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Pelecyphora is a genus of cacti, comprising 2 species. They originate from Mexico.
Pelecyphora is known for its medicinal properties and may have been utilized as a psychoactive in the same way as Lophophora williamsii. It is known as "Peyotillo".
- The genus Encephalocarpus A.Berger has been brought into synonymy with Pelecyphora.
- A third species, P. valdeziana, does not seem to clearly belong to this genus.
Both P. aselliformis and P. strobiliformis are classified as being of Least Concern on the IUCN Red List, however both species are contained in Appendix 1 of CITES species (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species) as at June 2013.