Pecked curvilinear nucleated

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Pecked curvilinear nucleated petroglyphs on Ring Mountain, California

Pecked curvilinear nucleated, (PCN)[1] in archaeology, is a form of prehistoric rock carving. The term was originally proposed by Teresa Miller and Reed Haslam in 1976 to describe a widespread type of rock carving in western North America.[2] The form is characterized by a circular or oval groove element, which results in a raised center area.[3] The form is quite prevalent in California and is applied to a number of Native American rock carving sites in this portion of the United States.


Occurrences of this type of rock carving can be found at Ring Mountain, Marin County, California,[4] and in Lakeport, California.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Leigh Marymor (August 2003). "Rock Art Conservation at Canyon Trail Park, El Cerrito, California (San Francisco Bay Area)" (PDF). La Pintura, the official newsletter of the American Rock Art Research Association. 30 (1). Retrieved 2009-02-06. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. ^ Greg White and Mark Basgall, 1993
  3. ^ Ken Hedges and James E. Workman, 1983
  4. ^ C. Michael Hogan, 2008


  • Ken Hedges and James E. Workman (1983) Rock Art Papers, San Diego Museum of Man, v.1-3 ISBN 0-937808-34-2
  • C. Michael Hogan (2008) Ring Mountain, The Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham [1]
  • Greg White and Mark Basgall (1993) There Grows a Green Tree: Papers in Honor of David A. Fredrickson, Center for Archaeological Research at Davis, Center for Archaeological Research at Davis, California, 423 pages ISBN 1-883019-12-5