Pedro Pablo Kuczynski

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Pedro Pablo Kuczynski
OSP
Pedro Pablo Kuczynski 2016 (cropped).jpg
66th President of Peru
In office
28 July 2016 – 23 March 2018
Prime Minister Fernando Zavala
Mercedes Aráoz
Vice President Martín Vizcarra (1st)
Mercedes Aráoz (2nd)
Preceded by Ollanta Humala
Succeeded by Martín Vizcarra
Prime Minister of Peru
In office
16 August 2005 – 27 July 2006
President Alejandro Toledo
Preceded by Carlos Ferrero
Succeeded by Jorge del Castillo
Minister of Economy and Finance
In office
16 February 2004 – 16 August 2005
Prime Minister Carlos Ferrero
Preceded by Jaime Quijandría
Succeeded by Fernando Zavala
In office
28 July 2001 – 11 July 2002
Prime Minister Roberto Dañino
Preceded by Javier Silva Ruete
Succeeded by Javier Silva Ruete
Minister of Energy and Mines
In office
28 July 1980 – 3 August 1982
Prime Minister Manuel Ulloa Elías
Preceded by René Balarezo
Succeeded by Fernando Montero
Personal details
Born Pedro Pablo Kuczynski Godard
(1938-10-03) 3 October 1938 (age 79)
Lima, Peru
Political party Independent (Before 2014)
Peruvians for Change (2014–present)
Other political
affiliations
Alliance for the Great Change (2010–2013)
Spouse(s)
Jane Dudley Casey
(m. 1962; div. 1995)

Nancy Lange (m. 1997)
Children 4, including Alex
Relatives Maxime Hans Kuczyński (Father)
Alma mater Exeter College, Oxford
Princeton University
Signature
Website Official website

Pedro Pablo Kuczynski Godard (Spanish: [ˈpeðɾo ˈpaβlo kuˈtʃinski ɣoˈðaɾð];[a] born 3 October 1938), better known simply as PPK, is a Peruvian economist, politician and public administrator who served as the 66th President of Peru. He was previously the Prime Minister of Peru from 2005 to 2006. His administration ended on 23 March 2018, following his address to the nation two days earlier, announcing his resignation.[1]

Kuczynski was born in the Miraflores District of Lima to a Polish Jewish father and a Swiss mother of French descent. Kuczynski's parents fled from Germany after Nazis came to power. Kuczynski worked in the United States before entering Peruvian politics.[2] He held positions at both the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund before being designated as the general manager of Peru's Central Reserve Bank. He later served as Minister of Energy and Mines in the early 1980s under President Fernando Belaúnde Terry, and as Minister of Economy and Finance and Prime Minister under President Alejandro Toledo in the 2000s.[3] Kuczynski was a presidential candidate in the 2011 presidential election, placing third. His opponents Ollanta Humala and Keiko Fujimori went on to the 5 June 2011 runoff election, in which Humala was elected.[4] Kuczynski went on to stand in the 2016 election, where he narrowly defeated Fujimori in the second round.[5] He was sworn in as President on 28 July 2016.[6][7] Kuczynski held U.S. citizenship until November 2015; he renounced it to be able to run for Peru's Presidency.[8]

On 15 December 2017, the Congress of Peru, which is controlled by the opposition Popular Force, initiated impeachment proceedings against Kuczynski, after he was accused of lying about receiving payments from a scandal-hit Brazilian construction firm Odebrecht in the mid-2000s.[9] However, on 21 December 2017, the Peruvian congress lacked the majority of votes needed to impeach Kuczynski.[10] After further scandals and facing a second impeachment vote, Kuczynski resigned the presidency on 21 March 2018 following the release of videos showing alleged acts of vote buying, presenting his resignation to the Council of Ministers.[11][12] He was succeeded as President by his First Vice President Martín Vizcarra.

Early life and career[edit]

Kuczynski was born at the Clínica Delgado in Miraflores, Lima, Peru, the son of Madeleine (née Godard) and Maxime Hans Kuczynski, one of the earliest public health leaders in Peru.[13][14][15]

His parents fled Germany in 1933 to escape from Nazism. His father, born near Poznań (then capital city of Poznań Voivodeship in the interwar Second Polish Republic) was a Polish Jew, and his mother was Protestant, of Swiss-French descent. Entering Peru in 1936, Maxime Kuczynski sent his son to receive his early education at Markham College in Lima, and the Rossall School (Lancashire, England), where he was a pupil in Maltese Cross House between 1953-56. He won a foundation scholarship to study at Exeter College, Oxford, and graduated with a degree in politics, philosophy and economics in 1960. Later, he received the John Parker Compton fellowship to study public affairs at Princeton University in the United States, where he received a master's degree in 1961. He began his career at the World Bank in 1961 as a regional economist for six countries in Central America, Haiti and the Dominican Republic.[16]

In 1967, Kuczynski returned to Peru to work at the country's central bank during the government of President Fernando Belaúnde. Kuczynski went into exile in the United States in 1969 due to political persecution after Belaunde's government fell to the military dictatorship of General Juan Velasco Alvarado in a coup d'état: the newly installed government accused Kuczynski of funnelling about 18 million dollars (equivalent to 115 million in 2016) to Nelson Rockefeller’s International Petroleum Company (es). He joined the World Bank as the chief economist managing the northern countries of Latin America, moving on to become Chief of Policy Planning.[17]

From 1973-75, he was a partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co., the international investment bank headquartered in New York City. In 1975, he returned to Washington, D.C to become chief economist for the International Finance Corporation (the private finance arm of the World Bank). Subsequently, he was appointed President of Halco Mining in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, an international consortium mining company with operations in West Africa.[17]

From 1983 to 1992, he was co-chairman of First Boston in New York City, an international investment bank. In 1992, he founded, with six other partners, the Latin American Enterprise Fund (LAEF) in Miami, Florida, a private equity firm that focused on investments in Mexico, Central and South America. The institutional investors in LAEF included more than 15 of the world's largest university endowments, foundations, and pension funds. in 1983, he was a founding member of the Inter-American Dialogue and remained a member until 1997.[18]

Political career[edit]

Kuczynski in 2008

In 1980, after the election of Fernando Belaúnde Terry as president, Kuczynski was invited to return to Peru to serve as Minister of Energy and Mines. In this position, he sponsored law 23231 which, through tax exemptions and other incentives, promoted oil and gas exploration and exploitation after a period of relative neglect. Kuczynski resigned in 1982 in order to return to the private sector in the United States. However, during the second round of the 2016 presidential campaign, he claimed that he had left Peru due to the threats and attacks from the Shining Path insurgent group: "Let's remember that the terrorists not only hung my effigy on the zanjón (a local denomination for Paseo de La República (es) avenue in Lima) and in San Martín square, but they attacked my apartment. Just as 3 million Peruvians, I left the country". This was in response to an attack by election opponent Keiko Fujimori (daughter of then-imprisoned dictator Alberto Fujimori and main rival of PPK in the second round of elections) who claimed that Kuczynski did not "have moral authority to speak of terrorism".[19]

During the rest of the 1980s and 1990s, Kuczynski was mainly involved in the private-equity fund-management business in the United States. He made small personal donations to the presidential campaigns of George H.W. Bush and of George W. Bush and to the state-senator campaign of his wife's cousin in Wisconsin.[20]

In 2000, Kuczynski joined the presidential campaign of Alejandro Toledo Manrique, then an economics professor at the ESAN university in Lima. After Toledo was elected president in 2001, Kuczynski served as Minister of Economy and Finance from July 2001 to July 2002,[21] and again from February 2004 to August 2005. In August 2005, he was appointed as Prime Minister, a position he held until Toledo's presidential term expired in 2006.[citation needed]

In 2007, Manuel Dammert (aka Manuel Dammert Ego Aguirre), a sociologist and politician, alleged that Kuczynski was involved in facilitating the activities, in various projects in Peru, of a financial entity known as First Capital Partners, in particular in relation to the Olmos diversion project, the Jorge Chávez International Airport, the Transportadora de Gas, and the Conrisa consortium. Former partners of Kuczynski in LAEF (above) had reportedly inaccurately listed Kuczynski as a founding partner of First Capital but corrected the error shortly afterwards. In consequence, Kuczynski sued Dammert for defamation and falsification of documents. Kuczynski prevailed at the first and second instance, but, on appeal, Peru's Supreme Court upheld Dammert's right to ask questions on matters of public interest, without ruling on the merits of Dammert's claims. These claims have been denied extensively by Kuczynski.[citation needed]

After working with the Toledo administration, Kuczynski founded Agua Limpia, a Peruvian non-governmental organization that provides drinking water systems to communities in Peru. Agua Limpia is supported by the Inter-American Development Bank, Scotia Bank of Canada and others.[22]

2011 presidential campaign[edit]

On 1 December 2010, Kuczynski announced that he would stand as a candidate for President of Peru in the upcoming elections.[23]

Kuczynski ran for President of Peru in the general election, though he did not pass into the run-off as head of the Alianza por el Gran Cambio (Alliance for the Great Change), formed by the Christian People's Party, the Alliance for Progress, the Humanist Party and the National Restoration Party.[16]

2016 presidential campaign[edit]

In 2015, he announced that he would again be running for President, but now with a political party which he had built himself (Peruanos Por el Kambio, PPK).[8]

Kuczynski won 21% of the popular vote in Peru's general elections on April 10, 2016, to qualify for a runoff vote against Keiko Fujimori,[24] in which he narrowly triumphed with 50.12% of the vote to Fujimori's 49.88%,[5] a margin of just thirty-nine thousand votes out of nearly eighteen million cast. Barely a week before the second round of voting, when trailing Keiko, Kuczynski received an important endorsement from third-place finisher Verónika Mendoza (18.82%), Peru’s leading left-wing candidate, in an effort to defeat Fujimori.[8]

Keiko's party, Fuerza Popular, has an absolute majority in Congress with 73 of the 130 seats; PPK trails with 18.[8]

Presidency[edit]

Kuczynski and his cabinet, 28 July 2016

Kuczynski was sworn in as President on 28 July 2016.[6][7] At age 77, he was the oldest President to take office.[25]

As part of the recent push in Peru to recognize and integrate indigenous peoples into national life, Kuczynski's government supported the use of indigenous languages in Peru, with the state-run TV station starting to broadcast in December 2016 a daily news program in Quechua and in April 2017 one in Aymara. The President's state-of-the-union address was simultaneously translated into Quechua in July 2017.[26]

Foreign policies[edit]

Kuczynski opposed the regime of Nicolás Maduro in Venezuela, and welcomed the Venezuelan expatriates that escaped from their country. Nearly 200,000 Venezuelans settled in Peru, others moved to Peru and then to Chile or Argentina from there. Kuczynski was one of the leaders of the Latin American faction that asks for the democratization of Venezuela.[27] Peru revoked Venezuela's invitation to the 8th Summit of the Americas because of Maduro's plan to hold an early presidential election, as the major opposing parties were banned from it.[28]

Controversies[edit]

First impeachment[edit]

On 15 December 2017, the Congress of the Republic initiated impeachment proceeding against Kuczynski, with the congressional opposition stating that he had lost the ″moral capacity″ to lead the country after he admitted receiving advisory fees from scandal-hit Brazilian construction company Odebrecht while he was Peru's Minister of Economy and Finance between 2004 and 2005.[29] Kuczynski had previously denied receiving any payments from Odebrecht, but later confessed that his company, Westfield Capital Ltd, had been receiving money from Odebrecht for advisory services, while still denying that irregularities existed in the payments.[30]

Pardon of Alberto Fujimori[edit]

On 24 December 2017, three days after surviving the impeachment vote, Kuczynski pardoned former Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori.[31]

Second impeachment, Kenjivideos and resignation[edit]

Martín Vizcarra shortly after taking office

After further scandals broke out surrounding Kuczynski, a second impeachment vote was to be held on 22 March 2018. Two days before the vote, Kuczynski stated that he would not resign and decided to face the impeachment process for a second time. The next day on 21 March 2018, a video was released of Kuczynski allies, including his lawyer and Kenji Fujimori, attempting to buy the vote against impeachment from one official.[32]

Following the release of the video, Kuczynski presented himself before congress and officially submitted his resignation to the Congress of the Republic.[11][12] Kuczynski's first vice president, Martín Vizcarra, was later named President of Peru on 23 March 2018.

Resignation[edit]

Kuczynski announced his resignation from the presidency on 21 March 2018.[33]

I think what’s best for the country is for me to resign to the Presidency of the Republic. I don’t want to be an obstacle for the nation’s search for a path to unity and harmony that it very needs and that was refused to me. I don’t want the motherland nor my family to continue suffering with the uncertainty of the these recent times.(...) There will be a constitutionally ordered transition.

— Message from Kuczynski renouncing the presidency of the Republic. Lima, March 21, 2018.[34]

This came in result of the dissemination of videos and audios, known as Kenjivideos, that evidenced collusion between the executive and the legislature in order to give privileges and illicit profits to MPs in order to knock down the second impeachment process against Kuczynski. The resignation was accepted on 23 March 2018 by the Peruvian Congress and First Vice President Martín Vizcarra took oath immediately before the Congress.

  In favor: 105 congressmen
  Against: 12 congressmen
  Abstentions: 4 congressmen
  Absents: 9 congressmen

Other presidents of Peru who have resigned are Guillermo Billinghurst (forced resignation), Andrés Avelino Cáceres and Alberto Fujimori. The current Peruvian Constitution of 1993 establishes in its article 113 that the Presidency of the Republic is vacated by:[35]

  1. Death of the President of the Republic.
  2. His permanent moral or physical disability, declared by Congress.
  3. Acceptance of his resignation by Congress.
  4. Leaving the national territory without permission of the Congress or not returning to it within the established period.
  5. Dismissal, after having been sanctioned for any of the infractions mentioned in Article 117 of the Constitution.

Congressional vote[edit]

The Board of Spokesmen of the Congress agreed to accept the resignation.[36]

On March 23 it was approved to accept the resignation of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski and declare the presidential vacancy with 105 votes in favor, 12 votes against and four abstentions.[37][38]

Voting by congressional caucus
Party blocs In favor Against Abstained
Fuerza Popular 56 0 0
Peruanos por el Kambio 0 12 0
Nuevo Perú 10 0 0
Frente Amplio 10 0 0
Alianza para el Progreso 7 0 0
Acción Popular 5 0 0
Célula Parlamentaria Aprista 5 0 0
Independent 12 0 4
TOTAL 105 12 4

Family and personal life[edit]

His father, Maxime Hans Kuczynski, was born in Poznań, then part of the German Empire. He was a bacteriologist who served in the German Army during World War I on the Balkan front. He was a renowned pathologist and tropical disease specialist, in particular expert on Verruga peruana or Carrion's disease. He trained at the Universities of Rostock and Berlin, where he was professor of pathology.[39]

An officer in the German Army on the Eastern and Turkish fronts in the First World War, he traveled widely in Russia, China, West Africa, and Brazil. Leaving Germany in 1933 due to his Jewish roots, he was invited to Peru in 1936 by President Óscar R. Benavides to set up the public health service in the interior of the country. Maxime Hans Kuczynski reformed the San Pablo leprosarium on the Amazon at the Brazilian frontier, set up a public health colony on the Perene river, and was later professor of tropical medicine at National University of San Marcos in Lima.[40][41]

Kuczynski is a first cousin of French film director Jean-Luc Godard by his mother, Madeleine Godard, which was the aunt of the film director.[8]

Kuczynski has been married twice, first to Jane Dudley Casey, the daughter of Joseph E. Casey, a former member of the United States House of Representatives for the 3rd district of Massachusetts. Their children are businesswoman Carolina Madeleine Kuczynski, the New York Times journalist Alex Kuczynski,[21] and John-Michael Kuczynski. Kuczynski and Casey divorced in 1995.

Kuczynski's second wife is Nancy Lange, an American and the First Lady of Peru until Kuczynski's resignation in 2018.[42] Lange and Kuczynski, who married in 1997, have one daughter, Suzanne.[42][43]

Kuczynski's younger brother, Miguel Jorge Kuczynski Godard, is a fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge. Kuczynski's brother-in-law Harold Varmus was a Nobel Laureate for Medicine for cancer research in 1989.[8]

Ancestry[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In isolation, Godard is pronounced [ɡoˈðaɾð].

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kcomt, Ricardo Monzón (2018-03-21). "Perú Crisis presidencial : PPK entre la renuncia y la vacancia [Análisis]". Peru21 (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-03-21. 
  2. ^ "Mitos y verdades sobre PPK". Ppk.pe. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2011. 
  3. ^ "Presidencia del Consejo de Ministros". Pcm.gob.pe. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2011. 
  4. ^ "Elecciones Presidenciales, Congresales y de Parlamento Andino Peru 2011". Elecciones2011.onpe.gob.pe. Archived from the original on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2011. 
  5. ^ a b LR, Redacción (6 June 2016). "Resultados ONPE: tendencia que favorece a PPK no se revertirá - LaRepublica.pe". Retrieved 15 December 2017. 
  6. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 July 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  7. ^ a b "Peru's New President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski Sworn in". BBC News. 28 July 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2016. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f Anderson, Jon Lee (10 June 2016). "A Surprising Coalition Brings A New Leader To Peru". The New Yorker. Retrieved 7 December 2017. 
  9. ^ Collyns, Dan (15 December 2017). "Peruvian officials begin impeachment process against president Kuczynski". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 December 2017. 
  10. ^ "PPK no fue vacado por el Congreso de la República" [PPK was not vacated by the Congress of the Republic]. El Comercio (in Spanish). 22 December 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2017. 
  11. ^ a b "PPK renunció a la presidencia del Perú tras 'keikovideos' | LaRepublica.pe". La República (in Spanish). 21 March 2018. Retrieved 21 March 2018. (Spanish)
  12. ^ a b "PPK renunció a la presidencia del Perú". Gestión (in Spanish). 21 March 2018. Retrieved 21 March 2018. (Spanish)
  13. ^ Bartholomew Dean 2004 “El Dr. Maxime Kuczynski-Godard y la medicina social en la Amazonía peruana” Introduction in La Vida en la Amazonía Peruana: Observaciones de un medico. by Maxime Kuczynski-Godard. Lima: Fondo Editorial de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Serie Clásicos Sanmarquinos; Compilation and introductory essay of second edition, originally published in 1944; digital copy here)
  14. ^ Carlos E. Cué; Jacqueline Fowks (11 April 2016). "Kuczynski, una vida entre el dinero y la política". Internacional.elpais.com. Retrieved 15 December 2017. 
  15. ^ Knipper, Michael. "Antropología y "crisis de la medicina": el patólogo M. Kuczynski-Godard (1890-1967) y las poblaciones nativas en Asia Central y Perú". Dynamis. 29: 97–121. Retrieved 15 December 2017 – via SciELO. 
  16. ^ a b "Profile of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski". Peru Reports. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  17. ^ a b "Peru: PPK, the Revolving Door President-Elect". teleSUR. 7 June 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2017. 
  18. ^ American Chamber of Commerce, Chile (13 April 2017). "Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, Curriculum Vitae" (PDF). 
  19. ^ "PPK a Keiko Fujimori: 'Me fui del Perú por las amenazas de Sendero Luminoso'". Peru21.pe. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2017. 
  20. ^ "Las donaciones a los Bush". Diario16. Archived from the original on 25 March 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2011. 
  21. ^ a b "WEDDINGS/CELEBRATIONS; Alex Kuczynski, Charles Stevenson Jr". New York Times. 1 December 2002. Retrieved 25 April 2010. 
  22. ^ "Agua Limpia". Agualimpia.org. Retrieved 2 January 2018. 
  23. ^ "Kuczynski será candidato a la Presidencia y el lunes presentará a sus aliados". Elcomercio.pe. Retrieved 2 January 2018. 
  24. ^ "2016 presidential elections". Peru Reports. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  25. ^ Briceno, Franklin; Goodman, Joshua (12 April 2016). "Fujimori's accidental rival embraces 'gringo' label in Peru". Associated Press. Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  26. ^ "Peru's indigenous-language push". The Economist. Lima, Peru. 26 August 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017. 
  27. ^ Daniel Lozano (March 22, 2018). "Un golpe para los venezolanos en su "tierra prometida"" [A harsh blow for the Venezuelans in their "promised land"] (in Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  28. ^ "Summit host yanks Venezuela's invitation over early election". WJHL. February 13, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018. 
  29. ^ "Peru's leader resists pressure to resign". Bbc.com. 15 December 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2018. 
  30. ^ "Peru's leader faces impeachment". Bbc.com. 15 December 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2018. 
  31. ^ "UPDATE 6-Peru president pardons ex-leader Fujimori; foes take to streets". Msn.com. Retrieved 2 January 2018. 
  32. ^ Goodman | AP, Franklin Briceno and Joshua (2018-03-21). "Pressure builds on Peru president to quit over secret videos". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2018-03-21. 
  33. ^ Taj, Mitra; Aquino, Marco (21 March 2018). "Peru prosecutors seek to bar toppled president from leaving country: source". Lima. Reuters. Retrieved 24 March 2018. 
  34. ^ "PPK: Las frases que dejó su último mensaje presidencial" (in Spanish). Gestión. 22 March 2018. Retrieved 23 March 2018. 
  35. ^ "Political constitution of the Peru" (in Spanish). onpe.gob.pe. Retrieved 22 March 2018. 
  36. ^ "PPK: Junta de Portavoces acordó aceptar su renuncia" (in Spanish). El Comercio. Retrieved 22 March 2018. 
  37. ^ "Renuncia de PPK: los votos en contra y las abstenciones" (in Spanish). El Comercio. 23 March 2018. Retrieved 23 March 2018. 
  38. ^ "Congreso acepta renuncia de Kuczynski a la Presidencia" (in Spanish). andina.pe. 23 March 2018. Retrieved 23 March 2018. 
  39. ^ "Peru presidential contender is son of Polish Jews who fled Nazis". The Times of Israel. April 6, 2016. Retrieved March 14, 2018. 
  40. ^ Bartholomew Dean 2004 “El Dr. Máxime Kuczynski-Godard y la medicina social en la Amazonía peruana” Introduction in La Vida en la Amazonía Peruana: Observaciones de un medico. by Máxime Kuczynski-Godard. Lima: Fondo Editorial de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Serie Clásicos Sanmarquinos) (Compilation and introductory essay of second edition, originally published in 1944)
  41. ^ "La vida en la Amazonía peruana: Observaciones de un médico". sisbib.unmsm.edu.pe. Retrieved 2 January 2018. 
  42. ^ a b "Conoce a Nancy Ann Lange, nueva primera dama de Peru". El Universal (Mexico City). 2016-07-28. Archived from the original on 2016-07-31. Retrieved 2018-01-28. 
  43. ^ "Presidente do Peru e a luta para manter seu mandato". Agence France-Presse. Universo Online. 2017-12-12. Archived from the original on 2018-01-29. Retrieved 2018-01-29. 

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
René Balarezo
Minister of Energy and Mines
1980–1982
Succeeded by
Fernando Montero
Preceded by
Javier Silva Ruete
Minister of Economy and Finance
2001–2002
Succeeded by
Javier Silva Ruete
Preceded by
Jaime Quijandría
Minister of Economy and Finance
2004–2005
Succeeded by
Fernando Zavala
Preceded by
Carlos Ferrero
Prime Minister of Peru
2005–2006
Succeeded by
Jorge del Castillo
Preceded by
Ollanta Humala
President of Peru
2016–2018
Succeeded by
Martín Vizcarra
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Benigno Aquino III
Chair of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
2016
Succeeded by
Trần Đại Quang