Pedro Sánchez (politician)

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The Most Excellent
Pedro Sánchez
Pedro Sánchez in 2018c.jpg
Prime Minister of Spain
Assumed office
2 June 2018
Monarch Felipe VI
Deputy Carmen Calvo
Preceded by Mariano Rajoy
Secretary-General of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
Assumed office
17 June 2017
President Cristina Narbona
Deputy Adriana Lastra
Preceded by Caretaker committee
In office
26 July 2014 – 1 October 2016
President Micaela Navarro
Preceded by Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba
Succeeded by Caretaker committee
Leader of the Opposition
In office
18 June 2017 – 2 June 2018
Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy
Preceded by Position vacant
Succeeded by Mariano Rajoy
In office
26 July 2014 – 1 October 2016
Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy
Preceded by Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba
Succeeded by Position vacant
Member of the Congress of Deputies
In office
10 January 2013 – 29 October 2016
Constituency Madrid
In office
15 September 2009 – 27 September 2011
Constituency Madrid
Member of the Madrid City Council
In office
18 May 2004 – 15 September 2009
Personal details
Born Pedro Sánchez Pérez-Castejón
(1972-02-29) 29 February 1972 (age 46)
Madrid, Spain
Political party Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
Spouse(s) María Begoña Gómez Fernández (m. 2006)
Children 2
Residence Palace of Moncloa
Alma mater
Signature

Pedro Sánchez Pérez-Castejón (Spanish: [ˈpeðɾo ˈsantʃeθ ˈpeɾeθ kasteˈxon], born 29 February 1972) is a Spanish economist and politician serving as Prime Minister of Spain since 2 June 2018.[1][2] He is also Secretary-General of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), holding office for the second time after winning a leadership election June 2017.

He served as town councillor in the City Council of Madrid from 2004 to 2009. In 2009, he was first elected Deputy in the Congress. In 2014, he became Secretary-General of the PSOE, and he was the party's candidate for prime minister in the 2015 and 2016 general elections. During his first term as Secretary-General, he was heavily opposed to the re-election of Rajoy as Prime Minister. Rajoy needed the abstention of the PSOE in the Congress of Deputies in order to secure a parliamentary majority. Tensions grew within the party that allowed Rajoy to form a government; due to its opposition by Sánchez, he stepped down as Secretary-General on 1 October 2016. He simultaneously resigned as Deputy, and a caretaker committee took over the PSOE leadership. He would eventually win the party primaries, defeating Susana Díaz and Patxi López, and was reinstated Secretary-General in June 2017. Under his tenure, the PSOE backed the Government of Spain in its handling of the Catalan independence referendum and the subsequent constitutional crisis.

On 31 May 2018 the PSOE filed a no-confidence motion, which passed with the support of the PSOE, Unidos Podemos, and Basque, Valencian and Catalan regionalist and nationalist parties. On 1 June 2018, a Royal Decree named Pedro Sánchez Prime Minister of Spain. On the following day, he was officially sworn into the office before King Felipe VI.

Early life[edit]

Pedro Sánchez Pérez-Castejón was born in Madrid.[3] His father is an economist and businessman and his mother is a lawyer and public servant in the social security department.[4] He graduated from Instituto Ramiro de Maeztu, a public high school where he played basketball in the Estudiantes cantera, a professional club with links to the school, reaching the U-21 team.[5]

In 1990, Sánchez went to the Complutense University to study economics and business sciences. In 1993, he joined the PSOE after the victory of Felipe González in the elections that year.[4] Sánchez graduated in 1995. He earned a degree in Politics and Economics in 1998 after graduating from the Free University of Brussels, and a degree of business leadership from IESE Business School in the University of Navarra. Sánchez received his Doctor of Philosophy degree in Business and Economics in 2012.[6]

Before entering a career in regional and national politics, Sánchez worked as a parliamentary assistant in the European Parliament, and as chief of staff to the United Nations high representative in Bosnia during the Kosovo War;[7] he was also a Professor of Economics, publishing a version of his doctoral thesis “La nueva diplomacia económica europea”.[8]

Political career[edit]

Sánchez served as a Deputy (Member of Parliament) in the congress for three terms representing Madrid, and also as Spain's official leader of the opposition from 26 July 2014 to 2016. He was elected as the Secretary-General of the PSOE via a primary election process, and is the first Secretary-General of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party to have been elected directly by its members.[9] After the 2015 elections, the King of Spain, having consulted the parliamentary groups, asked Sánchez to try to form a government on 2 February 2016 but he was unsuccessful and another election was called for June 2016.

As a consequence of the PSOE's poor showings in the 2016 Basque and Galician elections, 17 members of the PSOE Executive resigned from their posts on 28 September 2016, resulting in the body's dissolution as per party rules and theoretically prompting Sánchez's resignation.[10][11] Sánchez refused to acknowledge his ouster and remained in his position, with critics responding that Sánchez no longer had "any legitimacy" and urging him to "acknowledge party rules".[12][13]

On 1 October 2016, Sánchez resigned as PSOE leader after losing a key ballot to critics led by Susana Díaz in the party's federal committee held that same day.[14] A few weeks later, on 29 October, he also resigned his seat in Congress after his party's decision to abstain in Mariano Rajoy's investiture and allow a PP minority government.[15] After his resignation and the ensuing abstention of the party in the investiture of Mariano Rajoy, he ran again as a candidate in the primary election to select the Secretary-General in the 39th PSOE Federal Congress, being elected with 50.2 per cent of all votes cast on 21 May 2017.[16]

Madrid City Councillor career[edit]

In 2003, Sánchez stood in the Madrid City Council election on the PSOE list headed by Trinidad Jiménez. He was 23rd on the proportional representation list, but the PSOE only won 21 seats. Sánchez did not become a city councillor until a year later, when two socialist councillors resigned. He quickly became one of the fundamental components of opposition leader Trinidad Jiménez’s team.[17] Between 18 May 2004 – 15 September 2009, he was one of the 320 members of the City Council of Madrid, representing PSOE in the city of Madrid. At the same time, he went to help the PSdG (PSOE’s affiliated party in Galicia) contest the 2005 Galician regional election,[5] in which PSdG won eight seats, allowing Emilio Pérez Touriño to become president of Galicia. In 2007, he was part of the Miguel Sebastián campaign for Madrid’s premiership.

Parliamentary career[edit]

First term (2009–2011)[edit]

Sánchez was elected to the Congress of Deputies for Madrid, replacing Pedro Solbes, Minister of Economy and Finance in the José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero cabinet, after Solbes retired from politics in 2009.

Short defeat (2011–2013)[edit]

In the general election of 2011, which saw a heavy defeat for the Socialists, PSOE placed Sánchez 11th on the Proportional Representation list, while only electing 10 deputies. Having thus failed to win a seat, he returned to the Camilo José Cela University to finish his Doctorate in Economics. He served as a consultant to a European consortium and as a university professor. He earned a PhD in Economics and Business from the Camilo José Cela University.[5]

Second term until leadership election (2013–2014)[edit]

In January 2013, Sánchez returned to Congress, replacing Cristina Narbona, who left her seat to enter the Council of Nuclear Safety. In December 2013, after numerous Socialist leaders such as Elena Valenciano, Trinidad Jiménez, Miguel Sebastián and José Blanco López attended his new book release, his name began to be discussed as a prospective candidate for the party leadership. Sánchez officially launched his candidacy on 12 June 2014. He was elected as the Secretary-General on 13 July, after winning 49% of votes against his opponents Eduardo Madina and José Antonio Pérez-Tapias (member of the Socialist Left platform).[5][18] He was confirmed as Secretary-General after an Extraordinary Congress of the PSOE was held on 26–27 July that ratified the electoral result.[5]

Secretary-General (2014–16; 2017–present)[edit]

Representing a platform based on political regeneration, Sánchez demanded constitutional reforms establishing federalism as the form of administrative organization of Spain to ensure that Catalonia would remain within the country; a new progressive fiscal policy; extending the welfare state to all citizens; joining labour unions again to strengthen economic recovery; and regaining the confidence of former Socialist voters disenchanted by the measures taken by Zapatero during his late term as Prime Minister amid an economic crisis. He also opposed the grand coalition model supported by the former Socialist Prime Minister Felipe González, who championed the German system in case of political instability. Sánchez asked his European party caucus not to vote for the consensus candidate Jean-Claude Juncker of the European People's Party.[19]

Pedro Sánchez, after winning the primary election for Secretary-General, singing The Internationale.

Upon taking office as PSOE's Secretary-General, Sánchez faced a political crisis after the formation of a new party, Podemos. Approximately 25% of all PSOE supporters switched their loyalties to Podemos.[20][21] Sánchez's political agenda included reforming the constitution, establishing a federal model in Spain to replace the current devolution model,[22] and further secularization of Spain's education system, including the removal of religion-affiliated public and private schools.[23] He named César Luena as his second-in-command. On 21 June 2015, Sánchez was officially announced as the PSOE premiership candidate for the December 2015 general election. His party earned 90 seats, being second to rivals of Partido Popular (PP), who won the election with 123 representatives out of a parliament formed by 350. Since PP's leader didn't stand officially for the premiership, following this Sánchez was requested by the King to form a coalition, but he was unable to obtain the support of a majority of representatives. This led to a further general election in June 2016, where he stood again as PSOE's candidate. Winning only 85 seats in a general election, he resigned in October 2016.

On 21 May 2017, Sánchez was re-elected Secretary-General for the second time with 50.2% of the votes, over his competitors Susana Díaz (39.94%) and Patxi López (9.85%).[24]

Catalan independence[edit]

In October 2017, Sánchez supported the Rajoy government’s decision to dismiss the Catalan government and impose direct rule on Catalonia.[25] He also opposed the Catalan independence referendum.[26]

Prime Minister (2018–present)[edit]

Rajoy congratulates Sánchez on his successful no-confidence motion.
Sánchez with Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko, 4 June 2018

In May 2018, after verdicts were announced in the Gürtel trial, PSOE filed a successful no-confidence motion against Mariano Rajoy.[27] Consequently, Sánchez assumed office as Spain's Prime Minister on 1 June 2018 and was sworn in by King Felipe VI on 2 June.[28] Sánchez said he planned to form a government that would eventually dissolve the Cortes Generales and call for a general election, but he did not specify when he would do it,[29] while also saying that, before calling for an election, he intended take a series of measures like increasing unemployment benefits and proposing a law of equal pay between the sexes.[30] However, he also said he would uphold the 2018 budget approved by the Rajoy government, a condition the Basque Nationalist Party imposed to vote for the motion of no-confidence.[31] He also said he would "reinstate dialogue" with the Catalan independence movement.[31]

Inauguration[edit]

Sánchez took office on 2 June 2018 in the presence of former Prime Minister Rajoy, President of the Congress Ana Pastor, as well as King Felipe VI.[32] Spanish media noted that while Sánchez was swearing his oath of office on the Spanish Constitution, no Bible nor crucifix were on display, for the first time in modern Spanish history due to Sanchez's atheism.[33] After being sworn in, Sánchez announced that he would only propose measures that had considerable parliamentary support, and reaffirmed the government's compliance with the EU deficit requirements.[34]

Immigration[edit]

In June 2018 the Aquarius (NGO ship) ship carrying 629 migrants that were rescued near Libya was denied entry to the Sicilian port by Italy's new interior minister Matteo Salvini and Malta.[35][36] The Spanish government offered the Aquarius the chance to dock in the secure port of Valencia, Spain and the Italian navy offered full assistance and a marine escort for the trip.[37][38]

Personal life[edit]

Sánchez married María Begoña Gómez Fernández in 2006 and they have two daughters. The wedding was officiated by Trinidad Jiménez. Aside from Spanish, Sánchez speaks fluent English and French.[17][39] He is an atheist.[40]

Electoral history[edit]

Electoral history of Pedro Sánchez
Election List Constituency List position Result
Madrid local election, 2003 PSOE - 24th (out of 55) Not elected[a]
Madrid local election, 2007 PSOE - 15th (out of 57) Elected
Spanish general election, 2008 PSOE Madrid 21st (out of 35) Not elected[b]
Spanish general election, 2011 PSOE Madrid 11th (out of 36) Not elected[c]
Spanish general election, 2015 PSOE Madrid 1st (out of 36) Elected
Spanish general election, 2016 PSOE Madrid 1st (out of 36) Elected
  1. ^ He became city councillor in 2004 replacing Elena Arnedo.
  2. ^ He became MP in 2009, replacing Pedro Solbes.
  3. ^ He became MP in 2013, replacing Cristina Narbona.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Relación cronológica de los presidentes del Consejo de Ministros y del Gobierno". lamoncloa.gob.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 June 2018. 
  2. ^ "Real Decreto 354/2018, de 1 de junio, por el que se nombra Presidente del Gobierno a don Pedro Sánchez Pérez-Castejón" (pdf). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (134): 57657. 2 June 2018. ISSN 0212-033X. 
  3. ^ Pedro Sánchez, la vida familiar del político al que han apodado 'míster PSOE 2014' Published by Vanitatis, June 23, 2014, accessed June 26, 2014
  4. ^ a b Fernando Garea (12 July 2014). "Una carrera guiada por el azar". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 July 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Pedro Sánchez, Secretaría general" [Pedro Sánchez, Secretary-General]. PSOE (in Spanish). Retrieved 2015-12-27. 
  6. ^ País, Ediciones El (2015-11-19). "¿Qué carrera tiene Pedro Sánchez?" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2016-09-06. 
  7. ^ "Pedro Sánchez Pérez- Castejón". Retrieved 2016-09-06. 
  8. ^ "Sobre mí | Pedro Sánchez Castejón". sanchezcastejon.es. Retrieved 2016-09-06. 
  9. ^ Press, Europa. "Pedro Sánchez, elegido por aclamación secretario general del PSOE" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2016-09-06. 
  10. ^ "Pedro Sánchez se niega a dejar su cargo". El País (in Spanish). 2016-09-28. 
  11. ^ "Diecisiete miembros de la Ejecutiva del PSOE dimiten para provocar la caída de Pedro Sánchez". El Mundo (in Spanish). 2016-09-28. 
  12. ^ "Pedro Sánchez se atrinchera frente a su destitución por la ejecutiva del PSOE". El País (in Spanish). 2016-09-28. 
  13. ^ "La guerra total se desata en el PSOE". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 2016-09-28. 
  14. ^ "Pedro Sánchez dimite como secretario general del PSOE". El País (in Spanish). 2016-10-01. 
  15. ^ "Pedro Sánchez renuncia a su escaño para mantener su 'no' a Rajoy". El Mundo (in Spanish). 2016-10-29. 
  16. ^ "Victoria rotunda de Sánchez en las primarias del PSOE". ElDiario.es (in Spanish). 2017-05-21. 
  17. ^ a b "El ascenso de Pedro Sánchez: de diputado "desconocido" a secretario general del PSOE" [The rise of Pedro Sanchez: "unknown" general secretary of the PSOE]. ABC (in Spanish). 2014-07-13. Retrieved 2015-12-27. 
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-10-16. Retrieved 2014-09-25. 
  19. ^ http://www.euractiv.com/sections/eu-elections-2014/spanish-socialists-vote-against-juncker-canete-308462
  20. ^ "¿De dónde vienen los votos de Podemos?" [Where do the votes of Podemos come from?]. europa press (in Spanish). 2014-11-05. Retrieved 2015-12-29. 
  21. ^ Díez, Anabel (2015-07-06). "Pedro Sánchez, en proceso" [Pedro Sanchez, in process]. El Pais (in Spanish). Retrieved 2015-12-29. 
  22. ^ Díez, Anabel (2014-11-09). ""Ni fractura, ni independencia, una España federal para todos"" ["No fracture, no independence, a federal Spain for all"]. El Pais (in Spanish). Retrieved 2015-12-29. 
  23. ^ SANZ, LUIS ÁNGEL (2015-10-19). "El PSOE eliminará la religión en colegios públicos y privados" [The PSOE to eliminate religion in all public and private schools]. El Mundo(ES) (in Spanish). Retrieved 2015-12-29. 
  24. ^ Spanish Socialists re-elect Pedro Sánchez to lead party TheGuardian.com
  25. ^ "Spain's Pedro Sánchez forced to confront Catalonia crisis". Financial Times. 4 June 2018. 
  26. ^ "Catalan nationalists back in power, target secession in challenge to Sanchez". Reuters. 2 June 2018. 
  27. ^ Garcia, Elsa (25 April 2018). "Socialist party chief calls for transitional government". El País. Madrid. Retrieved 1 June 2018. 
  28. ^ "Who is Spain's new prime minister Pedro Sanchez?". Reuters, AFP. DW. 1 June 2018. Retrieved 1 June 2018. 
  29. ^ http://www.abc.es/espana/abci-sanchez-llega-poder-sin-concretar-cuando-convocara-elecciones-201806010320_noticia.html
  30. ^ http://www.eleconomista.es/economia/noticias/9179627/06/18/Sanchez-prioriza-la-agenda-social-y-renuncia-a-realizar-reformas-en-profundidad.html
  31. ^ a b http://www.lavanguardia.com/politica/20180531/443963185308/pedro-sanchez-rajoy-dimita-mocion-de-censura.html
  32. ^ https://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2018/06/02/pdfs/BOE-A-2018-7400.pdf
  33. ^ https://www.eldiario.es/politica/Pedro-Sanchez-presidente-presencia-Rajoy_0_777972264.html
  34. ^ https://politica.elpais.com/politica/2018/06/01/actualidad/1527859489_043487.html
  35. ^ [1] Italy's Matteo Salvini shuts ports to migrant rescue ship
  36. ^ https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/06/spain-offers-aquarius-ship-carrying-600-refugees-180611133533958.html
  37. ^ [2] Boat with over 600 rescued migrants lies to in Mediterranean amid Italy-Malta standoff
  38. ^ http://www.dw.com/en/spain-will-accept-migrant-ship-aquarius-after-italy-and-malta-refuse-entry/a-44150793
  39. ^ Congress of Deputies (Spain). "X Legislatura (2011-Actualidad)Sánchez Pérez-Castejón, Pedro". 
  40. ^ "Pedro Sánchez, primer aspirante a La Moncloa que se declara abiertamente "ateo"" (in Spanish). El Plural. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2016. 
Party political offices
Preceded by
Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba
Secretary General of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
2014–2016
Caretaker committee
Caretaker committee Secretary General of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
2017–present
Incumbent
Political offices
Preceded by
Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba
Leader of the Opposition
2014–2016
Vacant
Vacant Leader of the Opposition
2017–2018
Succeeded by
Mariano Rajoy
Preceded by
Mariano Rajoy
Prime Minister of Spain
2018–present
Incumbent