Pelni

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
PT Pelayaran Nasional Indonesia
State-Owned Enterprise
IndustryMaritime transport
PredecessorYayasan Penguasaan Pusat Kapal-Kapal (PEPUSKA)
FoundedApril 28, 1952; 68 years ago (1952-04-28)
Headquarters,
Indonesia
Number of locations
48 branch and sub-branch offices (2017)
Area served
Indonesia
Key people
  • Insan Purwarisya L. Tobing (CEO)
  • O.M. Sodikin (CFO)
RevenueIncrease IDR 4.59 Trillion (2018)
Decrease IDR 75.1 Billion (2018)
Decrease IDR 204.2 Billion (2018)
Total assetsIncrease IDR 6.56 Trillion (2018)
Total equityIncrease IDR 5.89 Trillion (2018)
OwnerGovernment of Indonesia
Number of employees
4,379 (2018)
Subsidiaries
  • PT Sarana Bandar Nusantara
  • PT Pelita Indonesia Djaya Corporation
  • Rumah Sakit PELNI
Websitewww.pelni.co.id
Dinner time

Pelni (Pelayaran Nasional Indonesia, Indonesian National Shipping) is the national cargo and passenger shipping company of Indonesia. Its services network spans across Indonesian archipelago. Mainly serving as connector between bigger cities to remote islands, Pelni plays important role in Indonesian transport system.[1]

Pelni is one of the few remaining economy-class long-distance passenger ship operators. Most of the world's well-known passenger ship companies have stopped their low-budget passenger services since 1960s due to shifting trends towards airplane transport. Pelni's ability to survive is mostly due to monopolies on certain routes and subsidized routes funded by Government of Indonesia.

History[edit]

Food Rationing Card issued by Pelni. Dated 28 September 1965.

Under the Dutch colonial rule, Indonesian inter-islands transportation was dominated by Koninklijke Paketvaart-Maatschappij (KPM), founded in 1888. KPM headquarter was in Amsterdam, but daily operations were controlled from Batavia, Dutch East Indies (now jakarta).

As a newly independent republic, in late 1940s Indonesian government decided to nationalize Dutch-owned companies. The Dutch refused to give away KPM, due to its strong position as connector of Indonesian archipelago. KPM also played important role in transporting Dutch logistics and military supplies during Indonesian National Revolution.

In response to Dutch refusal, in September 5, 1950, Indonesia founded PEPUSKA (Yayasan Penguasaan Pusat Kapal-kapal, Centrally-controlled Ships Foundation) that operates 8 ships with total size of 4.800 Deadweight tonnage. However, due to lack of experience and capital, PEPUSKA failed to takeover KPM's monopoly.

In April 28, 1952, PEPUSKA was dissolved. Pelni (now as a company, not a foundation) was founded at the same day, with the same fleet. To bring more power, Indonesian Eximbank provided funding to buy 45 new coaster ships from Western Europe countries, and while waiting these new ships being produced, rented various ships from many countries. Pelni also used ships looted from Japan in World War 2.[2] These strategies proved successful, as KPM suffered from declining market share and strike workers led by Sukarno's leftist doctrine. KPM discontinued its Indonesian operation in December 3, 1957.[3]

Pelni achieved its golden era during early 1980s to late 1990s. Under Suharto presidency with his Transmigration program, Pelni was the main transport to move people from Java and Sumatra to eastern region of Indonesia, because air transport facilities were still underdeveloped.[4]

Pelni started to suffer after 2000s, because airplane services were cheaper year by year.[5] Some of its old ships even failed to sell to third parties, and maintaining these old ships also was not a cheap option. KM Kambuna (now KRI Tanjung Nusanive 973) and KM Rinjani (now KRI Tanjung Fatagar 974) was granted to Indonesian Navy in 2004.[6] KM Kerinci was sold in 2014.[7] KFC Jet Liner was rented to Sri Lanka Navy between 2009 and 2012.[8] As of 2017, no party is interested to buy KM Ganda Dewata (Ro-ro ship) even as a scrap.[9]

Pelni started to reform its services and management since 2012 to this day, by focusing more on tourism and cargo market, alongside improving its current low-budget passenger services. Pelni began to book positive earnings since 2014.[10]

Ships and services[edit]

Passenger ships[edit]

Pelni's passenger ships are also a major branding feature of Pelni: large yellow funnel with red-and-white strips and Pelni logo.[11] Pelni painted its ships with white color on the upper side of ships and crimson on the lower side. It's reddish lifeboats are also easily recognised from distances.

Most of these passenger ships (Excluding KM Egon, KM Ganda Dewata & KFC Jetliner) were built by Meyer Werft, a major German shipyard well-known as luxury passenger ships builder.[12] Due to Meyer's luxury culture, some party considered Pelni's ships 'too good' by Indonesian standard, even after designed & built as economy-class passenger ships by default.[13] As of August 12, 2017, no Meyer-built Pelni ship ever involved in sinking accident. However, these high-standard ships were not enjoyed by passengers, especially prior to 2014, because harsh treatment by passengers and the crew itself. Most of the problems comes from illegal passengers, which at least until April 24, 2019 are still frequently found.[14]

Since 2014 onwards, some improvement have been made, especially in ticket reservation system (now booking is available online, but still limited to payment via Bank Rakyat Indonesia's ATM and Indomaret store. Credit card payment is still not possible), toilet repair, and 2-pin electric plug (for mobile devices only). Passengers can enjoy GSM & GPRS network in Pelni ships provided by telkomsel. However, passenger management is still troublesome, mainly because most of Indonesian seaport's passenger terminal (operated by Indonesia Port Corporations) is not sterile from illegal visitors.[15]

KM Dorolonda while unloading cargo & Passenger at port of Bitung

Below is a list of Pelni's Passenger Ships. All of these ships (excluding KFC Jetliner) were named after mountains in Indonesia. KM Tatamailau, however, is named after Mt. Tatamailau in East Timor. 'KM' is abbreviation of 'Kapal Mesin', meaning Motor Vessel (MV) and 'KFC' is abbreviation of 'Kapal Ferry Cepat', meaning Express Ferry Ship.

Ship name Build date Passenger capacity Route (As of December 7, 2016)
KM Awu 1991 969
KM Bukit Raya 1994 970 Jakarta > Belinyu > Kijang > Letung (Jemaja Island) > Tarempa > Natuna > Midan > Serasan > Pontianak
KM Bukit Siguntang 1995 2003
KM Ciremai 1991 1973 Jakarta > Surabaya > Makassar > Bau-Bau > Sorong > Manokwari > Biak > Jayapura
KM Dobonsolo 1993 1974 Jakarta > Surabaya > Makassar > Bau-Bau > Ambon > Sorong > Serui > Jayapura
KM Dorolonda 2001 Bitung > Ternate > Ambon > Namlea > Bau-Bau > Makassar > Surabaya > Jakarta > Kijang
KM Egon 1991 520
KM Gunung Dempo 2006 1583 Jakarta > Surabaya > Makassar > Sorong > Manokwari > Nabire > Jayapura
KM Kelimutu 1985 920
KM Kelud 1998 1906 Jakarta > Batam > Karimun > Belawan
KM Lawit 1986 920
KM Leuser 1994 970 Surabaya > Benoa > Sape > Labuan Bajo > Makassar > Bau-Bau > Wanci > Namrole > Ambon > Banda Naira > Saumlaki > Larat Island > Tual > Dobo > Timika > Agats > Merauke
KM Lambelu 1996 2003
KM Labobar 2004 3084 Surabaya > Balikpapan > Pantoloan > Amurang > Bitung > Ternate > Sorong > Manokwari > Nabire > Serui > Jayapura
KM Nggapulu 2001 2130 Jakarta - Surabaya - Makassar - Baubau - Ambon - Banda Neira - Tual - Dobo - Kaimana - Fakfak
KM Pangrango 1996 496
KM Sirimau ? 969
KM Sinabung 1997 1906 Surabaya > Makassar > Bau-Bau > Banggai Island > Bitung > Ternate > Babang > Sorong > Manokwari > Biak > Jayapura
KM Sangiang 1997 510
KM Tilongkabila 1994 970 Bitung > Gorontalo > Luwuk > Kolonodale > Kendari > Raha > Bau-Bau > Makassar > Labuan Bajo > Bima > Lembar > Benoa
KM Tatamailau 1990 969 Bitung > Tidore > Babang > Sorong > Fak-Fak > Kaimana > Tual > Timika > Agats > Merauke
KM Tidar 1987 1904 Makassar > Bau-Bau > Namrole > Ambon > Tual > Dobo > Kaimana > Fak-Fak > Sorong > Manokwari > Nabire
KM Umsini 1985 1737
KM Wilis 1999 500 Batulicin > Makassar > Bima > Labuan Bajo > Kalabahi > Kupang
KFC Jetliner 1996 550 Kendari > Raha > Baubau > Wanci

Facilities[edit]

  • One single bed per passenger, but shared space with others and no separator each bed.
  • 2-pin electric plugs per bed (low voltage, for mobile phones only)
  • Shared bathrooms & toilets with hot & cold water
  • Three standard meals a day (queued)
  • Hot water for drink
  • Musalla
  • Cafeteria
  • Smoking area
  • GSM and GPRS network by Telkomsel
  • Clinic
Facilities (KM Kelud only)[edit]

KM Kelud (serving Jakarta-Batam-Tanjung Balai Karimun-Medan) is the ship with most complete facilities:

KM Kelud also provides first- and 2nd-class service in addition to economy-class services, with double bedroom and four single-bedroom options, with television and better food menus.

However, not all of those facilities are always available. Some passengers wrote that access to some of those, such as mini-cinema and gym were locked by the crew.[16] Also, not all of these facilities are in good conditions, especially the toilets.[17] The ships are also often overcrowded by illegal passengers, especially after embarking from small ports with less security enforcement.[18]

Tourism services[19][edit]

In addition to regular passenger routes, Pelni provides tourism packages to various islands. Pelni introduces live-on-board concept, where Pelni ships will pick up passenger in hub ports (such as Semarang or Sorong), sail to destined tourist attraction, stay there as 'floating hotel' while passengers enjoying the tourism packages in nearby islands, and then return to hub port. For 2017, the tourism packages are:

in 23 June 2019, Pelni launched new tourism service with KLM (Kapal Layar Mesin/Motor Sail Ship) Pelita Arunika. Built by a traditional shipbuilder in Tanjung Bira, South Sulawesi and serving tourists in Labuan Bajo.

Cargo ships[edit]

  • KM Caraka Jaya Niaga III-4
  • KM Caraka Jaya Niaga III-2
  • KM Caraka Jaya Niaga III-32

Other ships[edit]

These ships are owned/rented by Government of Indonesia and operated by Pelni:

KM Sabuk Nusantara-46, one of kapal perintis (pioneer ship) operated by Pelni, serving Sunda Kelapa-Thousand Islands (Indonesia)

Tol Laut ships[20][edit]

Tol Laut ('Sea Tollroad') is a maritime program by President Joko Widodo to improve Indonesian logistic system through providing routine and subsidized ship sailing across Indonesia. As of December 31, 2016, Pelni operated six ships for this purpose.

Cattle ship[21][22][edit]

Pelni operated one cattle ship, KM Camara Nusantara I, to transport cattle produced by farmers in Lesser Sunda Islands to Java.

Pioneer ships[23][edit]

Pioneer ships (kapal perintis) are smaller ships provided and subsidized by government to service remote islands that are commercially not profitable and too shallow for larger ship to berth. As of December 31, 2016, Pelni operated 46 pioneer ships.

International Routes[edit]

Pelni is fully serving Indonesian archipelago and currently doesn't provide regular passenger route to nearby countries, although many of its destinations are located in Indonesian outermost islands such as Batam (near Singapore), Natuna Islands (between Peninsular & East Malaysia), Nunukan Island (Near Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia), Miangas Island (Near Philippines), Jayapura, Merauke (both are close to Papua New Guinea) and Kisar Island (near East Timor).

During Indonesian occupation of East Timor, Pelni served regular services to Dili, which stopped after 1999. in 2000, Pelni also served Bitung-Davao (Philippines) route for a short period. Pelni is planned to serve ASEAN market by 2020.

Incidents and accidents[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nasional Indonesia, Pelayaran (March 21, 2016). "Profil Perusahaan". Situs Resmi PT. Pelni. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
  2. ^ "Situs Resmi PT.PELNI (Persero) -". www.pelni.co.id. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  3. ^ Swiggum, Sue. "Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij 1888-1967". www.theshipslist.com. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  4. ^ Taufik. "PT. PELNI OPERASIKAN KAPAL TIDAK SESUAI PERUNTUKANNYA". intelijenpost.com. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  5. ^ "Upaya Pelni Keluar dari Kubangan Kehancuran | SWA.co.id". SWA.co.id. 2004-12-09. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  6. ^ "KRI Tanjung Nusanive 973: eks Kapal Pelni dengan Kanon PSU Rheinmetall 20mm – Indomiliter.com". www.indomiliter.com. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  7. ^ "Pelni Jual KM Kerinci Rp26,5 Miliar". SINDOnews.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  8. ^ "5 Fakta Mengenai KFC Jetliner Rute Labuan Bajo - Makassar". Phinemo. 2016-08-02. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  9. ^ oceanweek, About The Author. "Puluhan Kapal 'Mati' di Priok Tak Bertuan". Ocean Week. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  10. ^ "Makin Kinclong, Pelni 2014 Raup Laba Rp4,3 miliar". Berita Trans. 2015-02-24. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  11. ^ "Pelayaran Nasional Indonesia". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  12. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xZ_O7a0jrIE&fbclid=IwAR2CzhhUZXTJQ7MhMZ4FZrOmtwpkdv_9tAoFSOj6FFAUzynbB5Yzny75FBc
  13. ^ https://finance.detik.com/industri/d-3527452/pelni-kaji-pengadaan-kapal-buatan-jerman
  14. ^ https://www.bisnis-papua.com/pelni-akui-masih-temukan-penumpang-ilegal/
  15. ^ "Transformasi Bisnis Pelni - Warta Ekonomi". wartaekonomi.co.id. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  16. ^ "perjalanan dengan km kelud – rosegevariel". rosegevariel.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  17. ^ "Dharmaningtyas: Pelayanan Kapal Pelni Masih Memprihatinkan". Berita Trans. 2016-08-14. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  18. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber. "Muatan Kapal Lebihi Kapasitas, Ratusan Penumpang di Makassar Terpaksa Diturunkan - Kompas.com". KOMPAS.com. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  19. ^ "Pelni Tawarkan Paket Destinasi Menarik di 2017 | Pesona Indonesia". pesona.indonesia.travel. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  20. ^ "Situs Resmi PT.PELNI (Persero) -". www.pelni.co.id. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  21. ^ "Situs Resmi PT.PELNI (Persero) -". www.pelni.co.id. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  22. ^ "Lima Kleder 'Kawal' 500 Sapi dalam Pelayaran KM Camara Nusantara I". Berita Trans. 2016-11-28. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  23. ^ https://plus.google.com/+HarianTerbit2015?rel=author. "Pelni Siapkan 26 Armada Nusantara dan 46 Armada Perintis". Harianterbit.com. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  24. ^ "36 Tahun Lalu, KMP Tampomas II Terbakar di Masalembo, Ada Penumpang Nyanyikan Salam Perpisahan". TribunTravel.com. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  25. ^ Sudrajat. "Bencana Galunggung, Tampomas dan Bintaro dalam Lagu Ebiet G Ade". detikhot. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  26. ^ Jitunews.com. "Trauma Masalembo". Jitunews.com. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  27. ^ Expost Name (March 15, 2016). "Syahbandar awasi Koperasi TNI AL potong bangkai KM Fudi". Expost News. Retrieved August 14, 2017.

External links[edit]