Pedro Arrupe

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Pedro Arrupe y Gondra

28th Superior General of the Society of Jesus
Loyolaschoolsjf2057 07.JPG
Installed22 May 1965
Term ended3 September 1983
due to a paralyzing stroke
PredecessorJean-Baptiste Janssens
SuccessorPeter Hans Kolvenbach
Ordination30 July 1936
Personal details
Pedro Arrupe y Gondra

(1907-11-14)14 November 1907
Died5 February 1991(1991-02-05) (aged 83)
Rome, Italy
BuriedChurch of the Gesù, Rome
DenominationRoman Catholic
Alma materComplutense University of Madrid
Motto"Only by being a man or woman for others does one become fully human." & "Fall in love, stay in love, and it will decide everything."[1][2]

Pedro Arrupe Gondra, SJ (14 November 1907 – 5 February 1991) was a Spanish Basque priest who served as the 28th Superior General of the Society of Jesus from 1965 to 1983.[3] He has been called a second founder of the Society, as he led the Jesuits in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council, especially with regard to faith that does justice and preferential option for the poor.[4][3]

Stationed as novice master outside Hiroshima in 1945, Arrupe used his medical background as a first responder to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima.[5]

In 1983, a paralysis from a stroke caused him to resign from office. He lived on until 1991, when he died in the local Jesuit infirmary.[5] His cause for sainthood was opened by the Jesuits and the Diocese of Rome in 2018.

Education and training[edit]

Pedro Arrupe attended school at the Santiago Apostol High School in Bilbao. In 1923, he moved to Madrid to attend the Medical School of the Universidad Complutense. There he met Severo Ochoa, who later won the Nobel Prize in Medicine. One of his teachers was Juan Negrín, a pioneer in physiology, who would become Prime Minister of the Spanish Republic during the Civil War (1936–1939). Arrupe received the top prize in the first year anatomy course.[4]

In 1926, Arrupe's father died, an event which filled him with great sadness. In the summer of the same year he went on a pilgrimage to Lourdes with his four sisters. The experiences he gathered from Lourdes were fundamental for his future life. In the conversations with Jean-Claude Dietsch, SJ he described his experiences as follows:

"For me Lourdes is the city of miracles. I stayed there for some three months. Being a medical student, I obtained permission to observe the work of the Office of Verification. I was, thus, the witness of three miraculous cures from the very moment they took place in the midst of the faithful who were praying to the Virgin Mary, and then on through the medical verification that was carried out by the doctors who were atheists. This impressed me very much, because I had often heard my professors in Madrid, who also were atheists, speak of the "superstitions of Lourdes." There was born my vocation, in that atmosphere of both simplicity and grandeur at the feet of the Virgin Mary, midst the noisy insistent prayer of the pilgrims and the sweet murmurings of the river Gave."[6]

Subsequent to these gathered findings, Arrupe decided not continue his medical studies. On 15 January 1927, he joined the Society of Jesus.

He was unable to pursue his studies for the priesthood in Spain, since the Jesuits had been expelled by the Spanish Republican government (1931–1939). Accordingly, the young Arrupe did his studies in the Netherlands and Belgium and at Saint Louis University School of Divinity in St. Marys, Kansas, where he was ordained in 1936.[7][8] Arrupe then completed a doctorate in Medical Ethics.[9]

Assignment in Hiroshima, Japan[edit]

After his doctorate, Arrupe was sent to work as a missionary in Japan. His early years as missionary were very frustrating for him. No matter what he did, what he organised, people did not attend, and few if any converted to Christianity. When the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred in Hawaii on 7 December 1941, it was 8 December in Japan. Arrupe was celebrating the Eucharist for the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception when he was arrested and imprisoned for a time, being suspected of espionage. On Christmas Eve, Arrupe heard people gathering outside his cell door and presumed that the time for him to be executed had arrived. However, to his utter surprise, he discovered that some fellow Catholics, ignoring all danger, had come to sing him Christmas carols. Upon this realization, Arrupe recalled that he burst into tears.[10] His attitude of profound prayer and his lack of offensive behaviour gained him the respect of his jailers and judges, and he was set free within a month.

Arrupe was appointed Jesuit superior and novice master in Japan in 1942, and was living in suburban Hiroshima when the atomic bomb fell in August 1945. He was one of eight Jesuits who were within the blast zone of the bomb, and all eight survived the destruction, protected by a hillock which separated the novitiate from the center of Hiroshima. Arrupe described that event as "a permanent experience outside of history, engraved on my memory."[11] Arrupe used his medical skills to help those who were wounded or dying. The Jesuit novitiate was converted into a makeshift hospital where between 150 and 200 people received care. Arrupe recalled, "The chapel, half destroyed, was overflowing with the wounded, who were lying on the floor very near to one another, suffering terribly, twisted with pain."[12] In 1958, Arrupe was appointed the first Jesuit provincial for Japan, a position he held until being elected Father General in 1965.

Prior to being elected Father General, Arrupe made a visit to Latin America and, on one occasion, was celebrating the Eucharist in a suburban slum. He was deeply moved at the devotion and respect the people had for Christ, in the midst of their abject poverty. After the service, a man invited Arrupe to his hovel, where he told him that he was so grateful for his visit and that he wanted to share the only gift he had, that of watching the setting sun together. Arrupe reflected, "He gave me his hand. As I was leaving, I thought: 'I have met very few hearts that are so kind.'"[10]

Superior General[edit]

At the thirty-first General Congregation of the Society of Jesus in 1965, Arrupe was elected twenty-eighth Superior General of the Jesuits, and served in that post until 1983. He was only the second Basque to be Father General, the first being the founder Ignatius of Loyola himself.[13] Jesuit Vincent O'Keefe, a friend and advisor to Arrupe, said Arrupe was "a second Ignatius of Loyola, a refounder of the Society in the light of Vatican II."[14][15] At his election Moscow radio spoke of an unusual man who would bring the Society of Jesus to its powers of the past.[16]: 218 

After the changes following Vatican II (1962–1965), there was tension within the Society as to how the life of a Jesuit was to be lived. While some religious groups in the Catholic church have limits on the works they take on, the Society of Jesus encourages its members to follow their interest and talents and the needs of the times into a whole range of ministries – as theologians, missionaries, retreat directors, teachers, artists, writers, musicians, counselors, scientists, and pastors – to bring glory to God in all areas of human endeavor.[17] This is in line with the crowning contemplation of Ignatius' Spiritual Exercises through which Jesuits learn to find God in all things (#236). As Arrupe's biographer said of him, he "saw the hand of God in everything."[16]: 226 

Arrupe warned of repeating the answers of yesterday for tomorrow's problems, saying: "If we speak a language no longer appropriate to the hearts of people, we speak only to ourselves because no one will listen to us or try to understand what we say."[16]: 228  Arrupe was "hailed as a prophet of our time,"[16]: 231  not unlike Jesuit Pope Francis[citation needed] who was in theological studies, learning, when Arrupe became Superior General and began speaking his "prophetic" words. The Union of Superior Generals of religious, seeing Arrupe as the right man for our time, elected him five times as their president.[16]: 231 

Faith and justice[edit]

In an address to Jesuit alumni in 1973, Arrupe coined the phrase "men for others" which has become a theme for Jesuit education worldwide, educating students to be "men and women for others".[18][19][20]

At the thirty-second General Congregation which convened in 1975, Arrupe's dream of working for the poor was crystallised in the document "Our Mission Today: the Service of Faith and the Promotion of Justice." It stated: "Our faith in Jesus Christ and our mission to proclaim the Gospel demand of us a commitment to promote justice and enter into solidarity with the voiceless and the powerless."[21] Thus, the decree basically defined all the work of the Jesuits as having an essential focus on the promotion of social justice as well as the Catholic faith. Arrupe was keenly aware that in the political climate of the 1970s, the Jesuits’ commitment to working for social justice would bring great hardship and suffering, particularly in those Latin American countries ruled by military juntas.[21][13]

In a speech to European educators Arrupe made it clear where he stood on matters of faith and justice, saying: "I take very seriously the words of Gandhi, 'I love Christ but I despise Christians because they do not live as Christ lived.' Without a doubt Christian love of neighbor entails a duty to care for the wounds of those that have fallen victim to robbers and are left bleeding by the wayside."[16]: 270  In the late 1960s and into the 1980s some theologians in Latin America became increasingly involved in the political sphere, adopting Marxist rhetoric. Many Jesuits were at the forefront of the movement which was called liberation theology and concentrated on seeing Christ as the liberator not only from sin but from all forms of oppression. In its extreme manifestations, liberation theology seemed to subordinate the message of the Gospel to political revolution, with a wholesale acceptance of Marxism. But Arrupe's strong support for relieving the burden of the poor in Latin America enables one to see his "cautionary statements about liberation theology, as efforts to impose self-discipline to fend off more severe sanctions from outside the order."[22]

A cause worth dying for[edit]

On 20 June 1977 the White Warriors Union death squad threatened to kill all 47 Jesuits serving in El Salvador unless they abandoned their work with the poor and left the country within a month.[23] After consulting with the Jesuit community in El Salvador, Arrupe replied "They may end up as martyrs, but my priests are not going to leave because they are with the people."[3] A few months earlier, Jesuit Rutilio Grande, a proponent of liberation theology, was assassinated in El Salvador. On 16 November 1989, six Jesuits (Ignacio Ellacuría, Armando Lopez, Joaquin Lopez y Lopez, Ignacio Martín-Baró, Segundo Montes and Juan Ramon Moreno, along with their housekeeper (Julia Elba Ramos) and her daughter (Celina), would be murdered at the Jesuit University of Central America. Others also suffered martyrdom: the chief bishop in El Salvador Archbishop Óscar Romero (who evolved into a progressive stance[24]) was gunned down whilst celebrating the Eucharist on 24 March 1980. Lay missionary Jean Donovan, Ursuline sister Dorothy Kazel and Maryknoll sisters Maura Clarke and Ita Ford were beaten, raped and murdered by non-uniformed members of the Salvadoran National Guard on 2 December 1980.[25] They joined some 75,000 Salvadorans who were killed during this troubled period.[25]: 97  All the while, Arrupe continued to support and pray for those people who were willing to lay down their lives to help the poor initiate change.[10]

Jesuit Refugee Service[edit]

Touched by the plight of the "Vietnamese boat people" in 1979, Pedro Arrupe sent cable messages to some 20 Jesuit major superiors throughout the world sharing his distress at the suffering of these people.[20] He asked them what they could do to help bring relief to refugees and displaced persons in their own regions. He received a positive response, with numerous offers of personnel, medicine, and funding. The following year in 1980, Arrupe founded the Jesuit Refugee Service to coordinate the Society's refugee work. In a speech launching the service he said "Saint Ignatius called us to go anywhere where we are most needed for the greater glory of God. The spiritual as well as the material need of more than 16 million refugees throughout the world today could scarcely be greater. God is calling us through these helpless people." In 2017, JRS listed 47 countries where its 10 regional offices were currently serving nearly 950,000 individuals.[26] Over the years JRS had served an estimated 40 million refugees.[4]

Later life[edit]

On 7 August 1981, after a long and tiring trip throughout the Far East, Arrupe suffered a stroke just after his plane landed at Rome's Fiumicino Airport. He was paralysed on his right side and was able to speak only a few words. This ability gradually deteriorated until he was completely mute. From that time on he lived in the infirmary at the Jesuit headquarters in Rome. He then became the first-ever Jesuit superior general to resign. Pope John Paul II appointed Paolo Dezza as his personal delegate and interim Father General of the Society, passing over Arrupe's own choice (his vicar general). Many Jesuits saw this as an unwarranted papal interference in Jesuit affairs. For his part, Arrupe never expressed any disagreement or resentment.[13] Jesuit disobedience to the pope that was expected by some at the Roman Curia never came about.[27] With new respect for the Jesuits, Pope John Paul allowed Dezza to call the thirty-third General Congregation and elect a successor to Arrupe, whose resignation was accepted on 3 September 1983 during the Congregation. He was succeeded by Peter Hans Kolvenbach. During the opening Session of the Congregation, Arrupe was wheeled into the hall, and a prayer which he had written was read aloud:

"More than ever I find myself in the hands of God. This is what I have wanted all my life from my youth. But now there is a difference; the initiative is entirely with God. It is indeed a profound spiritual experience to know and feel myself so totally in God's hands."[9]

During his ten years in the infirmary, Arrupe received many and frequent well-wishers, including Pope John Paul II. Arrupe had earlier expressed what some regard as the key to his life: "Nowadays the world does not need words but lives that cannot be explained except through faith and love for Christ's poor."[4]

Death and burial[edit]

Arrupe died at 7:45pm on 5 February 1991, the anniversary of the 26 Martyrs of Japan. His final words had been: "For the present, Amen; for the future, Alleluia."[28]

His funeral was held in the Church of the Gesu, Rome, on February 9 and was attended by crowds that filled the piazza outside the church. Also in attendance were 10 cardinals, 20 bishops, Giulio Andreotti (the Prime Minister of Italy), as well as other religious and civil dignitaries. His body, first interred in the Jesuit mausoleum at Campo Verano, was brought back into the Church of the Gesù where it currently lies in a side chapel.[29]


On 11 July 2018, the Father General of the Society of Jesus, Arturo Sosa, announced the beginning of the process for Arrupe's canonization.[30] On 14 November 2018, a website was established with the life, testimonials, and archive on his life.[31]


Pedro Arrupe memorial at University of San Francisco, California, United States.

Numerous Jesuit buildings, schools, communities, institutions, and programs have been named after Pedro Arrupe. They include:



  1. ^ "Men and Women for Others | Fr. Pedro Arrupe S.J."
  2. ^ "Life".
  3. ^ a b c "Pedro Arrupe – Arrupe". Retrieved 2021-02-07.
  4. ^ a b c d "Pedro Arrupe, S.J." Retrieved 2017-06-02.
  5. ^ a b "Pedro Arrupe | The Arrupe Office of Social Formation". Retrieved 2021-01-11.
  6. ^ "Pedro Arrupe, S.J.: One Jesuits Spirituel Journey. Autobiographical Conversations with Jean-Claude Dietsch" S.J. | St. Louis, 1986. p. 18. ISBN 0-912422-68-8. French original edition: Pedro Arrupe. Itinéraire d'un Jesuite. Entretiens avec Jean-Claude Dietsch SJ. Paris, 1982. ISBN 2 227 32030 3 Note: The french word ‘supercheries’ was translated here with the english word ‘superstitions’. But ‘supercheries’ has the meaning of cheating.
  7. ^ "Pedro Arrupe | Biography, Facts, & Hiroshima". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-05-11.
  8. ^ "Administration/Faculty". Retrieved 2018-05-11.
  9. ^ a b "Pedro Arrupe, SJ (1907—1991) -". Ignatian Spirituality. Retrieved 2017-06-02.
  10. ^ a b c "Pedro Arrupe, SJ (1907—1991) -". Ignatian Spirituality. Retrieved 2017-06-01.
  11. ^ Arrupe Formation Centre website: Arrupe Archived 2011-07-25 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ "Hiroshima insider's imprint on Jesuit sensibility – Eureka Street". Retrieved 2017-06-01.
  13. ^ a b c Boston College Website: Arrupe Archived March 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Steinfels, Peter (6 February 1991). "Pedro Arrupe, Jesuit Chief for 18 Years, Dies at 83". New York Times. Father Arrupe had embarked upon his role as Superior General with enthusiasm for the revisionist themes of Vatican II.... He cautioned the world Synod of Bishops in 1971 against 'authoritarian or paternalistic attitudes'.... He insisted that the Jesuit order, long identified with work among social and political elites, increase its activities among the poor.... He also introduced new forms of decentralization into the Jesuit decision-making process.
  15. ^ ""Reinvention" of Society of Jesus, from obit in America". America Magazine. 1991-02-16. Retrieved 2017-03-14.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Pedro Arrupe, SJ. England: Gracewing. 2000. ISBN 9780852444467. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  17. ^ "The Jesuits' Search For a New Identity". Time. 1973-04-23. ISSN 0040-781X. Archived from the original on January 10, 2008. Retrieved 2017-06-01.
  18. ^ "Time Magazine on "Men for Others"". America Magazine. 2009-11-10. Retrieved 2019-11-15.
  19. ^ Arrupe, Pedro (July 31, 1973). "Men for Others". Online Ministries, Creighton University. Retrieved November 15, 2019.
  20. ^ a b "The Arrupe Office of Social Formation | The social formation arm of the Ateneo de Davao University". Retrieved 2021-02-06.
  21. ^ a b John Carroll University: About Pedro Arrupe Archived May 28, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Steinfels, Peter (6 February 1991). "New York Times". Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  23. ^ "El Salvador priests in peril (July 20, 1977)". Retrieved 2017-06-02.
  24. ^ "Archbishop Óscar Romero: setting the record straight". National Catholic Reporter. 2018-10-10. Retrieved 2019-11-15.
  25. ^ a b Whitfield, Teresa (1994). Paying the Price: Ignacio Ellacuría and the Murdered Jesuits of El Salvador. Temple U. ISBN 1566392535.
  26. ^ Service, Jesuit Refugee. "Jesuit Refugee Service | Where we work". Retrieved 2017-03-15.
  27. ^ "Of Many Things". America Magazine. 2012-08-27. Retrieved 2019-11-15.
  28. ^ Lamet, Pedro Miguel (2020). Pedro Arrupe : witness of the twentieth century, prophet of the twenty-first. Boston: Institute of Jesuit Sources. ISBN 9781947617087.
  29. ^ "Memorial Mass". 1997-12-20. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
  30. ^ "Rome Diocese opens beatification process of Jesuit superior general Fr. Arrupe – Vatican News". 2018-07-26. Retrieved 2018-11-14.
  31. ^ "Pedro Arrupe – Arrupe". Retrieved 2018-11-14.
  32. ^ "Arrupe Scholars Program". Retrieved 2017-03-14.
  33. ^ "The Arrupe Office of Social Formation | The social formation arm of the Ateneo de Davao University". Retrieved 2021-01-11.
  34. ^ "Pedro Arrupe, S.J. Hall". Retrieved 2016-07-27.
  35. ^ "Pedro Arrupe Footbridge". Retrieved 2018-09-26.
  36. ^ "The Pedro Arrupe Human Rights Institute". Retrieved 2018-09-26.
  37. ^ "Arrupe Etxea". Retrieved 2018-09-26.
  38. ^ "University receives $25 million gift for the establishment of the Arrupe Global Scholars and Partnerships Program". Archived from the original on 2021-11-17. Retrieved 2021-11-17.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by Superior General of the Society of Jesus
Succeeded by