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Temporal range: 50–0 Ma Early Eocene - recent
Pronghorn antelope.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Suborder: Ruminantia
Infraorder: Pecora
Flower, 1883[1]

Pecora is an infraorder of even-toed hoofed mammals with ruminant digestion. Most members of Pecora have cranial appendages projecting from their frontal bones; only two extant genera lack them, Hydropotes and Moschus.[2] The name “Pecora” comes from the Latin word pecus, which means “horned livestock”.[3] Although most pecorans have cranial appendages, only some of these are properly called “horns”, and many scientists agree that these appendages did not arise from a common ancestor, but instead evolved independently on at least two occasions.[2][3][4][5] Likewise, while Pecora as a group is supported by both molecular and morphological studies, morphological support for interrelationships between pecoran families is disputed.[2]

Evolutionary history[edit]

The first fossil ruminants appeared in the Early Eocene and were small, likely omnivorous, forest-dwellers.[6] Artiodactyls with cranial appendages first occur in the early Miocene.[6] The appearance of Pecora during the Miocene suggests that its rapid diversification may correspond to the climate change events of that epoch.[6][7]

Taxonomy and Classification[edit]

Pecora is an infraorder within the larger suborder Ruminantia, and is the sister clade to the infraorder Tragulina (of which Tragulidae is the only surviving family).

Pecora's placement within Artiodactyla can be represented in the following cladogram:[8][9][10][11][12]


Tylopoda (camels)Cladogram of Cetacea within Artiodactyla (Camelus bactrianus).png


  Suina (pigs)Recherches pour servir à l'histoire naturelle des mammifères (Pl. 80) (white background).jpg

 Ruminantia (ruminants) 

 Tragulidae (mouse deer)Tragulus napu - 1818-1842 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam - (white background).jpg

 Pecora (horn bearers)Walia ibex illustration white background.png


 Hippopotamidae (hippopotamuses)Hippopotamus-PSF-Oksmith.svg

 Cetacea (whales)Bowhead-Whale1 (16273933365).jpg

Current attempts to determine the relationships among pecoran families (as well as all artiodactyls) rely on molecular studies, as little consensus exists in morphological studies.[2] Different families within Pecora are recognized as valid by different groups of scientists.[6]and sources therein, pp. 4–5

Until the beginning of the 21st century it was understood that the family Moschidae (musk deer) was sister to Cervidae. However, a 2003 phylogenetic study by Alexandre Hassanin (of National Museum of Natural History, France) and colleagues, based on mitochondrial and nuclear analyses, revealed that Moschidae and Bovidae form a clade sister to Cervidae. According to the study, Cervidae diverged from the Bovidae-Moschidae clade 27 to 28 million years ago.[13] The following cladogram is based on the 2003 study.[13]


Tragulidae Kantschil-drawing white background.jpg


Antilocapridae Antilocapra white background.jpg

Giraffidae Giraffa camelopardalis Brockhaus white background.jpg

Cervidae The deer of all lands (1898) Hangul white background.png

Bovidae Birds and nature (1901) (14562088237) white background.jpg

Moschidae Moschus chrysogaster white background.jpg

Infraorder Pecora ("horned ruminants", "higher ruminants")


Pecorans share characteristics with other artiodactyls, including a four-chambered stomach, and a paraxonic foot, meaning that it supports weight on the third and fourth digits. Several characteristics distinguish Pecora from its sister taxon, Tragulina: an astragalus with parallel sides, a loss of the trapezium, and differences in parts of the skull such as the petrosal bone.[4]

The distinguishing features of most pecoran families are cranial appendages. Most modern pecorans (with the exception of the Moschidae) have one of four types of cranial appendages: horns, antlers, ossicones, or pronghorns.[6]

  • True horns have a bone core that is covered in a permanent sheath of keratin. They are indicative of Bovidae. Horns develop in the periosteum over the frontal bone, and can be curved or straight.[4] Surface features on the keratin sheath (e.g., ridges or twists) are thought to be caused by differential rates of growth around the bone core.[4]
  • Antlers are bony structures that are shed and replaced each year in members of the family Cervidae. They grow from a permanent outgrowth of the frontal bone called the pedicle.[4] Antlers can be branched, as in the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), or palmate, as in the moose (Alces alces).
  • Ossicones are permanent bone structures that fuse to the frontal or parietal bones during the lifetime of an animal.[4] They are found only in the Giraffidae and closely related extinct clades,[4] represented in modern animals by the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and the okapi (Okapia johnstoni).
  • Pronghorns are similar to horns in that they have keratinous sheaths covering permanent bone cores; however, these sheaths are deciduous and can be shed like antlers.[4] Very little is known about the development of pronghorns, but they are generally presumed to have evolved independently.[4] The only extant animal with pronghorns is the pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana).


  1. ^ Flower, W. On the Arrangement of the Orders and Families of Existing Mammalia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 178 -186. 1883.
  2. ^ a b c d Hassanin, A.; Douzery, E. (2003). "Molecular and Morphological Phylogenies of Ruminantia and the Alternative Position of the Moschidae". Systematic Biology. 52 (2): 206–228. doi:10.1080/10635150390192726. PMID 12746147.
  3. ^ a b Bubenik, A. Epigenetical, Morphological, Physiological, and Behavioral Aspects of Evolution of Horns, Pronghorns, and Antlers. in Horns, Pronghorns, and Antlers. G. Bubenik and A. Bubenik eds. Springer-Verlag. New York. 1990
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Janis, C., K. Scott. The Interrelationships of Higher Ruminant Families with Special Emphasis on the Members of the Cervoidea. American Museum Novitates. 2893: 1-85. 1987.
  5. ^ Hassanin, A.; Delsuc, F.; Ropiquet, A.; Hammer, C.; Matthee, C.; Ruiz-Garcia, M.; Catzeflis, F.; Areskoug, V.; Nguyen, T. T.; Couloux, A. (2012). "Pattern and Timing of Diversification of Cetartiodactyla (Mammalia, Laurasiatheria), as Revealed by a Comprehensive Analysis of Mitochondrial Genomes". Comptes Rendus Biologies. 335 (1): 32–50. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2011.11.002. PMID 22226162.
  6. ^ a b c d e DeMiguel, D.; Azanza, B.; Morales, J. (2014). "Key Innovations in Ruminant Evolution: A Paleontological Perspective". Integrative Zoology. 9 (4): 412–433. doi:10.1111/1749-4877.12080. PMID 24148672.
  7. ^ Morales, J.; Pickford, M.; Soria, D.; Pachyostosis (1993). "Lorancameryx pachyostoticus Nov. Gen. Nov. Sp. and Its Bearing on the Evolution of Bony Appendages in Artiodactyls". Geobios. 26 (2): 207–230. doi:10.1016/S0016-6995(93)80016-K.
  8. ^ Beck, N.R. (2006). "A higher-level MRP supertree of placental mammals". BMC Evol Biol. 6: 93. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-6-93. PMC 1654192. PMID 17101039.
  9. ^ O'Leary, M.A.; Bloch, J.I.; Flynn, J.J.; Gaudin, T.J.; Giallombardo, A.; Giannini, N.P.; Goldberg, S.L.; Kraatz, B.P.; Luo, Z.-X.; Meng, J.; Ni, X.; Novacek, M.J.; Perini, F.A.; Randall, Z.S.; Rougier, G.W.; Sargis, E.J.; Silcox, M.T.; Simmons, N.B.; Spaulding, M.; Velazco, P.M.; Weksler, M.; Wible, J.R.; Cirranello, A.L. (2013). "The Placental Mammal Ancestor and the Post-K-Pg Radiation of Placentals". Science. 339 (6120): 662–667. doi:10.1126/science.1229237. hdl:11336/7302. PMID 23393258. S2CID 206544776.
  10. ^ Song, S.; Liu, L.; Edwards, S.V.; Wu, S. (2012). "Resolving conflict in eutherian mammal phylogeny using phylogenomics and the multispecies coalescent model". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (37): 14942–14947. doi:10.1073/pnas.1211733109. PMC 3443116. PMID 22930817.
  11. ^ dos Reis, M.; Inoue, J.; Hasegawa, M.; Asher, R.J.; Donoghue, P.C.J.; Yang, Z. (2012). "Phylogenomic datasets provide both precision and accuracy in estimating the timescale of placental mammal phylogeny". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 279 (1742): 3491–3500. doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.0683. PMC 3396900. PMID 22628470.
  12. ^ Upham, N.S.; Esselstyn, J.A.; Jetz, W. (2019). "Inferring the mammal tree: Species-level sets of phylogenies for questions in ecology, evolution, and conservation". PLOS Biology. 17 (12): e3000494. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.3000494. PMC 6892540. PMID 31800571.(see e.g. Fig S10)
  13. ^ a b Hassanin, A.; Douzery, E. J. P. (2003). "Molecular and morphological phylogenies of Ruminantia and the alternative position of the Moschidae". Systematic Biology. 52 (2): 206–28. doi:10.1080/10635150390192726. PMID 12746147.

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