Pegon script

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Pegon alphabet)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Pegon script
أكسارا ڤَيڮَون
Script type
Time period
c. 1300 CE to the present
DirectionRight-to-left
Languages
Related scripts
Parent systems
Sister systems
Jawi script
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.
Pegon consonants. Letters not present in the Arabic alphabet are marked with a yellow square.
Pegon vowels

Pegon (Javanese and Sundanese: أكسارا ڤَيڮَون, Aksara Pégon; also known as أبجد ڤَيڮَون, Abjad Pégon)[1] is a modified Arabic script used to write the Javanese, Sundanese, and Madurese languages, as an alternative to the Latin script or the Javanese script[2] and the old Sundanese script.[3] In particular, it was used for religious (Islamic) writing and poetry from the fifteenth century, particularly in writing commentaries of the Qur'an. Pegon includes symbols for sounds that are not present in Modern Standard Arabic. Pegon has been studied far less than its Jawi counterpart which is used for Malay, Acehnese and Minangkabau.[4]

Etymology[edit]

The word Pegon originated from the Javanese word pégo, which means "deviate", due to the practice of writing the Javanese language with Arabic script, which was considered unconventional by Javanese people.[1]

History[edit]

One of the earliest dated examples of the usage of Pegon may be Masa'il al-ta'lim, a work on Islamic law written in Arabic with interlinear translation and marginal commentary in Javanese. The manuscript is dated 1623 and written on dluwang, a paper made from the bark of the mulberry tree.[5]

Letters[edit]

Pegon uses the original letters of the Arabic script plus an additional seven letters to represent native Javanese sounds not present in Arabic: ca (⟨چ‎⟩ /t͡ʃ/), dha (⟨ڎ‎⟩ /ɖ/), tha (⟨ڟ‎⟩ /ʈ/), nga (⟨ڠ‎⟩ /ŋ/), pa (⟨ڤ‎⟩ /p/), ga (⟨ڮ‎⟩ /g/), and nya (⟨ۑ‎⟩ /ɲ/). One additional letter is used in foreign loanwords: va (⟨ۏ‎⟩ /v/). These new letters are formed by the addition of dots to base letter forms. Pegon is not standardised and variation can be seen in how these additional letters are represented, most commonly in the position of the dots (above or below) and the number of dots (one or three).[6]

Pegon alphabet
Name Forms Sound represented Latin equivalent Hanacaraka Equivalent Notes
Isolated Final Medial Initial
alif
الف
ا ـا /a, ɔ/ and /ə/ a (å), ê (e pepet) / / ꦄꦼ
a / (h)a / ê
ba
باء
ب ـب ـبـ بـ /b/ b
ba
ta
تاء
ت ـت ـتـ تـ /t/ t
ta
sa
ثاء
ث ـث ـثـ ثـ /s/ s ꦱ꦳
tsa
Mainly used in Arabic loanwords
jim
جيم
ج ـج ـجـ جـ /d͡ʒ/ j
ja
ca
چا
چ ـچ ـچـ چـ /t͡ʃ/ c
ca
Additional letter not present in Arabic
ha
حاء
ح ـح ـحـ حـ /h/ h ꦲ꦳
ha
Mainly used in Arabic loanwords
kha
خاء
خ ـخ ـخـ خـ /x/ kh ꦏ꦳
kha
Mainly used in Arabic loanwords
dal
دال
د ـد /d/ d
da
zal
ذال
ذ ـذ /z/ z ꦢ꦳
dza
Mainly used in Arabic loanwords
dha
ڎا
ڎ ـڎ /ɖ/ dh
dha
Additional letter not present in Arabic
May also be represented by ڊ‎ or
ra
راء
ر ـر /r/ r
ra
zai
زاي
ز ـز /z/ z ꦗ꦳
za
Mainly used in Arabic and other foreign loanwords
sin
سين
س ـس ـسـ سـ /s/ s
sa
syin
شين
ش ـش ـشـ شـ /ʃ/ sy ꦯ꦳ / ꦱ꦳
sya
Mainly used in Arabic and other foreign loanwords
sad
صاد
ص ـص ـصـ صـ /s/ s ꦰ꦳
sha
Mainly used in Arabic loanwords
dad
ضاد
ض ـض ـضـ ضـ /d/ d ꦝ꦳
dla
Mainly used in Arabic loanwords
ta
طاء
ط ـط ـطـ طـ /t/ t ꦛ꦳
tha
Mainly used in Arabic loanwords
tha
ڟا
ڟ ـڟ ـڟـ ڟـ /ʈ/ th
tha
Additional letter not present in Arabic
May also be represented by ‎ and
za
ظاء
ظ ـظ ـظـ ظـ /z/ z ꦘ꦳
zha
Mainly used in Arabic loanwords
ain
عين
ع ـع ـعـ عـ /ʔ/ a, i, u and -k ꦔ꦳
'a
Mainly used in Arabic loanwords
ghain
غين
غ ـغ ـغـ غـ /ɣ/ gh ꦒ꦳
gha
Mainly used in Arabic loanwords
nga
ڠا
ڠ ـڠ ـڠـ ڠـ /ŋ/ ng
nga
Additional letter not present in Arabic
fa
فاء
ف ـف ـفـ فـ /f/ f ꦥ꦳
fa
Mainly used in Arabic and other foreign loanwords
pa
ڤا
ڤ ـڤ ـڤـ ڤـ /p/ p
pa
Additional letter not present in Arabic
qaf
قاف
ق ـق ـقـ قـ /q/ q
qa
Mainly used in Arabic loanwords
kaf
كاف
ك ـك ـكـ كـ /k/ and /ʔ/ k
ka
ga
ڮا
ڮ ـڮ ـڮـ ڮـ /ɡ/ g
ga
Additional letter not present in Arabic
May also be represented by
lam
لام
ل ـل ـلـ لـ /l/ l
la
mim
ميم
م ـم ـمـ مـ /m/ m
ma
nun
نون
ن ـن ـنـ نـ /n/ n
na
nya
ۑا‎
ۑ ـۑ ـۑـ ۑـ /ɲ/ ny
nya
Additional letter not present in Arabic
wau
واو
و ـو /w/ and /u, o, ɔ/ w and u, o / /
wa / u / o
va
ۏا
ۏ ـۏ /v/ v ꦮ꦳
va
Additional letter not present in Arabic
Mainly used in foreign loanwords
ha
هاء
ه ـه ـهـ هـ /h/ h
ha
hamzah
همزة
ء /ʔ/
ya
ياء
ي ـي ـيـ يـ /j/ and /i, e, ɛ/ y and i, é (e taling) / /
ya / i / é

Diacritics[edit]

Diacritic marks (harakat) are used in Pegon to represent vowel sounds or in some cases a lack thereof. Their prevalence in Pegon text varies from marking every letter, to being present only to differentiate particular vowel sounds. Full marking of letters is common in Islamic religious texts as it is reminiscent of the use of tashkil for guiding pronunciation when reading the Qur'an. Pegon text with minimal marking is increasingly common as the base letters often indicate the underlying vowel which renders the diacritics unecessary, in this case only fathah and maddah are used to differentiate distinct vowel sounds. A version of the script which uses no diacritics at all, similar to Jawi, is known as Gundhul (ڮونڎول‎; ꦒꦸꦤ꧀ꦝꦸꦭ꧀) meaning "bare/bald" in Javanese.

  • Fathah (◌َ) is sometimes used to represent ⟨a⟩, particularly in religious texts. It is added to the preceeding letter to differentiate ⟨é⟩ (e taling) from ⟨i⟩, as is detailed below. It it used in a similar fashion to differentiate ⟨o⟩ from ⟨u⟩.
  • Kasrah (◌ِ) is sometimes used to represent ⟨i⟩, particularly in religious texts.
  • Dammah (◌ُ) is sometimes used to represent ⟨u⟩, particularly in religious texts.
  • Maddah (◌ٓ) is used to represent ⟨ê⟩ (e pepet).
  • Sukun (◌ْ) is sometimes used to represent a closed consonant with no vowel following, particularly in religious texts.
  • Alif hamzah ( أ ) is used for vowel initial words, as is detailed below.
Vowel Formation
Vowel Name Isolated Examples Sound represented Latin equivalent Hanacaraka Equivalent Notes
Vowel initial Dependant vowel Consonant cluster
a alif / fathah
الف‎ / فتحة
ـا‎ / ◌َ أ
a / å
كا
ka / kå
كرا
kra / krå
/a/ or /ɔ/ a / (å) / ()
a / (h)a
In the prestige dialect of Surakarta, ⟨a⟩ is pronounced [ɔ] in word-final open syllables, and in any open penultimate syllable before such an [ɔ]. This may be represented by ⟨å⟩.
e.g. Surabaya سورابايا
Central Javanese: Suråbåyå /surɔbɔjɔ/
Indonesian: Surabaya /surabaja/
كلا
kla / klå
i ya / kasrah
ياء‎ / كسرة
ـي‎ / ◌ِ إ
i
كي
ki
كري
kri
/i/ i / ()
i / (wulu)
كلي
kli
u wau / dammah
واو‎ / ضمة
ـو‎ / ◌ُ أو
u
كو
ku
كرو
kru
/u/ u / ()
u / (suku)
كلو
klu
é fathah + ya
فتحة‎ + ياء
◌َـي إي
é
كَي
كرَي
kré
/e/ or /ɛ/ é (e taling) / ()
é / (taling)
كلَي
klé
o fathah + wau
فتحة‎ + واو
◌َـو او
o
كَو
ko
كرَو
kro
/o/ or /ɔ/ o / (ꦺꦴ)
o / (taling-tarung)
كلَو
klo
ê maddah
مدة
◌ٓ آ
ê
كٓ
كرٓ
krê
/ə/ ê (e pepet) ꦄꦼ / ()
ê / (pepet)
كلٓ
klê

Comparison of Pegon and Jawi[edit]

The main difference between Jawi and Pegon is that the latter is almost always written with vowel diacritics. Javanese written without any vowel diacritics, similar to Jawi is called Gundhul (ڮونڎول‎; ꦒꦸꦤ꧀ꦝꦸꦭ꧀), meaning "bare/bald" in Javanese.[citation needed] The orthographic rules of Jawi and Pegon differ, with Jawi spelling being much more standardised than Pegon. Pegon tends to write all vowel sounds of native words explicitly, either with full letters or diacritics, whereas Jawi orthography sometimes omits alif in certain positions where an /a/ would be pronounced, similarly other vowel sounds may not be written explicitly.

For those additional letters representing sounds not present in Arabic, some letters have the same appearance in both Jawi and Pegon, while others differ. Pegon also features two additional letters for sounds native to Javanese which are not present in Malay. Also the form of kaf used differs between the two varieties with Pegon using the Arabic form, while Jawi uses the Persian form.

Comparison of Pegon and Jawi
Name Pegon Jawi Sound represented Latin/Rumi Equivalent
cha چ‎ /t͡ʃ/ c
چـ ـچـ ـچ‎
dha ڎ /ɖ/ dh
ـڎ‎
tha ڟ /ʈ/ th
ڟـ ـڟـ ـڟ‎
nga ڠ /ŋ/ ng
ڠـ ـڠـ ـڠ‎
pa ڤ /p/ p
ڤـ ـڤـ ـڤ‎
kaf ك ک‎ /k/ k
كـ ـكـ ـك‎ کـ ـکـ ـک‎
ga ڮ ݢ‎ /g/ g
ڮـ ـڮـ ـڮ‎ ݢـ ـݢـ ـݢ‎
nya ۑ‎ ڽ /ɲ/ ny
ۑـ ـۑـ ـۑ‎ ڽـ ـڽـ ـڽ‎
va ۏ /v/ v
ـۏ‎

Transliteration[edit]

The United States Library of Congress published a romanization standard of Jawi and Pegon in 2012.[7]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Poerwadarminta 1939, pp. 481.
  2. ^ Javanese script (Akṣara Carakan) on Omniglot. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  3. ^ Sundanese script (Akṣara Sunda) on Omniglot. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  4. ^ van der Meij, D. (2017). Indonesian Manuscripts from the Islands of Java, Madura, Bali and Lombok (p. 6). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill.
  5. ^ "Southeast Asian manuscripts digitised through the Ginsburg Legacy - Asian and African studies blog". britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
  6. ^ Jacquerye, Denis Moyogo. (2019). Proposal to encode Javanese and Sundanese Arabic characters. Unicode.
  7. ^ The Library of Congress. (2012). ALA-LC Romanization Tables: Jawi-Pegon. Retrieved 9 April 2019.

References[edit]