Sabahphrynus

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Sabahphrynus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Sabahphrynus
Matsui, Yambun, and Sudin, 2007[1]
Species: S. maculatus
Binomial name
Sabahphrynus maculatus
(Mocquard, 1890)
Synonyms[2]

Nectophryne maculata Mocquard, 1890 (type)
Pedostibes maculatus (Mocquard, 1890)
Ansonia anotis Inger, Tan, and Yambun, 2001

Sabahphrynus is a monotypic genus of amphibians in the family Bufonidae. The sole species is Sabahphrynus maculatus,[3][4] also known as the spotted Asian tree toad[2] or Sabah earless toad.[5] It is endemic to Borneo where it is only known from Sabah, East Malaysia.[3][5]

Taxonomy[edit]

Sabahphrynus, as currently understood, results from recognizing two little-known species, Pedostibes maculatus and Ansonia anotis, as conspecific. This taxon seems to be more closely related to Leptophryne, Ingerophrynus, and Didynamipus than to Ansonia and Pedostibes,[1] although its exact closest relatives remain uncertain.[3] In addition to being genetically a distinct lineage among Southeast Asian bufonids, it is also morphologically unique: it lacks middle-ear structures and tympanum.[1][6]

Description[edit]

Sabahphrynus maculatus males grow to at least 39 mm (1.5 in) and females to 52 mm (2.0 in) in snout–vent length.[1] The head has no bony crests and the parotoid glands are absent. The outer finger tips are expanded into spatulate discs. The subarticular tubercles are present, but weak. The webbing of toe is moderately developed. The males lack vocal sac opening and mandibular spines.[5][7] The dorsum, at least in males, is light green.[7]

Habitat and distribution[edit]

Sabahphrynus maculatus are found in the western lower montane Sabah, Borneo.[2] Specimens are known from the Kinabalu Park and Crocker Range National Park.[1] They occur near small streams, perching a few metres above ground on tree trunks as well as on logs and rocks adjacent to streams.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Matsui, Masafumi; Yambun, Paul; Sudin, Ahmad (November 2007). "Taxonomic Relationships of Ansonia anotis Inger, Tan, and Yambun, 2001 and Pedostibes maculatus (Mocquard, 1890), with a Description of a New Genus (Amphibia, Bufonidae)". Zoological Science. 24 (11): 1159–1166. doi:10.2108/zsj.24.1159. 
  2. ^ a b c Frost, Darrel R. (2016). "Sabahphrynus maculatus (Mocquard, 1890)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 3 December 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c Frost, Darrel R. (2016). "Sabahphrynus Matsui, Yambun, and Sudin, 2007". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 3 December 2016. 
  4. ^ "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c Haas, A.; Das, I.; Hertwig, S.T. (2016). "Sabahphrynus maculatus (Sabah Earless Toad)". Frogs of Borneo. Retrieved 3 December 2016. 
  6. ^ Haas, A.; Das, I.; Hertwig, S.T. (2016). "Sabahphrynus (Sabah Earless Toad)". Frogs of Borneo. Retrieved 3 December 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c "Sabahphrynus maculatus". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2009. Retrieved 3 December 2016.