Pelophylax nigromaculatus

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Pelophylax nigromaculatus
Pelophylax nigromaculatus s1.JPG
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Ranidae
Genus: Pelophylax
P. nigromaculatus
Binomial name
Pelophylax nigromaculatus
(Hallowell, 1861)

Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, 1861 "1860"
Rana marmorata Hallowell, 1861 "1860"
Hoplobatrachus reinhardtii Peters, 1867
Hoplobatrachus davidi David, 1873 "1872"
Hylarana nigromaculata (Hallowell, 1861)

Pelophylax nigromaculatus (formerly Rana nigromaculata), is a species of true frog found in East Asia, first described in 1861. This widespread and common frog has many common names, including dark-spotted frog, black-spotted pond frog, and black-spotted frog.[1][2]


It occurs across much of eastern and northeastern China, the Amur River valley in Russia, the Korean Peninsula, and most of Japan, although it does not occur on Hokkaidō.[2][3] It has been considered the commonest of the true frogs on the Korean Peninsula, and has been hunted for food and used as an experimental animal.[4] There is an introduced population in Turkmenistan.[3]


The dark-spotted frog is a relatively low-altitude species, not being found above 2200 m. It ranges across a variety of habitats, from deserts and bushland to meadows and forests, and is typically found in or near stagnant or slow-moving water. Although relatively tolerant of human interference, it is increasingly threatened by hunting and water pollution.[1]


Adult males measure about 62 mm (2.4 in) and females 74 mm (2.9 in) in snout–vent length.[5] The dorsal colouration varies from grey to greyish-olive, olive, and green. There are usually large dark spots, a light mid-dorsal line, and two lines on dorso-lateral folds. The belly is white. The toes are webbed. Males have a paired vocal sac and nuptial pads on the first finger.[3]

Mating season occurs soon after hibernation. Maturation probably occurs at an age of two years, and the total life span may reach 13 years.[3] The clutch size is 1800–3000[1] or 600–5000 eggs.[3] The eggs are laid in shallow water.[1]


Protoopalina pingi,[6] a parasite of the rectum of Pelophylax nigromaculatus in China

Parasites of this frog include the opalinid Protoopalina pingi in the rectum.[6]


  1. ^ a b c d e Kuzmin, S.; Maslova, I.; Tuniyev, B.; Matsui, M.; Li, P. & Kaneko, Y. (2004). "Pelophylax nigromaculatus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e.T58679A11809026. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T58679A11809026.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Frost, Darrel R. (2017). "Pelophylax nigromaculatus (Hallowell, 1861)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Pelophylax nigromaculatus". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
  4. ^ "참개구리 [Black-spotted pond frog]". Naver Encyclopedia (in Korean). Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  5. ^ "Pelophylax nigromaculatus (Hallowell, 1860)". AmphibiaChina (in Chinese). Kunming Institute of Zoology. 2014. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  6. ^ a b Li, Weidong; Wang, Chong; Huang, Feng; Li, Ming; Nilsen, Frank; Liu, Huiyu; Xu, Jianlong (2014). "Redescription of Protoopalina pingi Nie, 1935 inhabiting the recta of Hylarana guentheri and Pelophylax nigromaculatus in China". Parasite. 21: 46. doi:10.1051/parasite/2014021. PMC 4160848.