Penaeus monodon

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Penaeus monodon
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Decapoda
Suborder: Dendrobranchiata
Family: Penaeidae
Genus: Penaeus
P. monodon
Binomial name
Penaeus monodon
Fabricius, 1798
Synonyms [1]
  • Penaeus carinatus Dana, 1852
  • Penaeus tahitensis Heller, 1862
  • Penaeus coeruleus Stebbing, 1905
  • Penaeus bubulus Kubo, 1949

Penaeus monodon, commonly known as the giant tiger prawn,[1][2] Asian tiger shrimp,[3][4] black tiger shrimp,[5][6] and other names, is a marine crustacean that is widely reared for food.

Tiger prawns displayed in a supermarket


Penaeus monodon was first described by Johan Christian Fabricius in 1798. That name was overlooked until 1949, when Lipke Holthuis clarified to which species it referred.[7] Holthuis also showed that P. monodon had to be the type species of the genus Penaeus.[7]


Females can reach about 33 cm (13 in) long, but are typically 25–30 cm (10–12 in) long and weigh 200–320 g (7–11 oz); males are slightly smaller at 20–25 cm (8–10 in) long and weighing 100–170 g (3.5–6.0 oz).[1] The carapace and abdomen are transversely banded with alternative red and white. The antennae are grayish brown. Brown pereiopods and pleopods are present with fringing setae in red.[8]


Its natural distribution is the Indo-Pacific, ranging from the eastern coast of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, as far as Southeast Asia, the Pacific Ocean, and northern Australia.[9]

It is an invasive species in the northern waters of the Gulf of Mexico[4] and the Atlantic Ocean off the Southern U.S.[10]

Invasive species[edit]

The first occurrence of P. monodon in the U.S. was in November 1988. Close to 300 shrimp were captured off the Southeastern shore after an accidental release from an aquaculture facility. This species can now be caught in waters from Texas to North Carolina. Although P. monodon has been an invasive species for many years, it has yet to grow large, established populations.[11] Escapes in other parts of the world, though, have led to established P. monodon populations, such as off West Africa, Brazil, and the Caribbean.[12][13]


P. monodon is suited to inhabit a multitude of environments.[14] They mainly occur in Southeastern Asia, but are widely found.[14] Juveniles of P. monodon are generally found in sandy estuaries and mangroves, and upon adulthood, they move to deeper waters (0– 110 m) and live on muddy or rocky bottoms.[15] The P. monodon has shown to be nocturnal in the wild, burrowing into substrate during the day, and coming out at night to feed.[16] P. monodon typically feed on detritus, polychaete worms, mollusks, and small crustaceans.[16][17] They feed on algae, as well. Due to their nutrient-rich diet, these shrimp are unable to consume phytoplankton because of their feeding appendages, but they are able to consume senescent phytoplankton.[18] They also commence mating at night, and can produce around 800,000 eggs.[14]


P. monodon is the second-most widely cultured prawn species in the world, after only whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In 2009, 770,000 tonnes were produced, with a total value of US$3,650,000,000.[1] P. monodon makes up nearly 50% of cultured shrimp alone.[19]

The prawn is popular to culture because of its tolerance to salinity and very quick growth rate,[11] but they are very vulnerable to fungal, viral, and bacterial infections.[20] Diseases such as white spot disease and yellowhead disease have led to a great economic impact in shrimp industries around the globe.[21] They can receive transmitted diseases from other crustaceans such as the Australian red claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus), which is susceptible to yellowhead disease and has shown to transmit it to P. monodon in Thailand.[22]

Black tiger shrimp's susceptibility to many diseases engenders economic constraints towards the black tiger shrimp food industry in Australia, which is farm-raised. To confront such challenges, attempts have been made to selectively breed specific pathogen-resistant lines of the species.[23]

P. monodon has been farmed throughout the world, including West Africa, Hawaii, Tahiti, and England.[12] For optimal growth, P. monodon is raised in waters between 28 and 33 °C. Characteristically for the Penaeus genus, P. monodon has a natural ability to survive and grow in a wide range of salinity, though its optimal salinity is around 15-25 g/L.[24] While in a farm setting, the shrimp are typically fed a compound diet, which is produced in dried pellets.[17] By mixing the diet to have compound feeds and fresh feed, P. monodon was shown to have better reproductive performance.[17]

Sustainable consumption[edit]

In 2010, Greenpeace added P. monodon to its seafood red list – "a list of fish that are commonly sold in supermarkets around the world, and which have a very high risk of being sourced from unsustainable fisheries". The reasons given by Greenpeace were "destruction of vast areas of mangroves in several countries, overfishing of juvenile shrimp from the wild to supply farms, and significant human-rights abuses".[25]

Genetic research[edit]

In an effort to understand whether DNA repair processes can protect crustaceans against infection, basic research was conducted to elucidate the repair mechanisms used by P. monodon.[26] Repair of DNA double-strand breaks was found to be predominantly carried out by accurate homologous recombinational repair. Another, less accurate process, microhomology-mediated end joining, is also used to repair such breaks.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d "Species Fact Sheets: Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798)". FAO Species Identification and Data Programme (SIDP). FAO. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
  2. ^ "Giant Tiger Prawn". Sea Grant Extension Project. Louisiana State University. Retrieved 2013-09-24.
  3. ^ "Penaeus monodon". Nonindigenous Aquatic Species. United States Geological Survey. 2013-06-14. Retrieved 2013-09-24.
  4. ^ a b Tresaugue, Matthew (2011-12-24). "Giant shrimp raises big concern as it invades the Gulf". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2013-09-24.
  5. ^ Maheswarudu, G. (2016). "Experimental culture of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798 in open sea floating cage". Indian Journal of Fisheries. 63 (2). doi:10.21077/ijf.2016.63.2.46459-06.
  6. ^ "Exporting frozen cultured black tiger shrimp to Europe". Center for the Promotion of Imports. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  7. ^ a b L. B. Holthuis (1949). "The identity of Penaeus monodon Fabr" (PDF). Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen. 52 (9): 1051–1057.
  8. ^ Motoh, H (1981). "Studies on the fisheries biology of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon in the Philippines" (7). Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. hdl:10862/860. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  9. ^ L. B. Holthuis (1980). "Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon". Shrimps and Prawns of the World. An Annotated Catalogue of Species of Interest to Fisheries. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 1. Food and Agriculture Organization. p. 50. ISBN 92-5-100896-5.
  10. ^ NOAA Fisheries. "Invasion of Asian Tiger Shrimp in Southeast U.S. Waters". Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  11. ^ a b Knott, D.M., P.L. Fuller, A.J. Benson, and M.E. Neilson, 2019, Penaeus monodon: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL
  12. ^ a b Fuller, Pam; Knott, David; Kingsley-Smith, Peter; Morris, James; Buckel, Christine; Hunter, Margaret; Hartman, Leslie (March 2014). "Invasion of Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798, in the western north Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico". Aquatic Invasions. 9 (1): 59–70. doi:10.3391/ai.2014.9.1.05.
  13. ^ Sahel and West Africa Club (2006) Exploring Economic Opportunities in Sustainable Shrimp Farming in West Africa: Focus on South-South Cooperation. Meeting Report. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (Accessed 29 May 2013)
  14. ^ a b c Motoh, H. (1985). Biology and ecology of Penaeus monodon. In Taki Y., Primavera J. H. and Llobrera J. A. (Eds.). Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4–7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines (pp. 27-36). Iloilo City, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. hdl:10862/874
  15. ^ FAO-FIRA, 2010. "Giant Tiger Prawn Home" (On-line). Accessed April 15, 2019 at Archived 2013-03-02 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ a b Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme. Penaeus monodon. Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme. Text by Kongkeo, H. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]. Rome. Updated 29 July 2005. [Cited 15 April 2019].
  17. ^ a b c Chimsung, Noppawan (2014). "Maturation diets for black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) broodstock: a review" (PDF). Songklanakarin Journal of Science & Technology. 36 (3): 265–273. CiteSeerX
  18. ^ Burford, Michele Astrid; Hiep, Le Huu; Van Sang, Nguyen; Khoi, Chau Minh; Thu, Nguyen Kim; Faggotter, Stephen John; Stewart-Koster, Ben; Condon, Jason; Sammut, Jesmond (December 2020). "Does natural feed supply the nutritional needs of shrimp in extensive rice-shrimp ponds? – A stable isotope tracer approach". Aquaculture. 529: 735717. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735717. S2CID 225011819.
  19. ^ Khedkar, Gulab Dattarao; Reddy, A. Chandrashekar; Ron, Tetszuan Benny; Haymer, David (December 2013). "High levels of genetic diversity in Penaeus monodon populations from the east coast of India". SpringerPlus. 2 (1): 671. doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-671. PMC 3868705. PMID 24363984.
  20. ^ "Giant Tiger Prawn". Sea Grant Extension Project. Louisiana State University
  21. ^ Flegel, T.W. (1 July 1997). "Major viral diseases of the black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) in Thailand". World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 13 (4): 433–442. doi:10.1023/A:1018580301578. S2CID 83104916.
  22. ^ Soowannayan, Chumporn; Nguyen, Giang Thu; Pham, Long Ngoc; Phanthura, Mongkhol; Nakthong, Naruemon (August 2015). "Australian red claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) is susceptible to yellowhead virus (YHV) infection and can transmit it to the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)". Aquaculture. 445: 63–69. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.04.015.
  23. ^ Palmer, Paul J.; Rao, Min; Cowley, Jeff A. (March 30, 2021). "Reduced transmission of IHHNV to Penaeus monodon from shrimp pond wastewater filtered through a polychaete-assisted sand filter (PASF) system". Aquaculture. 535: 736359. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2021.736359. S2CID 233550397.
  24. ^ Shekhar, M. S.; Kiruthika, J.; Rajesh, S.; Ponniah, A. G. (September 2014). "High salinity induced expression profiling of differentially expressed genes in shrimp (Penaeus monodon)". Molecular Biology Reports. 41 (9): 6275–6289. doi:10.1007/s11033-014-3510-1. PMID 24973887. S2CID 17602689.
  25. ^ "Greenpeace International Seafood Red list". Greenpeace. Retrieved February 16, 2010.
  26. ^ Srivastava, Shikha; Dahal, Sumedha; Naidu, Sharanya J.; Anand, Deepika; Gopalakrishnan, Vidya; Kooloth Valappil, Rajendran; Raghavan, Sathees C. (24 January 2017). "DNA double-strand break repair in Penaeus monodon is predominantly dependent on homologous recombination". DNA Research. 24 (2): 117–128. doi:10.1093/dnares/dsw059. PMC 5397610. PMID 28431013.