 40.40 2,346
Biling[ab] Shenzhen (Pingshan) Subdistrict not established
Maluan[ac] Shenzhen (Pingshan) Subdistrict not established
Shijing[ad] Shenzhen (Pingshan) Subdistrict not established
Longtian[ae] Shenzhen (Pingshan) Subdistrict not established
Dapeng Shenzhen (Dapeng) Subdistrict 46,867 82.81 565
Kuichong Shenzhen (Dapeng) Subdistrict 61,105 103.90 588
Nan'ao Shenzhen (Dapeng) Subdistrict 18,588 115.06 161
Haishan Shenzhen (Yantian) Subdistrict 61,858 5.52 11,206
Yantian Shenzhen (Yantian) Subdistrict 80,641 17.8 4,530
Meisha Shenzhen (Yantian) Subdistrict 18,063 16.83 1,073
Shatoujiao Shenzhen (Yantian) Subdistrict 48,798 6.91 7,061
Central and Western Hong Kong District 251,519 12.4 20,102
Eastern Hong Kong District 588,094 18.5 31,664
Southern Hong Kong District 278,655 38.8 7,083
Wan Chai Hong Kong District 152,608 9.8 15,788
Sham Shui Po Hong Kong District 380,855 9.3 39,095
Kowloon City Hong Kong District 377,351 10.0 36,178
Kwun Tong Hong Kong District 622,152 11.2 52,123
Wong Tai Sin Hong Kong District 420,183 9.3 45,540
Yau Tsim Mong Hong Kong District 307,878 6.9 40,136
Kwai Tsing Hong Kong District 511,167 23.3 22,421
North Hong Kong District 304,134 136.6 2,055
Sai Kung Hong Kong District 436,627 129.6 3,135
Sha Tin Hong Kong District 630,273 68.7 8,842
Tai Po Hong Kong District 296,853 136.1 2,156
Tsuen Wan Hong Kong District 304,637 61.7 4,679
Tuen Mun Hong Kong District 487,546 82.8 6,057
Yuen Long Hong Kong District 578,529 138.4 3,858
Islands Hong Kong District 141,327 175.1 783
Nossa Senhora de Fátima Macau Freguesia 211,800 3.2 66,187
Santo António Macau Freguesia 120,600 1.1 109,636
São Lázaro Macau Freguesia 31,900 0.6 53,166
Macau Freguesia 46,100 3.4 13,558
São Lourenço Macau Freguesia 47,200 1.0 47,200
Nossa Senhora do Carmo Macau Freguesia 78,000 7.6 10,263
São Francisco Xavier Macau Freguesia 4,000 7.6 526
Cotai Macau Freguesia n/a 5.8 n/a
Guancheng Dongguan Subdistrict 162,116 13.5 12,008
Dongcheng Dongguan Subdistrict 492,875 110.0 4,480
Nancheng Dongguan Subdistrict 289,255 59.0 4,902.62
Wanjiang Dongguan Subdistrict 244,765 50.5 4,846
Shilong Dongguan Town 141,850 11.3 12,553
Gaobu Dongguan Town 217,436 30.0 7,247
Zhongtang Dongguan Town 139,563 60.0 2,326
Machong Dongguan Town 118,062 74.0 1,595
Wangniudun Dongguan Town 84,786 31.5 2,685
Hongmei Dongguan Town 58,114 33.0 1,761
Shijie Dongguan Town 246,960 36.0 6,860
Daojiao Dongguan Town 143,107 63.0 2,271
Shatian Dongguan Town 177,482 107.0 1,658
Houjie Dongguan Town 438,283 126.0 3,478
Humen Dongguan Town 638,657 178.5 3,577
Chang'an Dongguan Town 664,230 97.8 6,791
Dalingshan Dongguan Town 279,414 110.0 2,540
Dalang Dongguan Town 310,889 118.0 2,634
Huangjiang Dongguan Town 231,399 98.0 2,361
Liaobu Dongguan Town 418,578 87.5 4,783
Fenggang Dongguan Town 318,971 82.5 3,866
Tangxia Dongguan Town 482,067 128.0 3,766
Qingxi Dongguan Town 312,639 143.0 2,186
Zhangmutou Dongguan Town 132,816 118.8 1,117
Xiegang Dongguan Town 99,387 103.0 964
Changping Dongguan Town 386,378 108.0 3,577
Qiaotou Dongguan Town 166,774 56.0 2,978
Qishi Dongguan Town 121,693 51.0 2,386
Hengli Dongguan Town 204,830 50.0 4,096
Dongkeng Dongguan Town 138,819 27.5 5,047
Chashan Dongguan Town 156,522 51.0 3,069
Shipai Dongguan Town 160,202 56.0 2,860
Zumiao Foshan (Chancheng) Subdistrict 416,800 31.60 13,189
Shiwanzhen Foshan (Chancheng) Subdistrict 286,226 26.62 10,752
Zhangcha Foshan (Chancheng) Subdistrict 241,149 26.50 9,099
Nanzhuang Foshan (Chancheng) Town 156,902 76.70 2,045
Guicheng Foshan (Nanhai) Subdistrict 542,775 84.16 6,449
Lishui Foshan (Nanhai) Town 273,914 75.38 3,633
Jiujiang Foshan (Nanhai) Town 170,179 94.75 1,796
Danzao Foshan (Nanhai) Town 154,955 143.50 1,079
Dali Foshan (Nanhai) Town 614,837 95.90 6,411
Shishan Foshan (Nanhai) Town 610,514 330.60 1,846
Xiqiao Foshan (Nanhai) Town 221,670 176.63 1,254
Daliang Foshan (Shunde) Subdistrict 404,309 80.19 5,041
Ronggui Foshan (Shunde) Subdistrict 449,687 80.17 5,609
Leliu Foshan (Shunde) Subdistrict 252,364 90.84 2,778
Lunjiao Foshan (Shunde) Subdistrict 184,479 59.21 3,115
Beijiao Foshan (Shunde) Town 270,310 92.41 2,925
Lecong Foshan (Shunde) Town 259,795 77.55 3350
Jun'an Foshan (Shunde) Town 141,736 79.36 1,785
Xingtan Foshan (Shunde) Town 144,537 122.07 1184
Chencun Foshan (Shunde) Town 135,686 50.92 2,664
Longjiang Foshan (Shunde) Town 221,881 73.78 3,007
Xinan Foshan (Sanshui) Subdistrict 283,819 178.00 1,594
Yundonghai Foshan (Sanshui) Subdistrict 29,953 56.00 534
Lubao Foshan (Sanshui) Town 40,626 105.00 386
Datang Foshan (Sanshui) Town 46,704 98.23 475
Leping Foshan (Sanshui) Town 134,508 198.50 677
Baini Foshan (Sanshui) Town 64,425 66.46 969
Nanshan Foshan (Sanshui) Town 22,610 115.62 195
Hecheng Foshan (Gaoming) Subdistrict 278,454 178.58 1,559
Yanghe Foshan (Gaoming) Town 53,224 246.27 216
Genghe Foshan (Gaoming) Town 46,528 365.00 127
Mingcheng Foshan (Gaoming) Town 41,838 186.50 224
Meihua Zhuhai (Xiangzhou) Subdistrict 91,172 9.80 9,303
Gongbei Zhuhai (Xiangzhou) Subdistrict 105,130 10.00 10,513
Jida Zhuhai (Xiangzhou) Subdistrict 81,088 11.70 6,930
Cuixiang Zhuhai (Xiangzhou) Subdistrict 106,661 28.00 3,809
Shishan Zhuhai (Xiangzhou) Subdistrict 56,956 8.20 6,945
Xiangwan Zhuhai (Xiangzhou) Subdistrict 48,482 32.40 1,496
Qianshan Zhuhai (Xiangzhou) Subdistrict 184,738 53.00 3,485
Wanzi Zhuhai (Xiangzhou) Subdistrict 26,645 30.50 873
Nanping Zhuhai (Xiangzhou) Town 70,934 60.70 1,168
Tangjiawan Zhuhai (Xiangzhou) Town 109,152 130.00 839
Hengqin Zhuhai (Xiangzhou) Town 6,914 476.00 14
Guishan Zhuhai (Xiangzhou) Town 1,745 18.00 96
Dan'gan Zhuhai (Xiangzhou) Town 1,860 40.00 46
Wanshan Zhuhai (Xiangzhou) Town 1,208 23.00 52
Baiteng Zhuhai (Doumen) Subdistrict not established 17.00
Jing'an Zhuhai (Doumen) Town 172,732 142.00 1,086
Baijiao Zhuhai (Doumen) Town 104,568 184.00 568
Ganwu Zhuhai (Doumen) Town 57,352 190.60 300
Doumen Zhuhai (Doumen) Town 46,549 105.77 440
Lianzhou Zhuhai (Doumen) Town 34,681 88.60 391
Sanzao Zhuhai (Jinwan) Town 82,221 96.00 856
Hongqi Zhuhai (Jinwan) Town 67,631 150.00 450
Pingsha Zhuhai (Jinwan) Town 67,149 197.00 340
Nanshui Zhuhai (Jinwan) Town 36,962 100.00 369
Shiqi Zhongshan Subdistrict 206,362 22.5 9,171
Dongqu Zhongshan Subdistrict 153,477 73.1 2,099
Nanqu Zhongshan Subdistrict 64,548 25.1 2,571
Xiqu Zhongshan Subdistrict 97,864 49.1 1,993
THIDZ (Zhongshangang) Zhongshan Subdistrict 229,997 158.7 1,449
Wuguishan Zhongshan Subdistrict 48,019 101.2 474
Huangpu Zhongshan Town 145,017 88.3 1,642
Nantou Zhongshan Town 130,712 25.7 5,086
Dongfeng Zhongshan Town 123,562 56.2 2,198
Fusha Zhongshan Town 57,570 35.4 1,626
Xiaolan Zhongshan Town 315,626 71.9 4,389
Dongsheng Zhongshan Town 118,052 76.7 1,539
Guzhen Zhongshan Town 147,440 52.2 2,824
Henglan Zhongshan Town 103,135 75.7 1,362
Sanjiao Zhongshan Town 121,770 70.1 1,737
Minzhong Zhongshan Town 108,417 121.8 890
Nanlang Zhongshan Town 107,977 152.4 708
Gangkou Zhongshan Town 113,748 71.2 1,597
Dachong Zhongshan Town 74,276 40.6 1,829
Shenwan Zhongshan Town 31,392 52.4 599
Sanxiang Zhongshan Town 200,197 93.6 2,138
Banfu Zhongshan Town 82,412 79.6 1,035
Shaxi Zhongshan Town 119,372 60.9 1,960
Tanzhou Zhongshan Town 219,943 129.5 1,698
Huanshi Jiangmen (Pengjiang) Subdistrict 119,423 34.0 3,512
Canghou[af] Jiangmen (Pengjiang) Subdistrict 59,565 5.0 11,913
Didong[ag] Jiangmen (Pengjiang) Subdistrict 76,765 3.7 20,747
Beijie[ah] Jiangmen (Pengjiang) Subdistrict 58,374 8.35 6,990
Baisha Jiangmen (Pengjiang) Subdistrict 109,791 8.17 13,438
Chaolian Jiangmen (Pengjiang) Subdistrict 29,395 12.68 2,318
Tangxia Jiangmen (Pengjiang) Town 76,021 131.1 579
Hetang Jiangmen (Pengjiang) Town 88,085 32.0 2,752
Duruan Jiangmen (Pengjiang) Town 101,727 80.9 1,257
Jiangnan Jiangmen (Jianghai) Subdistrict 31,700 2.7 11,740
Waihai Jiangmen (Jianghai) Subdistrict 94,666 46.0 2,057
Lile Jiangmen (Jianghai) Subdistrict 82,612 49.8 1,658
Jiaobei[ai] Jiangmen (Jianghai) Subdistrict 9,363 3.7 2,530
Jiaotou[aj] Jiangmen (Jianghai) Subdistrict 35,972 4.8 7,494
Huicheng Jiangmen (Xinhui) Subdistrict 385,177 143.86 2,677
Daze Jiangmen (Xinhui) Town 37,677 83.50 451
Siqian Jiangmen (Xinhui) Town 69,935 89.54 781
Luokeng Jiangmen (Xinhui) Town 31,527 117.88 267
Shuangshui Jiangmen (Xinhui) Town 87,295 207.44 420
Yamen Jiangmen (Xinhui) Town 37,963 289.09 131
Shadui Jiangmen (Xinhui) Town 36,957 96.25 383
Gujing Jiangmen (Xinhui) Town 42,027 112.31 374
Sanjiang Jiangmen (Xinhui) Town 43,113 82.43 523
Muzhou Jiangmen (Xinhui) Town 42,117 79.79 527
Da'ao Jiangmen (Xinhui) Town 35,367 52.56 672
Taicheng Jiangmen (Taishan) Subdistrict 246,844 159.7 1,545
Dajiang Jiangmen (Taishan) Town 46,674 69.8 668
Shuibu Jiangmen (Taishan) Town 42,578 110.9 383
Sijiu Jiangmen (Taishan) Town 37,402 260 143
Baisha Jiangmen (Taishan) Town 52,462 123 426
Sanhe Jiangmen (Taishan) Town 36,215 250 144
Chonglou Jiangmen (Taishan) Town 32,483 125 259
Doushan Jiangmen (Taishan) Town 48,229 121.25 397
Duhu Jiangmen (Taishan) Town 42,657 164.23 259
Chixi Jiangmen (Taishan) Town 34,450 254.2 135
Duanfen Jiangmen (Taishan) Town 45,729 300 152
Guanghai Jiangmen (Taishan) Town 43,465 132.58 327
Haiyan Jiangmen (Taishan) Town 73,212 330 221
Wencun Jiangmen (Taishan) Town 49,565 175 283
Shenjing Jiangmen (Taishan) Town 52,767 315.3 167
Beidou Jiangmen (Taishan) Town 28,091 196 143
Chuandao Jiangmen (Taishan) Town 28,272 254.3 111
Sanbu Jiangmen (Kaiping) Subdistrict 173,100 32.4 5,342
Changsha Jiangmen (Kaiping) Subdistrict 124,829 54 2,311
Shatang Jiangmen (Kaiping) Town 24,667 88 280
Chacheng Jiangmen (Kaiping) Town 26,750 138.6 193
Longsheng Jiangmen (Kaiping) Town 26,161 126 207
Dasha Jiangmen (Kaiping) Town 22,298 215.6 103
Magang Jiangmen (Kaiping) Town 30,728 92.3 332
Tangkou Jiangmen (Kaiping) Town 22,626 73.5 307
Chikan Jiangmen (Kaiping) Town 37,260 61.4 606
Baihe Jiangmen (Kaiping) Town 17,621 66.1 266
Xiangang Jiangmen (Kaiping) Town 13,280 78 170
Jinji Jiangmen (Kaiping) Town 16,493 149.5 110
Yueshan Jiangmen (Kaiping) Town 46,700 121.12 385
Chishui Jiangmen (Kaiping) Town 25,894 145 178
Shuikou Jiangmen (Kaiping) Town 90,835 33.1 2,744
Shaping Jiangmen (Kaiping) Subdistrict 197,155 50 3,943
Longkou Jiangmen (Heshan) Town 36,625 96 381
Yayao Jiangmen (Heshan) Town 38,851 82.3 472
Gulao Jiangmen (Heshan) Town 35,606 68.12 522
Taoyuan Jiangmen (Heshan) Town 25,902 54 479
Hecheng Jiangmen (Heshan) Town 32,170 178 180
Gonghe Jiangmen (Heshan) Town 41,338 90.07 458
Zhishan Jiangmen (Heshan) Town 32,009 61.38 521
Zhaiwu Jiangmen (Heshan) Town 26,254 205.06 128
Yunxiang[ak] Jiangmen (Heshan) Town 12,453 36.83 338
Shuanghe Jiangmen (Heshan) Town 16,575 149.4 110
Encheng Jiangmen (Enping) Subdistrict 197,788 162.5 1,217
Hengbei Jiangmen (Enping) Town 31,694 126.5 250
Shengtang Jiangmen (Enping) Town 25,038 56.65 441
Liangxi Jiangmen (Enping) Town 20,091 121.75 165
Shahu Jiangmen (Enping) Town 56,217 250 224
Niujiang Jiangmen (Enping) Town 23,430 91 257
Juntang Jiangmen (Enping) Town 46,475 100.6 461
Datian Jiangmen (Enping) Town 27,943 202.36 138
Naji Jiangmen (Enping) Town 19,384 260 74
Dahuai Jiangmen (Enping) Town 18,625 97.2 191
Dongcheng Jiangmen (Enping) Town 26,129 50.4 518
Qiaodong Huizhou (Huicheng) Subdistrict 100,374 13.57
Qiaoxi Huizhou (Huicheng) Subdistrict 159,591 8.8
Jiangnan Huizhou (Huicheng) Subdistrict 74,602 28
Jiangbei Huizhou (Huicheng) Subdistrict 104,494 15
Longfeng Huizhou (Huicheng) Subdistrict 81,053 46
Henan'an Huizhou (Huicheng) Subdistrict 181,755 45
Huihuan Huizhou (Huicheng) Subdistrict 173,852 36
Chenjiang Huizhou (Huicheng) Subdistrict 138,694 83
Shuikou Huizhou (Huicheng) Subdistrict 137,286 120
Xiaojinkou Huizhou (Huicheng) Subdistrict 105,554 66.7
Ruhu Huizhou (Huicheng) Town 45,990 173
Sandong Huizhou (Huicheng) Town 35,410 67.8
Tonghu Huizhou (Huicheng) Town 35,706 112.5
Lilin Huizhou (Huicheng) Town 57,476 49
Ma'an Huizhou (Huicheng) Town 55,414 76
Hengli Huizhou (Huicheng) Town 44,488 343
Luzhou Huizhou (Huicheng) Town 15,890 160
Tongqiao Huizhou (Huicheng) Town 30,335 31
Danshui Huizhou (Huiyang) Subdistrict 226,703 80
Qiuchang Huizhou (Huiyang) Subdistrict 81,224 109.9
Aotou Huizhou (Huiyang) Subdistrict 58,766 110
Xiayong Huizhou (Huiyang) Subdistrict 19,304 80.8
Yonghu Huizhou (Huiyang) Town 25,575 130
Liangjing Huizhou (Huiyang) Town 25,043 72.6
Pingtan Huizhou (Huiyang) Town 32,271 105
Shatian Huizhou (Huiyang) Town 29,276 85
Xinxu Huizhou (Huiyang) Town 83,283 158.4
Zhenlong Huizhou (Huiyang) Town 46,982 115.3
Luoyang Huizhou (Boluo) Town 208,739 251.62
Gongzhuang Huizhou (Boluo) Town 46,813 299.5
Baitang Huizhou (Boluo) Town 50,013 161.4
Yangcun Huizhou (Boluo) Town 41,958 120
Mabei Huizhou (Boluo) Town 21,690 58.6
Shiba Huizhou (Boluo) Town 39,149 142
Taimei Huizhou (Boluo) Town 34,169 183.5
Longxi Huizhou (Boluo) Town 88,964 115.84
Yuanzhou Huizhou (Boluo) Town 146,053 110
Shiwan Huizhou (Boluo) Town 122,802 83
Longhua Huizhou (Boluo) Town 26,009 62
Futian Huizhou (Boluo) Town 38,286 86.7
Changning Huizhou (Boluo) Town 39,983 117
Huzhen Huizhou (Boluo) Town 56,551 117.3
Yangqiao Huizhou (Boluo) Town 29,868 89
Guanyinge Huizhou (Boluo) Town 17,309 143
Henghe Huizhou (Boluo) Town 21,421 232.88
Pinshan Huizhou (Huidong) Subdistrict 236,877 329.22
Daling Huizhou (Huidong) Subdistrict 115,762 160.23
Baihua Huizhou (Huidong) Town 63,904 203.61
Lianghua Huizhou (Huidong) Town 44,122 177.7
Renshan Huizhou (Huidong) Town 63,662 183.3
Tieyon Huizhou (Huidong) Town 34,653 120
Pinghai Huizhou (Huidong) Town 60,323 136
Jilong Huizhou (Huidong) Town 78,773 99
Huangbu Huizhou (Huidong) Town 83,756 97.7
Duozhu Huizhou (Huidong) Town 63,039 408.96
Andun Huizhou (Huidong) Town 36,297 369.5
Gaotan Huizhou (Huidong) Town 7,399 193
Baokou Huizhou (Huidong) Town 7,565 146.8
Baipenzhu Huizhou (Huidong) Town 12,258 74
Longcheng Huizhou (Longmen) Subdistrict 81,835 115.5
Pingling Huizhou (Longmen) Subdistrict 36,533 143
Mazha Huizhou (Longmen) Town 22,128 54.5
Yonghan Huizhou (Longmen) Town 47,680 215
Longtian Huizhou (Longmen) Town 17,810 195.5
Longtan Huizhou (Longmen) Town 22,306 257
Dipai Huizhou (Longmen) Town 13,991 211
Longhua Huizhou (Longmen) Town 33,423 179
Longjiang Huizhou (Longmen) Town 23,167 54.5
Lantian Huizhou (Longmen) Township 7,716 169
Chengdong Zhaoqing (Duanzhou) Subdistrict 212,718 17.8
Chengxi Zhaoqing (Duanzhou) Subdistrict 114,837 10.3
Chengbei[al] Zhaoqing (Duanzhou) Subdistrict
Chengnan[am] Zhaoqing (Duanzhou) Subdistrict
Huanggang Zhaoqing (Duanzhou) Subdistrict 88,272 78
Mugang Zhaoqing (Duanzhou) Subdistrict 63,515 59.5
Kengkou Zhaoqing (Dinghu) Subdistrict 22,406 95.5
Guicheng Zhaoqing (Dinghu) Subdistrict 29,930 23.3
Guangli Subdistrict Zhaoqing (Dinghu) Subdistrict 25,775 28
Yong'an Zhaoqing (Dinghu) Town 29,732 80.5
Shapu Zhaoqing (Dinghu) Town 15,598 105.8
Fenghuang Zhaoqing (Dinghu) Town 9,110 145
Lianhua Zhaoqing (Dinghu) Town 32,139 67
Nan'an Zhaoqing (Gaoyao) Subdistrict 81,886 36.5
Hetai Zhaoqing (Gaoyao) Town 33,660 150
Lecheng Zhaoqing (Gaoyao) Town 24,337 94
Shuinan Zhaoqing (Gaoyao) Town 11,598 126
Lubu Zhaoqing (Gaoyao) Town 63,488 254
Xiaoxiang Zhaoqing (Gaoyao) Town 30,964 200
Dawan Zhaoqing (Gaoyao) Town 34,535 108
Xinqiao Zhaoqing (Gaoyao) Town 39,265 41.8
Baizhu Zhaoqing (Gaoyao) Town 36,977 128
Liantang Zhaoqing (Gaoyao) Town 58,429 125
Huodao Zhaoqing (Gaoyao) Town 41,358 228
Jiaotang Zhaoqing (Gaoyao) Town 33,060 130
Huilong Zhaoqing (Gaoyao) Town 25,426 124.25
Baitu Zhaoqing (Gaoyao) Town 71,430 108.4
Jindu Zhaoqing (Gaoyao) Town 43,623 101.23
Jinli Zhaoqing (Gaoyao) Town 93,792 141.3
Xiangang Zhaoqing (Gaoyao) Town 29,292 96.6
Paisha Zhaoqing (Guangning) Town 20,527 154
Tanpu Zhaoqing (Guangning) Town 20,844 132.6
Jiangtun Zhaoqing (Guangning) Town 43,155 238.12
Lianhe[an] Zhaoqing (Guangning) Town
Luogang Zhaoqing (Guangning) Town 9,442 105
Beishi Zhaoqing (Guangning) Town 16,458 230
Kengkou Zhaoqing (Guangning) Town 21,002 181
Chikeng Zhaoqing (Guangning) Town 12,596 181
Nanjie Zhaoqing (Guangning) Town 118,259 189.3
Binheng Zhaoqing (Guangning) Town 38,523 171.33
Shijian[ao] Zhaoqing (Guangning) Town
Wuhe Zhaoqing (Guangning) Town 17,639 116.32
Hengshan Zhaoqing (Guangning) Town 34,355 137.5
Muge Zhaoqing (Guangning) Town 12,634 126.05
Shiju Zhaoqing (Guangning) Town 9,272 83.56
Gushui Zhaoqing (Guangning) Town 35,334 263.7
Zhouzi Zhaoqing (Guangning) Town 13,901 88.53
Huaicheng Zhaoqing (Huaiji) Town 146,839 262.02
Zhagang Zhaoqing (Huaiji) Town 17,665 84.83
Ao'zi Zhaoqing (Huaiji) Town 32,777 206.32
Wenlang Zhaoqing (Huaiji) Town 16,542 86.16
Gansa Zhaoqing (Huaiji) Town 17,429 132.21
Fenggang Zhaoqing (Huaiji) Town 30,477 277
Qiashui Zhaoqing (Huaiji) Town 28,193 529
Liangcun Zhaoqing (Huaiji) Town 64,952 88.9
Dagang Zhaoqing (Huaiji) Town 59,455 116
Gangping Zhaoqing (Huaiji) Town 30,116 53.78
Lengkeng Zhaoqing (Huaiji) Town 95,881 160.2
Maning Zhaoqing (Huaiji) Town 38,913 58
Langang Zhaoqing (Huaiji) Town 17,593 210
Yonggu Zhaoqing (Huaiji) Town 36,709 189
Shidong Zhaoqing (Huaiji) Town 54,347 325
Qiaotou Zhaoqing (Huaiji) Town 44,647 213
Zhongzhou Zhaoqing (Huaiji) Town 77.1140,524 200.4
Lianmai Zhaoqing (Huaiji) Town 32,394 119
Shuai Zhaoqing (Huaiji) Township 7,579 77.11
Jiangkou Zhaoqing (Fengkai) Town 65,160 177
Jiangchuan Zhaoqing (Fengkai) Town 8,286 120.08
Baigou Zhaoqing (Fengkai) Town 12,125 142.3
Dazhou Zhaoqing (Fengkai) Town 12,514 161.84
Yulao Zhaoqing (Fengkai) Town 18,187 118
He'erkou Zhaoqing (Fengkai) Town 21,483 368
Liandu Zhaoqing (Fengkai) Town 24,838 256
Xinghua Zhaoqing (Fengkai) Town 23,277 156.3
Luodong Zhaoqing (Fengkai) Town 21,205 136.83
Changgang Zhaoqing (Fengkai) Town 20,497 152.64
Pingfeng Zhaoqing (Fengkai) Town 16,901 107.67
Nanfeng Zhaoqing (Fengkai) Town 71,479 306
Dayukou Zhaoqing (Fengkai) Town 11,279 129
Duping Zhaoqing (Fengkai) Town 8,913 130.54
Jinzhuang Zhaoqing (Fengkai) Town 27,247 127.08
Chang'an Zhaoqing (Fengkai) Town 34,867 139.04
Decheng Zhaoqing (Deqing) Subdistrict 58,878 17.5
Xinxu Zhaoqing (Deqing) Town 23,892 138
Huilong Zhaoqing (Deqing) Town 17,401 132.2
Guanxu Zhaoqing (Deqing) Town 30,379 292
Maxu Zhaoqing (Deqing) Town 20,214 163.75
Gaoliang Zhaoqing (Deqing) Town 28,944 300
Mocun Zhaoqing (Deqing) Town 28,625 300
Yongfeng Zhaoqing (Deqing) Town 19,924 160
Wulong Zhaoqing (Deqing) Town 14,207 136
Bozhi Zhaoqing (Deqing) Town 15,308 115.3
Fengcun Zhaoqing (Deqing) Town 27,344 160
Yuecheng Zhaoqing (Deqing) Town 31,544 221
Jiushi Zhaoqing (Deqing) Town 24,551 152.6
Dongcheng Zhaoqing (Sihui) Subdistrict 101,428 46
Chengzhong Zhaoqing (Sihui) Subdistrict 142,577 84
Zhenshan Zhaoqing (Sihui) Subdistrict 35,922 100.68
Longfu Zhaoqing (Sihui) Town 17,979 103
Dedou Zhaoqing (Sihui) Town 18,351 89.7
Weizheng Zhaoqing (Sihui) Town 12,047 63.9
Luoyuan Zhaoqing (Sihui) Town 5,945 26
Jingkou Zhaoqing (Sihui) Town 12,669 101
Dasha Zhaoqing (Sihui) Town 46,120 80
Shigou Zhaoqing (Sihui) Town 16,170 142
Huangtian Zhaoqing (Sihui) Town 10,743 89.6
Jianggu Zhaoqing (Sihui) Town 27,177 82.4
Xiamao Zhaoqing (Sihui) Town 24,579 107.5
  1. ^ Merged into Renmin Subdistrict
  2. ^ Merged into Liurong Subdistrict
  3. ^ Merged into Beijing Subdistrict
  4. ^ Merged into Guangta Subdistrict
  5. ^ Split from Xinshi Subdistrict
  6. ^ Split from Shijing Subdistrict
  7. ^ Split from Shijing Subdistrict
  8. ^ Split from Jiahe Subdistrict
  9. ^ Split from Xinhua Subdistrict
  10. ^ Formerly known as Yayao
  11. ^ Split from Xinhua Subdistrict
  12. ^ Split from Wanqingsha Town
  13. ^ Split from Xintang Town
  14. ^ Split from Xintang Town
  15. ^ Split from Xixiang Subdistrict
  16. ^ Split from Fuyong Subdistrict
  17. ^ Split from Shajing Subdistrict
  18. ^ Split from Songgang Subdistrict
  19. ^ Split from Guangming & Gongming Subdistrict
  20. ^ Split from Guangming & Gongming Subdistrict
  21. ^ Split from Gongming Subdistrict
  22. ^ Split from Gongming Subdistrict
  23. ^ Split from Guanlan Subdistrict
  24. ^ Split from Longhua Subdistrict
  25. ^ Split from Longgang Subdistrict
  26. ^ Split from Buji Subdistrict
  27. ^ Split from Henggang Subdistrict
  28. ^ Split from Pingshan Subdistrict
  29. ^ Split from Pingshan Subdistrict
  30. ^ Split from Pingshan Subdistrict
  31. ^ Split from Kengzi Subdistrict
  32. ^ Merged into Baisha Subdistrict
  33. ^ Merged into Baisha Subdistrict
  34. ^ Merged into Baisha Subdistrict
  35. ^ Merged into Jiangnan Subdistrict
  36. ^ Merged into Jiangnan Subdistrict
  37. ^ Merged into Shishan Town
  38. ^ Merged into Chengdong & Chengxi Subdistrict
  39. ^ Merged into Chengdong & Chengxi Subdistrict
  40. ^ Merged into Jiangtun Town
  41. ^ Merged into Binheng Town

Pearl River mega-city[edit]

A 2011 article in British newspaper The Telegraph reported on a "Turn The Pearl River Delta Into One" project. The stated goal was to "mesh the transport, energy, water and telecommunications networks of the nine cities together."[15] (Hong Kong and Macau were not included.) However, the Chinese government denied that such a project existed.[16]

Pollution[edit]

Removal of floating trash from the surface of the Pearl River in Guangzhou

The Pearl River Delta is notoriously polluted,[citation needed] with sewage and industrial waste treatment facilities failing to keep pace with the growth in population and industry in the area. A large portion of the pollution is brought about by factories run by Hong Kong manufacturers in the area. Much of the area is frequently covered with a brown smog. This has a strong effect on the pollution levels in the delta.[citation needed]

Pollution is a great risk to the Chinese white dolphins that inhabit the area.

On March 22, 2007 the World Bank approved a $96 million loan to the PRC government to reduce water pollution in the Pearl River Delta.[17] On December 23, 2008 it was announced that ¥48.6 billion (about $7.1 billion) will be spent on the river by mid-2010 to clean up the river's sewage problems quoted by Zhang Hu, the director of Guangzhou municipal bureau of water affairs. The city will build about 30 water treatment plants, which will treat 2.25 million tonnes of water per day. The program hopes to cut down the amount of sewage in the area by 85%, and was also of fundamental importance for the 2010 Asian Games held in Guangzhou from November 12, 2010 to November 27, 2010.[18]

In October 2009, Greenpeace East Asia released a report, "Poisoning the Pearl River" that detailed the results of a study it conducted in which 25 samples were collected from five manufacturing facilities in the Greater Pearl River Delta. The study concluded that all the facilities sampled were discharging waste-water containing chemicals with proven or suspected hazardous properties including beryllium, copper, manganese, and heavy metals, as well as high levels of organic chemicals.[19] These substances are associated with a long list of health problems such as cancer, endocrine disruption, renal failure and damage to the nervous system as well being known to harm the environment. Three of the five facilities sampled (Qingyuan Top Dragon Co. Ltd, Wing Fung P.C. Board Co. Ltd. and Techwise Qingyuan Circuit Co. Ltd. ) contained concentrations of chemicals which exceeded the limits set by Guangdong provincial effluent standards. These companies were then subjected to a Clean Production Audit according to Article 28 of China's Cleaner Production Promotion Law.[20] Guangdong Environmental Protection Bureau took a stance against the companies by blacklisting them.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 广东男性比女性多了500万 人口总量增长放缓_新浪广东城事_新浪广东 (in Chinese).
  2. ^ World Bank Report Provides New Data to Help Ensure Urban Growth Benefits the Poor, The World Bank Group, 26 Jan 2015
  3. ^ Atlas of China, page 123. SinoMaps Press, 2007.
  4. ^ Vidal, John (March 22, 2010). "UN report: World's biggest cities merging into 'mega-regions'". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-05-13.
  5. ^ "Labor shortage to affect Pearl River Delta hardest".
  6. ^ "A Stronger Pearl River Delta" (PDF).
  7. ^ "Achievements, challenges in China's Pearl River Delta plan".
  8. ^ http://data.stats.gov.cn/english
  9. ^ "Economic Backdrop of the PRD" (PDF).
  10. ^ "Introducing the Pearl River Delta".
  11. ^ a b China's low costs are on the rise dallasnews.com 2008-08-19 Retrieved 2010-01-09
  12. ^ Can China keep its workers happy as strikes and protests rise?, Mukul Devichand, BBC Radio 4, Crossing Continents, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-china-16161764, 15 December 2011
  13. ^ Rahul Jacob, 30 November 2011, Talk is cheap in the world’s factory, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/3fe09222-19cf-11e1-9888-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2p3wRsHjJ
  14. ^ "How Hong Kong's poorer workers can gain from Greater Bay Area". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2018-03-30.
  15. ^ China to create largest mega city in the world with 42 million people telegraph.co.uk 2011-01-29 Retrieved 2011-01-29
  16. ^ Guandong denies ambitious megacity plan CCTV News English 2011-01-30
  17. ^ World Bank loans China $96 mln for delta environment Reuters alertnet.org 2007-03-22 Retrieved 2010-01-09
  18. ^ Guangzhou contributes 48.6 bln yuan to clean up Pearl River xinhuanet.com 2008-12-24 Retrieved 2010-01-09
  19. ^ "Greenpeace welcomes Guangdong's move to blacklist 20 polluting companies".
  20. ^ "Poisoning the Pearl River: 2nd Edition".

Further reading[edit]

  • Ma, Xiangming (S: 马向明, T: 馬向明, P: Mǎ Xiàngmíng). The integration of the city-region of the Pearl River Delta (S: 珠江三角洲城市区域的一体化, T: 珠江三角洲城市區域的一體化, P: Zhūjiāngsānjiǎozhōu Chéngshìqūyù de Yītǐhuà). Asia Pacific Viewpoint. Special Issue: China's Changing Regional Development: Trends, Strategies and Challenges in the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015) Period, Guest editor: Peter T.Y. Cheung. Volume 53, Issue 1, pages 97–104, April 2012. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8373.2012.01478.x. First published online on 4 April 2012. Full document in English, with abstracts in English and Mandarin Chinese.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 22°32′N 113°44′E / 22.533°N 113.733°E / 22.533; 113.733