Pejorative suffix

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A pejorative suffix is a suffix that attaches a negative meaning to the word or word-stem preceding it. There is frequent overlap between this and the diminutive form.

The pejorative suffix may add the sense of "a despicable example of the preceding," as in Spanish -ejo (see below). It can also convey the sense of "a despicable human having the preceding characteristic"; for instance, as in English -el (see below) or the development of the word cuckold from Old French cocu "cuckoo" + -ald, taken into Anglo-Saxon as cokewald and thus to the modern English word.

Examples of the pejorative suffix:

Catalan[edit]

-alla -alles Suffixed to nouns gives new nouns. Examples: gentalla (from gent "people"). It's also used as a collective (group) suffix.

-arro -arros (fem. -arra -arres) Suffixed to nouns gives new nouns. Example: veuarra (from veu "voice"). It's also used as an augmentative suffix.

-astre -astres (fem. -astra -astres) Suffixed to nouns gives new nouns. Example: poetastra (from poeta "poet"). This suffix has also the meaning "indirect relation with".

-ot -ots (fem. -ota -otes) Suffixed to nouns gives new nouns. Example: sabatot (from sabata "shoe"). Suffixed to adjectives gives new adjectives. Example: lletjot (from lleig "ugly"). As a suffix it also means "object", giving a lexicalized word.

Chinese[edit]

-屄(or commonly 逼)bī,e.g.二逼èrbī"dullard"(from 二èr,which means "dull" in some dialects),傻逼shǎbī"fool"(from 傻shǎ"foolish"),骚逼sāobī"bitch"(from 骚sāo"coquettish")

-婊biǎo,e.g.绿茶婊lǜchábiǎo(used to describe a lascivious girl who pretends to be innocent,from 绿茶lǜchá"green tea",which symbolizes innocence) NOTE:this suffix is from the word 婊子biǎozi"prostitute",so at first word suffixed with 婊 were used to describe only women,but recently it can be used to describe both men and women,for example,圣母婊shèngmǔbiǎo,which means people who pretend to bo as merciful as goddesses on the Internet,from 圣母shèngmǔ"goddess"

-棍gùn,e.g.淫棍yíngùn"lewdster"(from 淫yín"lewd"),恶棍ègùn"bad guy",(from 恶è"evil")

-鬼guǐ,e.g.色鬼sèguǐ"lewdster"(from 色sè"lewd")醉鬼zuìguǐ"drunkard"(from 醉zuì"drunk)

-货huò,e.g.贱货jiànhuò"contemptible wretch"(from 贱jiàn"contemptible)饿货èhuò"hungry guy"(from 饿è"hungry")

Dutch[edit]

-erd, e.g. stouterd "naughty one" (from stout "naughty")

-erik, e.g. viezerik "filthy person" (from vies "dirty")

English[edit]

-ard, e.g. coward, dullard, sluggard, drunkard (via Old French) [1][2]

-tard, e.g. Paultard, conspiratard, libtard--new productive suffix from combination of retard and similarity to non-productive suffix -ard

-aster, e.g. poetaster, philosophaster (via Latin)

-ster, e.g. hipster, oldster (via Old English)

-ite, e.g. Paisleyite, Shiite (a follower or adherent of a person or doctrine; deprecatory term often given by opponents)

-nik, e.g. peacenik, neatnik, beatnik (via Yiddish or Russian, where it is not necessarily pejorative)

-rel, e.g. mongrel, wastrel (from Middle English, from Old French)

-er, e.g. stoner, goner, beaner, truther, birther (not to be confused with other -er suffixes, e.g. occupation or comparative)

Esperanto[edit]

-, e.g. veteraĉo "foul weather" (from vetero "weather"), domaĉo "hovel" (from domo "house"), hundaĉo "cur" (from hundo "dog")

French[edit]

-ald/-ard/-aud, e.g. salaud "dirty person (from sale "dirt")

Hawaiian[edit]

-ā (-wā), e.g. lonoā "gossip" (from lono "news")

-ea, e.g. poluea "seasickness" (from polu "wet")

Italian[edit]

-accio(a) (or -uccio/a), e.g. boccaccia "ugly mug" (from bocca "mouth")

Japanese[edit]

-め (-me), e.g. 「化け物め」 (bakemono-me) "That damn monster!" or 「可愛いやつめ」 kawaii yatsu-me "That darn cutie!"

Latin[edit]

-aster, denoting fraudulent resemblance, e.g. patraster "one who plays the father" (from pater "father")

Ojibwe (Anishinaabemowin)[edit]

-ish, e.g. animosh "dog"[3]

Provençal[edit]

-asso, e.g. vidasso "wretched life" (from vido "life")

Russian[edit]

-iška (ишка) [4]

-uxa (уха), pejorative for non-personal nouns, e.g. černuxa, dramatic term for an unrelentingly bleak cinematic style (from čern- "black")

-jaga (яга), pejorative for persons, e.g. skuperdjaga (miser or skinflint),[5] skromnjaga (excessively modest person), stiljaga (style-hunter, hipster), dokhodjaga (goner, said of Kolyma labor-camp prisoners nearing death)

Spanish[edit]

-aco(a), e.g., pajarraco "large ugly bird" (from pájaro "bird), negraco "nigger" (from negro "black"), moraco "raghead" (from moro "Moor").

-ejo(a), e.g., lugarejo "podunk town" (from lugar "place") and librejo "worthless book" (from libro "book"); however, -ejo can also show endearment, as in festejo.

-ote(a), e.g., discursote "long dull speech" (from discurso "speech")(used mostly as an augmentative)

-ucho (a), e.g., casucha "hovel" (from casa "house")

-zuelo (a), e.g., mujerzuela "whore" (from mujer "woman")

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Bill Casselman's Words of the World". 
  2. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary: -ard". 
  3. ^ Anishinaabemowin
  4. ^ Tore Nesset "Ideology in inflection"
  5. ^ Gogol, Nikolai (1980). Gogol: Plays and Selected Writings. Northwestern University Press.