Peerage of Ireland

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The Peerage of Ireland consists of those titles of nobility created by the English monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland, or later by monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.[note 1] The creation of such titles came to an end in the 19th century. The ranks of the Irish peerage are Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount and Baron. As of 2016, there were 135 titles in the Peerage of Ireland extant: two dukedoms, ten marquessates, 43 earldoms, 28 viscountcies, and 52 baronies. The Crown of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland continues to exercise jurisdiction over the Peerage of Ireland, including those peers whose titles derive from places located in what is now the Republic of Ireland.[1] Article 40.2 of the Constitution of Ireland forbids the state conferring titles of nobility and a citizen may not accept titles of nobility or honour except with the prior approval of the Government.[2] This issue has not arisen in respect of the Peerage of Ireland because, as observed above, no creation of titles in it has been made since the Constitution came into force.

In the following table, each peer is listed only by his or her highest Irish title, showing higher or equal titles in the other peerages. Those peers who are known by a higher title in one of the other peerages are listed in italics.

History[edit]

William FitzGerald, 2nd Duke of Leinster.

A handful of titles in the peerage of Ireland date from the Middle Ages. Before 1801, Irish peers had the right to sit in the Irish House of Lords, on the abolition of which by the Union effective in 1801 by an Act of 1800 they regularly elected a small proportion: twenty-eight representative peers of their number to the House of Lords at Westminster.[3]

Both before and after the Union, Irish peerages were often used as a way of creating peerages which did not grant a seat in the English House of Lords and so allowed the grantee (such as Clive of India) to sit in the House of Commons in London. As a consequence, many Irish peers had little or no connection to Ireland, and indeed the names of some Irish peerages refer to places in Great Britain (for example, the Earldom of Mexborough refers to a place in England and the Earldom of Ranfurly refers to a village in Scotland). Irish peerages continued to be created for almost a century after the Union, although the treaty of Union placed restrictions on their numbers: three needed to become extinct before a new peerage could be granted, until there were only one hundred Irish peers (exclusive of those who held any peerage of Great Britain subsisting at the time of the union, or of the United Kingdom created since the union)– a condition still not achieved. There was a spate of creations of Irish peerages from 1797 onward, mostly peerages of higher ranks for existing Irish peers, as part of the negotiation of the Act of Union; this ended in the first week of January 1801, but the restrictions of the Act were not applied to the last few peers. Irish peerages were created in the early nineteenth century at least as often as the Act permitted, but the pace then slowed.

The last two grants of Irish peerages were the promotion of the Marquess of Abercorn (a peerage of Great Britain) to be Duke of Abercorn in the Irish Peerage when he became Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland in 1868 and the granting of the Curzon of Kedleston barony to George Curzon when he became Viceroy of India in 1898. Peers of Ireland have precedence below peers of England, Scotland, and Great Britain of the same rank, and above peers of the United Kingdom of the same rank; but Irish peers created after 1801 yield to United Kingdom peers of earlier creation. Accordingly, the Duke of Abercorn (the junior Duke in the Peerage of Ireland) ranks between the Duke of Sutherland and the Duke of Westminster (both dukes in the Peerage of the United Kingdom).

When one of the Irish representative peers died, the Irish Peerage met to elect his replacement; but the officers required to arrange this were abolished as part of the creation of the Irish Free State. The existing representative peers kept their seats in the House of Lords, but they have not been replaced. Since the death of Francis Needham, 4th Earl of Kilmorey in 1961, none remains. The right of the Irish Peerage to elect representatives was abolished by the Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1971.

Titles in the Peerage of the United Kingdom have also referred to places in Ireland, for example Baron Arklow (created 1801 and 1881) or Baron Killarney (created 1892 and 1920). Since partition, only places in Northern Ireland have been used, although the 1880 title "Baron Mount Temple, of Mount Temple in the County of Sligo", was recreated in 1932 as "Baron Mount Temple, of Lee in the County of Southampton".

Ranks[edit]

In the following table of the Peerage of Ireland as it currently stands,[4] each peer's highest titles in each of the other peerages (if any) are also listed.

Irish peers possessed of titles in any of the other peerages (except Scotland, which only got the right to an automatic seat in 1963, with the Peerage Act 1963) had automatic seats in the House of Lords until 1999.

The Earl of Darnley inherited the Baron Clifton in the Peerage of England in 1722–1900 and 1937–1999 as the barony is in writ.

Country Peerage Years
 England England 1066–1707
 Great Britain Great Britain 1707–1801
 United Kingdom United Kingdom 1801–present

Dukes in the Peerage of Ireland[edit]

Title Creation Other Dukedom or higher titles
House of Lords titles
Monarch
 Kingdom of Ireland
The Duke of Leinster 26 November 1766 Kingdom of Great Britain Viscount Leinster 17471999 King George III
United Kingdom Baron Kildare 1870–1999
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The Duke of Abercorn 10 August 1868 Kingdom of Great Britain Marquess of Abercorn 17901999 Queen Victoria
Kingdom of Great Britain Viscount Hamilton 1786–1999

Marquesses in the Peerage of Ireland[edit]

Title Creation Other Marquessate or higher titles
House of Lords titles
Monarch
 Kingdom of Ireland
The Marquess of Kildare 3 March 1761 Duke of Leinster in Peerage of Ireland. King George III
The Marquess of Waterford 19 August 1789 Kingdom of Great Britain Baron Tyrone 1786–1999
The Marquess of Downshire [5] 20 August 1789 Kingdom of Great Britain Earl of Hillsborough 1772–1999
Kingdom of Great Britain Baron Harwich 1756–1999
United Kingdom Baron Sandys Since 2013
The Marquess of Donegall [6] 4 July 1791 Kingdom of Great Britain Baron Fisherwick 1790–1999
United Kingdom Baron Templemore 1975–1999
The Marquess of Headfort 29 December 1800 United Kingdom Baron Kenlis 1831–1999
The Marquess of Sligo 29 December 1800 United Kingdom Baron Monteagle 1806–1999
The Marquess of Ely 29 December 1800 United Kingdom Baron Loftus 1801–1999
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The Marquess Conyngham 1 January 1816 United Kingdom Baron Minster 1821–1999 The Prince Regent on behalf of King George III
The Marquess of Londonderry 13 January 1816 United Kingdom Earl Vane 1823–1999
United Kingdom Baron Stewart 1814–1999

Earls in the Peerage of Ireland[edit]

  •   Subsidiary title.
Title Creation Other Earldom or higher titles
House of Lords titles
Monarch
 Kingdom of Ireland
The Earl of Kildare 14 May 1316 Duke of Leinster in Peerage of Ireland. King Edward II
The Earl of Waterford 17 July 1446 Earl of Shrewsbury in the Peerage of England. King Henry VI
The Earl of Cork 26 October 1620 King James I
The Earl of Westmeath 4 September 1621
The Earl of Desmond 22 November 1622 Held by the Earl of Denbigh in the Peerage of England since 1675.
The Earl of Meath 16 April 1627 United Kingdom Baron Chaworth 1831–1999 King Charles I
The Earl of Donegall 30 March 1647 Marquess of Donegall in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Earl of Cavan 15 April 1647
The Earl of Orrery 5 September 1660 Held with Earl of Cork in the Peerage of Ireland since 1753. King Charles II
Kingdom of Great Britain Baron Boyle of Marston 1711–1999
The Earl of Drogheda 14 June 1661 United Kingdom Baron Moore 1954–1999
The Earl of Granard 30 December 1684 United Kingdom Baron Granard 1806–1999
The Earl of Kerry 17 January 1723 Marquess of Lansdowne in the Peerage of Great Britain. King George II
The Earl of Darnley 29 June 1725 Kingdom of England Baron Clifton 1937–1999
The Earl of Bessborough 6 October 1739 Kingdom of Great Britain Baron Ponsonby 1749–1999
United Kingdom Baron Duncannon 1834–1999
The Earl of Tyrone 18 July 1746 Marquess of Waterford in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Earl of Carrick 10 June 1748 United Kingdom Baron Butler 1912–1999
The Earl of Hillsborough 6 October 1751 Marquess of Downshire in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Earl of Shelburne 6 June 1753 Marquess of Lansdowne in the Peerage of Great Britain.
The Earl of Shannon 17 April 1756 Kingdom of Great Britain Baron Carleton 1786–1999
The Earl of Mornington 2 October 1760 Duke of Wellington in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Arran 12 April 1762 United Kingdom Baron Sudley 1884–1999 King George III
The Earl of Courtown 12 April 1762 Kingdom of Great Britain Baron Saltersford 1796–1999
The Earl of Mexborough 11 February 1766
The Earl Winterton 12 February 1766
The Earl of Bective 24 October 1766 Marquess of Headfort in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Earl of Kingston 25 August 1768
The Earl of Roden 1 December 1771
The Earl of Altamont 4 December 1771 Marquess of Sligo in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Earl of Clanwilliam 20 January 1776 United Kingdom Baron Clanwilliam 1828–1999
The Earl of Lisburne 24 June 1776
The Earl of Antrim 19 June 1785
The Earl of Longford 20 June 1785 United Kingdom Baron Silchester 1821–1999
United Kingdom Baron Pakenham 1945–1999
The Earl of Portarlington 21 June 1785
The Earl of Mayo 24 June 1785
The Earl Annesley 7 August 1789
The Earl of Enniskillen 18 August 1789 United Kingdom Baron Grinstead 1815–1999
The Earl Erne 19 August 1789 United Kingdom Baron Fermanagh 1876–1999
The Earl of Ely 2 March 1794 Marquess of Ely in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Earl of Lucan 1 October 1795 United Kingdom Baron Bingham 1934–1974/1999
The Earl of Londonderry 8 August 1796 Marquess of Londonderry in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Earl Conyngham 5 November 1797 Marquess Conyngham in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Earl Belmore 20 November 1797
The Earl of Caledon 29 December 1800
The Earl Castle Stewart 29 December 1800
The Earl of Clanricarde 29 December 1800 Marquess of Sligo in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Earl of Donoughmore 29 December 1800 United Kingdom Viscount Hutchinson 1821–1999
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The Earl of Limerick 1 January 1803 United Kingdom Baron Worlingham 1815–1999 King George III
The Earl of Clancarty 11 February 1803 United Kingdom Viscount Clancarty 1823–1999
United Kingdom Baron Trench 1815–1999
The Earl of Gosford 1 February 1806 United Kingdom Baron Worlingham 1835–1999
United Kingdom Baron Acheson 1847–1999
The Earl of Rosse 3 February 1806
The Earl of Normanton 6 February 1806 Kingdom of Great Britain Baron Mendip 1974–1999
United Kingdom Baron Somerton 1873–1999
The Earl of Kilmorey 5 February 1822 King George IV
The Earl of Listowel 5 February 1822 United Kingdom Baron Hare 1869–1999
The Earl of Norbury 23 June 1827
The Earl of Ranfurly 14 September 1831 United Kingdom Baron Ranfurly 1826–1999 King William IV

Viscounts in the Peerage of Ireland[edit]

  •   Subsidiary title.
Title Creation Other Viscountcy or higher titles
House of Lords titles
Monarch
 Kingdom of Ireland
The Viscount Gormanston 7 August 1478 United Kingdom Baron Gormanston 1868–1999 King Edward IV
The Viscount Mountgarret 23 October 1550 United Kingdom Baron Mountgarret 1911–1999 King Edward VI
The Viscount Grandison 3 July 1620 Earl of Jersey in the Peerage of England. King James I
The Viscount Moore 7 February 1621 Earl of Drogheda in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Valentia 11 March 1622
The Viscount Dillon 16 March 1622
The Viscount Callan 22 November 1622 Earl of Denbigh in the Peerage of England.
The Viscount Chichester 1 April 1625 Marquess of Donegall in the Peerage of Ireland. King Charles I
The Viscount Kilmorey 18 April 1625 Earl of Kilmorey in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Boyle of Kinalmeaky 28 February 1627 Earl of Cork in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Lumley 12 July 1628 Earl of Scarbrough in the Peerage of England.
The Viscount Ikerrin 12 May 1629 Earl of Carrick in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Massereene 21 November 1660 King Charles II
The Viscount Cholmondeley 29 March 1661 Marquess of Cholmondeley in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Viscount Charlemont 8 October 1665
The Viscount Granard 29 June 1675 Earl of Granard in the Peerage of Ireland
The Viscount Downe 19 February 1681 United Kingdom Baron Dawnay 1897–1999
The Viscount Lisburne 29 June 1695 Earl of Lisburne in the Peerage of Ireland King William III
The Viscount Strabane 2 September 1701 Duke of Abercorn in the Peerage of Ireland
The Viscount Molesworth 10 Jul 1716 King George I
The Viscount Chetwynd 29 June 1717
The Viscount Midleton 15 August 1717 Kingdom of Great Britain Baron Brodrick 1796–1999
The Viscount Boyne 20 August 1717 United Kingdom Baron Brancepeth 1866–1999
The Viscount Hillsborough 29 May 1719 Marquess of Downshire in the Peerage of Ireland
The Viscount Grimston 29 May 1719 Earl of Verulam in the Peerage of the United Kingdom
The Viscount Gage 14 September 1720 Kingdom of Great Britain Baron Gage 1790–1999
The Viscount Tyrone 4 November 1720 Marquess of Waterford in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Clanmaurice 17 January 1722 Marquess of Lansdowne in the Peerage of Great Britain.
The Viscount Duncannon 28 February 1723 Earl of Bessborough in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Darnley 7 March 1723 Earl of Darnley in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Galway 17 July 1727 King George II
The Viscount Powerscourt 4 February 1743 United Kingdom Baron Powerscourt 1885–1999
The Viscount Ashbrook 30 September 1751
The Viscount Kilwarlin 3 October 1751 Marquess of Downshire in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Fitzmaurice 7 October 1751 Marquess of Lansdowne in the Peerage of Great Britain.
The Viscount Jocelyn 6 December 1755 Earl of Roden in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Sudley 15 August 1758 Earl of Arran in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Headfort 12 April 1762 Marquess of Headfort in the Peerage of Ireland. King George III
The Viscount Glerawly 14 November 1766 Earl Annesley in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Kingsborough 15 November 1766 Earl of Kingston in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Clanwilliam 17 November 1766 Earl of Clanwilliam in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Westport 24 August 1768 Marquess of Sligo in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Southwell 18 July 1776
The Viscount de Vesci 19 July 1776
The Viscount Enniskillen 20 July 1776 Earl of Enniskillen in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Carlow 24 July 1776 Earl of Portarlington in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Erne 6 January 1781 Earl Erne in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Lifford 8 January 1781
The Viscount Bangor 11 January 1781
The Viscount Mayo 13 January 1781 Earl of Mayo in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Gosford 20 June 1785 Earl of Gosford in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Doneraile 22 June 1785
The Viscount Belmore 6 December 1789 Earl Belmore in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Conyngham 6 December 1789 Marquess Conyngham in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Harberton 5 July 1791
The Viscount Northland 5 July 1791 Earl of Ranfurly in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Hawarden 5 December 1793
The Viscount Castle Stuart 20 December 1793 Earl Castle Stewart in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Loftus 2 March 1794 Marquess of Ely in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Castlereagh 1 October 1795 Marquess of Londonderry in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Mount Charles 5 November 1797 Marquess Conyngham in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Ferrard 22 November 1797 Held by with Viscount Massereene in the Peerage of Ireland since 1843.
United Kingdom Baron Oriel 1821–1999
The Viscount Caledon 23 November 1797 Earl of Caledon in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Donoughmore 20 December 1797 Earl of Donoughmore in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Dunlo 29 December 1800 Earls of Clancarty in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Somerton 29 December 1800 Earl of Normanton in the Peerage of Ireland.
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The Viscount Monck 5 January 1801 United Kingdom Baron Monck 1866–1999 King George III
The Viscount Lorton 28 May 1806 Earl of Kingston in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Viscount Ennismore and Listowel 15 January 1816 Earl of Listowel in the Peerage of Ireland. The Prince Regent on behalf of King George III
The Viscount Gort 16 January 1816

Barons in the Peerage of Ireland[edit]

In Ireland, barony may also refer to an obsolete political subdivision of a county. There is no connection between such a barony and the noble title of baron.

  •   Subsidiary title.
Title Creation Other Barony or higher titles
House of Lords titles
Monarch
 Kingdom of Ireland
The Lord Kingsale 1397
The Lord Dunsany 1439
The Lord Trimlestown 1461
The Lord Dunboyne 1541
The Lord Louth 1541
The Lord Inchiquin 1543
The Lord Digby 1620 Sat as Lord Digby in the Peerage of Great Britain in House of Lords from 1765–1999.
The Lord Conway and Killultagh 1712 Marquess of Hertford in the Peerage of Great Britain;
Lord Conway in the Peerage of England
.
The Lord Newborough 1715 Marquess of Cholmondeley in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Lord Carbery 1715
The Lord Aylmer 1718
The Lord Farnham 1756
The Lord Lisle 1758
The Lord Clive 1762 Earl of Powis in the Peerage of the United Kingdom;
Lord Clive in the Peerage of Great Britain
.
The Lord Mulgrave 1767 Marquess of Normanby in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Lord Newborough 1776
The Lord Macdonald 1776
The Lord Kensington 1776 Lord Kensington in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1886–1999.
The Lord Westcote 1776 Viscount Cobham in the Peerage of Great Britain.
The Lord Massy 1776
The Lord Muskerry 1781
The Lord Hood 1782 Viscount Hood in the Peerage of Great Britain.
The Lord Sheffield 1783 Sat as Lord Stanley of Alderley in Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1903–1999;
Sat as Lord Eddisbury in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1903–1999.
The Lord Kilmaine 1789
The Lord Auckland 1789 Sat as Lord Auckland in the Peerage of Great Britain in House of Lords from 1793–1999.
The Lord Waterpark 1792
The Lord Bridport 1794 Viscount Bridport in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Lord Graves 1794
The Lord Huntingfield 1796
The Lord Carrington 1796 Sat as Lord Carrington in the Peerage of Great Britain in House of Lords from 1797–1999.
The Lord Rossmore 1796 Sat as Lord Rossmore in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1838–1999.
The Baron Hotham 17 March 1797
The Baron Crofton 1 December 1797
The Baron ffrench 14 February 1798
The Baron Henley 9 November 1799 United Kingdom Baron Northington 1885–1999
The Baron Clanmorris 31 July 1800
The Baron Dufferin and Claneboye 31 July 1800
The Baron Dunalley 31 July 1800
The Baron Ennismore 31 July 1800 Earl of Listowel in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Baron Henniker 31 July 1800 United Kingdom Baron Hartismere 1866–1999
The Baron Langford 31 July 1800
The Baron Ventry 31 July 1800
The Baron Ashtown 27 December 1800
The Baron Norbury 27 December 1800 Earl of Norbury in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Baron Erris 29 December 1800 Viscount Kingston in the Peerage of Ireland.
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The Baron Rendlesham 1 February 1806 King George III
The Baron Kiltarton 15 May 1810 Viscount Gort in the Peerage of Ireland.
The Baron Decies 21 December 1812 The Prince Regent on behalf of King George III
The Baron Castlemaine 24 December 1812
The Baron Garvagh 28 August 1818
The Baron Talbot of Malahide [7] 26 May 1831 King William IV
The Baron Carew 13 June 1834 United Kingdom Baron Carew 1838–1999
The Baron Oranmore and Browne 4 July 1836 United Kingdom Baron Mereworth 1926–1999 Queen Victoria
The Baron Bellew 10 July 1848
The Baron Fermoy 10 September 1865
The Baron Rathdonnell 21 December 1868

Extinct peerages[edit]

Two peerages have become extinct since the passage of the House of Lords Act 1999:

  1. Earl of Egmont, Viscount Perceval (sep)
  2. Earl of Dunraven and Mount-Earl, Viscount Mount-Earl (sep)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ With the establishment of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the separate title "King of Ireland" ceased.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Peerage of Ireland genealogy project". geni_family_tree. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  2. ^ "40.2" (PDF), Constitution of Ireland, Dublin: Stationery Office, archived from the original (PDF) on 30 July 2009
  3. ^ "The Peerage of Ireland". www.cracroftspeerage.co.uk. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  4. ^ Cracroft's Peerage – The Peerage of Ireland
  5. ^ The Marquess is the Hereditary Constable of Hillsborough Fort
  6. ^ The Marquess is the Hereditary Lord High Admiral of Lough Neagh and Hereditary Governor of Carrickfergus Castle
  7. ^ The Baron is the Hereditary Lord Admiral of Malahide and the Adjacent Seas

External links[edit]