Pembela Tanah Air

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Pembela Tanah Air
Flag of PETA (Pembela Tanah Air).svg
Colour used by PETA battalions
Active3 October 1943 – 15 August 1945
CountryIndonesia with a Malayan branch[1]
AllegianceImperial Japanese Army
TypeInfantry
RoleDefending Indonesia from Allied Invasion
Size66 Battalions in Java, 3 Battalions in Bali, and approx. 20,000 men in Sumatra
Nickname(s)PETA
ColorsPurple, Green, Red & White                 
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PETA (Indonesian: Pembela Tanah Air – Defenders of the Homeland) or Kyōdo Bōei Giyūgun (郷土防衛義勇軍) was an Indonesian volunteer army established on 3 October 1943 in Indonesia by the occupying Japanese. The Japanese intended PETA to assist their forces in opposing a possible invasion by the Allies. The word PETA itself means map in local language. By the end of the war, there were a total of 69 battalions (daidan) in Java (around 37,000 men) and Sumatra (approximately 20,000 men). On 17 August 1945, the day after the Indonesian Declaration of Independence, the Japanese ordered the PETA daidan to surrender and hand over their weapons, which most of them did. The Indonesian Republic's newly declared President, Sukarno, supported the dissolution rather than turn the organisation into a national army as he feared allegations of collaboration had he allowed a Japanese-created militia to continue in existence.[2][3][4]

During the Indonesian National Revolution, former PETA officers and troops, such as Suharto and Sudirman, formed the core of the fledgling Indonesia armed forces.

Structure of PETA[edit]

Battalion Battalion Commander (Daidancho) Note Officers of other ranks
I Labuan, Banten Tubagus Achmad Chatib Muslim cleric Suhadisastra
II Malingping, Banten E. Ojong Temaja Muslim cleric M.B. Sutman
III Serang, Banten Syam'un Muslim cleric Zainul Falah
IV Pandeglang, Banten Uding Sujatmadja Mustaram
I Harmoni, Djakarta Kasman Singodimedjo Graduate of RHS
Former leader of JIB and MIAI
Mufraeni Mukmin
Latief Hendraningrat
II Purwakarta, Djakarta Surjodipuro Mursid
I Djampang Kulon, Bogor R. Abdullah bin Nuh Muslim cleric Husen Aleksah
II Pelabuan Ratu, Bogor M. Basuni Muslim cleric Mulja
III Sukabumi, Bogor Kafrawi Machmud
IV Tjibeber, Tjiandjur, Bogor R. Gunawan Resmiputro M. Ishak Djuarsa
I Tasikmalaja, Priangan K.H. Sutalaksana Muslim cleric Abdullah Saleh
II Pangandaran, Priangan K.H. Pardjaman Muslim cleric K. Hamid
III Bandung, Priangan Iljas Sasmita Permana
Umar Wirahadikusumah
IV Tjimahi, Priangan Arudji Kartawinata Graduate of MULO
Former executive of PSII
Soeparjadi
Poniman
V Garut, Priangan R. Sofjan Iskandar Katamsi Sutisna
I Tjirebon Abdulgani Surjokusumo Rukman
II Madjalengka, Tjirebon R. Zaenal Asikin Judibrata Suarman
I Pekalongan Iskandar Idris Muslim cleric Ajub
II Tegal, Pekalongan K.H. Durjatman Muslim cleric Sumardjono
I Tjilatjap, Banjumas R. Sutirto R. Hartojo
II Sumpiuh, Banjumas R. Soesalit Djojoadhiningrat Zaelan Asikin
III Kroja, Banjumas Sudirman Graduate of Muhammadiyah teachers' training school
Muhammadiyah school-teacher
Supardjo Rustam
IV Banjumas Isdiman
Gatot Subroto
Sarengat
I Gombong, Kedu R. Abdul Kadir
Bambang Sugeng
R. Sutrisno
II Magelang, Kedu Muhammad Susman Sugiardjo
Supangkat
III Gombong, Kedu Djoko Kusumo Slamet
Achmad Yani
Sarwo Edhie Wibowo
IV Purworedjo, Kedu Mukahar Ronohadikusumo Tjiptoroso
I Mrican, Semarang R. Usman
Sutrisno Sudomo
Sujadi
II Weleri, Kendal, Semarang R. Sudijono Taruno Kusumo Suparman Sumahamidjaja
I Pati Kusmoro Hadidewo
II Rembang, Pati Holan Iskandar Sukardi
III Djepara, Pati Prawiro Atmodjo Sukardji
I Wates, Jogjakarta D. Martojomeno Sudjiono
II Bantul, Jogjakarta Mohammed Saleh Graduate of higher teachers' training school
Muhammadiyah school-teacher
Sugiono
III Pingit, Jogjakarta Sundjojo Purbokusumo Darjatmo
Suharto
IV Wonosari, Jogjakarta Muridan Noto Nudi
I Manahan, Surakarta R.M. Muljadi Djojomartono Muslim cleric Suprapto Sukawati
Djatikusumo
II Wonogiri, Surakarta K.H. Idris Muslim cleric Budiman
I Babat, Bodjonegoro K.H. Masjkur
Sudirman
Muslim cleric Utojo Utomo
II Bodjonegoro Masri R. Rachmat
III Tuban-Bodjonegoro Sumadi Sastroatmodjo Sumardjo
I Madiun Agus Tojib Mumardjo
II Patjitan, Madiun Akub Gulangge R. Subagijo
III Ponorogo, Madiun M. Sudjono Sudijat
I Tulungagung, Kediri Sudiro Tulus
II Blitar, Kediri Surachmad Sukandar
Suprijadi
III Kediri A. Judodiprodjo
Sujoto Djojopurnomo
Mashudi Sudjono
I Gunung Sari, Surabaja Mustopo Graduate of STOVIT
Dentist
Masduki Abudardja
II Sidoardjo, Surabaja R. Muhammad Mangundiprodjo Bambang Juwono
III Modjokerto, Surabaja Katamhadi Usman
IV Gresik, Surabaja K.H. Cholik Hasjim Muslim cleric Jondat Modjo
I Gondanglegi, Malang K. Iskandar Sulaeman Muslim cleric Sumarto
II Lumadjang, Malang M. Sujo Adikusumo S. Hardjo Hudojo
III Pasuruan, Malang Arsjid Kromodihardjo Slamet
IV Malang Imam Sudja'i Sukardani
V Probolinggo, Malang Sudarsono Sumitro
I Kentjong, Djember, Besuki Suwito
Sudiro
Sukarto
II Bondowoso, Besuki K.H. Tahirruddin Tjokro Atmodjo Muslim cleric Rosadi
III Bentjuluk, Banjuwangi, Besuki Sukotjo Imam Sukarto
IV Rambipundji, Djember-Besuki Surodjo
Astiklah
Subandi
V Sukowidi, Banjuwangi, Besuki R. Usman Sumodinoto Sudarmin
I Pamekasan, Madura K.H. R. Amin Dja'far Muslim cleric R. Mohammad Saleh
II Bangkalan, Madura Ruslan Tjakraningrat Hafiludin
III Batang-batang, Madura Abdul Madjid Achmad Basuni
IV Ambunten, Sumenep, Madura Abdul Hamid Mudhari Muslim cleric Suroso
V Ketapang, Madura Trunodjojo Mochamad Sabirin
I Negara, Bali I Made Putu I Wayan Mudana
II Tabanan, Bali I Gusti Ngurah Gede Pugeng Ida Bagus Tongka
III Klungkung, Bali Anak Agung Made Agung I Made Geria

Notable members of PETA[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Bachtiar, Harsja W. (1988), Siapa Dia?: Perwira Tinggi Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat (Who is S/He?: Senior Officers of the Indonesian Army), Penerbit Djambatan, Jakarta, ISBN 979-428-100-X
  • Sunhaussen, Ulf (1982) The Road to Power: Indonesian Military Politics 1945-1967 Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-582521-7
  • Ricklefs, M.C. (1981) A History of Modern Indonesia, c. 1300 to the present. MacMillan, ISBN 0-333-24380-3

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sani, Rustam (2008). Social Roots of the Malay Left. SIRD. p. 26. ISBN 9833782442.
  2. ^ Ricklefs (1981), p. 194
  3. ^ Sunhaussen (1982), pp. 2–4
  4. ^ Bachtiar(1988), p. 12