Pencak Silat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Pencak silat demonstration in Jakarta

Pencak silat (Indonesian pronunciation: [ˈpɛntʃaʔ ˈsilat]; sometimes spelled penchak silat or pentjak silat in Western writings) is an umbrella term for a class of related martial arts originating in the Indonesian archipelago.[1] It is a full-body fighting form incorporating strikes, grappling and throwing in addition to weaponry. Every part of the body is subject to be attacked and used to attack. Pencak silat was practiced not only for physical defense but also for attainment of higher psychological ends.[2]

The leading organization of pencak silat in Indonesia is IPSI (Ikatan Pencak Silat Indonesia, meaning Pencak Silat Association of Indonesia). The liaison body for international pencak silat is the International Pencak Silat Association or PERSILAT (Persekutuan Pencak Silat Antara Bangsa).


Although the word silat is widely known through much of South East Asia, the term pencak silat is used mainly in Indonesia. Pencak silat was chosen in 1948 as a unifying term for the Indonesian fighting styles. It was a compound of the two most commonly used words for martial arts in Indonesia. Pencak was the term used in central and east Java, while silat was used in Sumatra and Borneo. In modern usage, pencak and silat are seen as being two aspects of the same practice. Pencak is the essence of training, the outward aspect of the art which a casual observer is permitted to witness as performance. Silat is the essence of combat and self-defense, the true fighting application of the techniques which are kept secret from outsiders and not divulged to students until the guru deems them ready. It is often said by practitioners that silat cannot exist without pencak, on the other hand pencak without silat skills is purposeless.[3]

The origin of the words pencak and silat have not been proven. Some believe that pencak comes from the Sanskrit word pancha meaning five, or from the Chinese pencha meaning to avert or deflect.[4]
Other terms may be used in particular dialects such as silek, penca, mancak, maen po or main-po.

Dutch East Indian newspapers of the colonial era recorded the terms for martial arts under Dutch spellings. These include silat, pencak (spelled in Dutch as "pentjak"), penca ("pentjah"), mancak ("mentjak"), manca ("mentjah"), and pukulan ("poekoelan").[5] In 1881 a magazine calls mancak a Batak fencing game "with long swords, daggers or wood (mentjah)"[6] These papers described mancak as Malayan (Maleidsche) suggesting that the word originates in Sumatra.[7] These terms were used separately from silat in the Dutch East Indies.[8] The terms pukulan or main pukulan (spelled "maen poekoelan" in Dutch) referred to the fighting systems of Jakarta but was also used generally for the martial arts of other parts of Indonesia such as Sumatra and Lombok.[5] Believed to be a Betawi term, it derives from the words for play (main) and hit (pukulan).


Bas-relief of a battle scene at Prambanan Temple depicting weapons of the time such as the sword, shield, club, bow, and a kris-like dagger

The archipelagic chain that is today Indonesia was the scene of warfare for much of its long history, and the people of the region naturally developed effective methods of combat and self-defense.[2] The oral history of Indonesia begins with the arrival of Aji Saka (lit. primordial king) from India to Java. At the request of the local people, he successfully killed the ogre king of Medang Kamulan in battle and took his place as ruler. This story traditionally marks the rise of Java and the dawn of its Dharmic civilisation. The tale also illustrates the influence India had on Indonesian and Southeast Asian culture in general. Aji Saka is shown to be a fighter and swordsman, while his servants are also depicted as fighting with daggers. Ancient Indonesian art from this period also depicts warriors mounted on elephants wielding Chinese weapons such as the jian or straight double-edge sword, which is still used in some styles today. The martial arts of Indonesia's Chinese community still exist and are known as kuntao.[1]

The earliest evidence of pencak silat being taught in a structured manner comes from 6th-century[9] Riau, Sumatra. Sumatran folklore tells that it was created by a woman named Rama Sukana who witnessed a fight between a tiger and a large bird. By using the animals' movements, she was able to fend off a group of drunken men that attacked her. She then taught the techniques to her husband Rama Isruna from whom they were formally passed down. There are several variations of this story depending on the region where it is told. On the island of Boyan (Bawean), Rama Sukana is believed to have watched monkeys fighting each other while the Sundanese of West Java believe that she saw a monkey battle a tiger. The accuracy of this legend cannot be substantiated but the fact that silat is attributed to a woman is thought to indicate its age, considering the prominence of women in traditional Southeast Asian society.

Evidence shows that pencak silat had been used consistently through Indonesia’s history.[9] From its birthplace in Riau, the art spread to the Minangkabau capital in West Sumatra. The Minangkabau had a feudal government. Military officers called hulubalang acted as bodyguards to the king or yamtuan. Minang warriors served without pay, all skilled horsemen with the native pony. The plunder was divided among them according to military merit, so fighters strove to outdo each other. Stealth and ambush were their preferred war tactics, and the Minangkabau are said to have been among the best assassins in the world when dispatched singly. They were also expert bladesmiths, producing arms both for their own use and for export to Aceh.[1]

Pencak silat further spread to Srivijaya which dominated the coastal areas, while the Sailendra and Medang Kingdoms ruled central Java where the fighting arts developed in three geographical regions: West Java, Central Java, and East Java. Pencak silat especially flourished in Java which is now home to more different styles than any other Indonesian islands. In the 13th century, Srivijaya was defeated by the Tamil Cholas of south India. The Tamil stick fighting art of silambam is still the most common Indian fighting system in Southeast Asia today.

During the 1200s the warrior-king Kertanegara of Singhasari conquered the Melayu Kingdom, Maluku Islands, Bali, and other neighbouring areas. From 1280-1289, Kublai Khan sent envoys demanding that Singhasari submit to the Khan as Jambi and Melayu had already done, but Kertanegara responded defiantly by scarring the last envoy's face. Kublai Khan retaliated by sending a punitive expedition of 1000 junks to Java, but Kertanegara had already been killed by a vassal in Kediri before the Yuan force arrived. His son-in-law Raden Wijaya replaced Kertanegara as leader and allied himself with the arriving Mongol army. With their help Raden Wijaya was able to defeat the Kediri forces, and then betrayed the Mongols so that they fled back to China. The village founded by Raden Wijaya became the Majapahit empire. This was the first empire to unite all of Indonesia's major islands, and Javanese pencak silat reached its technical zenith during this period. In Majapahit, pencak silat became the specialised property of the nobility and its advanced secrets were hidden from commoners.[1] For example, Merpati Putih is said to have been kept secret in the palaces of Java until the 20th century.

Colonial era[edit]

Balinese warriors armed with kris in the 1880s

The lucrative spice trade eventually brought colonists from Europe, first the Portuguese followed by the Dutch and British. The Dutch East India Company became the dominant power and established full colonial rule in Indonesia. Local revolts and uprisings were common, but all were suppressed by the Dutch armed with guns and cannons. The Dutch brought in even more Chinese workers to Indonesia, which brought a greater variety of local kuntao systems. But while the Europeans could effectively overtake and hold the cities, they found that it impossible to control the smaller villages and roads connecting them. Indonesians took advantage of this, fighting an underground war through guerilla tactics. Local weapons were recorded as being used against the Dutch, particularly knives and edged weapons such as the golok, parang, kris and klewang.

During the Dutch colonial era of the 18th and 19th century, the exploitative social and economic condition of the colony created the culture of the jago or local people's champion regarded as thugs and bandits by the colonial administration. Parallels can be seen in the jawara of Priangan, jagoan of Betawi, warok in the Ponorogo region of East Java, and the carok duelling tradition of Madura. The most infamous band of jagoan was the 19th century Si Pitung and Si Jampang, experts in Silat Betawi. Traditionally depicted as Robin Hood-like figures, they upheld justice for the common man by robbing from the rich who acquired power and status by collaborating with the colonists. The jago were despised by the Dutch authorities as criminals and thieves but were highly respected by the native Indonesians and local Chinese.

Modern Indonesia[edit]

Conflict with the European rulers provided an impetus for the proliferation of new styles of pencak silat, now founded on the platform of nationalism and the desire for freedom from colonisation. The Indonesian Pencak Silat Association (IPSI) was founded in 1948 to bring all of Indonesia's pencak silat under a single administration. The world's oldest nation-wide silat organisation, its basis is that all pencak silat is built on a common source, and that less functional styles must give way to the technically superior. IPSI has avoided the tendency of modern martial arts that gravitate towards sport. The resistance to sport has lessened over time, however, and sparring in particular has become less combative. While nominally an Indonesian organisation, many of the rules and regulations outlined by IPSI have become the de facto standard for silat competitions worldwide. Indo-Dutch Eurasians who first began practicing pencak silat in the 20th century[5] spread the art to the west in recent decades.

Today pencak silat is one of the extra-curricular activities taught in Indonesian schools and the Merpati Putih system is the standard unarmed martial art of the Indonesian National Armed Forces.[10] It is included as a combat sport in local, national and international athletic events such as the SEA Games and Indonesia's National Sports Week. Since 2012, the Pencak Malioboro Festival has been held annually and features demonstrations by the biggest silat schools in Indonesia.

Styles and schools[edit]

Further information: Styles of silat
Silat Minangkabau or silek from West Sumatra

Over 150 styles of pencak silat are recognised in Indonesia,[11] although the actual number of existing systems is well beyond that. Older methods are typically identified with specific ethno-cultural groups or particular regions. After Indonesia's independence, pencak silat adapted itself in the context of modern sport and, in some cases, religion.[12]


The Minangkabau formed the dominant sovereignty in Sumatra and make up the majority of Sumatran pencak silat systems. These styles may be referred to as silat Minangkabau, silat padang (lit. field silat), or silek, the local pronunciation of silat. Very few systems in Indonesia have not been influenced by silek, and its techniques form the core of pencak silat throughout Sumatra. It developed as an extension of the original silat Melayu from Riau. Folklore traces this to five masters, namely Ninik Datuak Suri Dirajo from Padang Panjang, Kambiang Utan from Cambodia, Harimau Campo from Champa, Kuciang Siam from Siam and Anjiang Mualim from Gujarat.[13][14] Traditional Minang custom is based around the clan-based matrilineal society, so silek was commonly practiced by women. Silat Minangkabau is characterised by its low stances and reliance on kicks and leg tactics. The low stance is said to have developed to offset the chance of falling on slippery or wet ground. Hand and arm movements are fast, honed through an exercise in which the exponent stands across from a partner tossing sharpened sticks or knives. The exponent must redirect the sticks or knives and send them back at the thrower, using their hands and a minimum of movements with the rest of the body. IPSI recognises Silek Tuo (old silek), Silek Harimau (tiger silek) and Silek Buaya (crocodile silek) as among the oldest pencak silat in existence. Silek Harimau, also known as Silek Kuciang or cat silek, epitomizes the Minang techniques in that it focuses on crouching and kicking from a low position paired with rapid hand attacks. Prominent Minang weapons include the pedang (sword), tombak (spear), kris (dagger), klewang (longsword), sabit (sickle), payung (umbrella), kerambit (claw), and various types of knives.


The Sundanese pencak silat of West Java may be called silat Sunda or silat Bandung. In the Sunda language they are generically referred to as penca (dialect form of pencak), ameng, ulin or maen po (from the word main meaning "play"). Ameng is the more respectful term, while ulin and maen po are of lower speech levels. Penca is easily identified by the prefix ci. Pronounced "chi", it comes from the Sundanese word cai meaning water. IPSI recognises Cimacan (tiger style), Ciular (snake style), and Cikalong (bat style) as among the oldest existing pencak silat. Cimacan is said to have been created by a Buddhist monk. The most prominent system of West Java is penca Cimande, founded by Embah Kahir (otherwise known as Pak Kahir) in Cimande village of the Sukabumi area around 1760.[15] Several stories of its origin exist, even tying it to the older Rama Sukana legend of Sumatra. The system itself is said to have origins dating back much further than Pak Kahir, and is believed by many masters to be the original penca of West Java. The town of Cianjur - seen as the heartland of Sundanese culture - is associated with a few systems, the most prominent of them being Cikalong. Borrowing its technical base from Cimande, Cikalong was founded by Raden Jayaperbata after meditating in a cave in the Cikalong Kulon village. Penca instruction was traditionally done through apprenticeship, wherein prospective students offer to work as a servant in the master's house or a labourer in the rice fields. In exchange for working during the day, the master provides the student's meals and trains during the evening.


Pencak silat is also traditionally practiced by Betawi people of Greater Jakarta. Betawi martial art was rooted in Betawi culture of jagoan (lit. "tough guy" or "local hero") that during colonial times often went against colonial authority; despised by the Dutch as thugs and bandits, but highly respected by local pribumis as native's champion. In Betawi dialect, their style of pencak silat is called maen pukulan (lit. playing strike) which related to Sundanese maen po. Notable schools among other are Beksi and Cingkrik. Beksi is one of the most commonly practiced forms of silat in Greater Jakarta, and is distinguishable from other Betawi silat styles by its close-distance combat style and lack of offensive leg action.[16]


The Javanese pencak silat tradition were developed by several perguruan (schools). The notable school among others are Merpati Putih and Inti Ombak from Yogyakarta, and Perisai Diri from Surabaya. PPS Betako Merpati Putih stands for Perguruan Pencak Silat Beladiri Tangan Kosong Merpati Putih or "Empty Handed Pencak Silat Martial Art School of Merpati Putih". Officially eslablished in 2 April 1963 in Yogyakarta, Merpati Putih is rooted in the Javanese beliefs and philosophies based on Javanese keraton (court) tradition, and can trace its origin to the martial art tradition of the 17th century Mataram Sultanate.[17] The name in Indonesian literary means "white dove". Although Merpati Putih literary means "white dove" in Indonesian language, and the bird become the symbol of the school, the name is actually an abbreviation of a Javanese proverb: Mersudi Patitising Tindak Pusakane Titising Hening which means "Always searching for the truth with inner peace". The school also has a motto: Sumbangsihku tak berharga, namun Keikhlasanku nyata, which means "My contribution is humble, but my sincerity is real".[18]

Merpati Putih focused heavily on empty-handed self defense and tenaga dalam ("inner strength") developed through intense breathing technique trainings.[18] Although the style is very much self-defence oriented, its practitioners also participate in modern competitions and have achieved some important victories in many regional, national and international tournaments. Today, the school of Merpati Putih is one of the most widely distributed and has large numbers of practitioner in Indonesia and abroad. The school of Merpati Putih has numbers branches established in schools and universities in Indonesia to attract students to learn pencak silat as an extra curricular activity. The Merpati Putih self-defense system is also adopted and practiced by Indonesian Military.[10] Merpati Putih has established its overseas schools, in United States,[19] Japan[20] and the Netherlands.[21]


Pencak silat tradition is also developed in the Hindu-majority island of Bali. The Bakti Negara school is firmly rooted in the old Balinese Hinduism philosophy of Tri Hita Karana.[22] Bakti Negara was officially established on 31 January 1955 in Banjar Kaliungu Kaja of Denpasar, Bali by four freedom-fighters who were veterans in Indonesia's struggle for independence from the Dutch. They were Anak Agung Rai Tokir, I Bagus Made Rai Keplag, Anak Agung Meranggi and Sri Empu Dwi Tantra. The school teaches four elements: sport (physical), martial (skill), art, also mental and spirituality.[22]


Disarming a golok

Pencak silat styles and movements are as diverse as the Indonesian archipelago itself; each schools and disciplines might uses distinct styles and movements. Pencak silat employ wide ranges of movements, either as strikes (serangan) by punching (pukulan) or kicking (tendangan), to block the attack (tangkisan),[23] or as feigned attack (tipuan). Compared to other Asian martial arts, Pencak Silat seems to emphasize more on hands movements of kuncian (lit. "locking") and grappling.

Stances and steps[edit]

In Pencak Silat term, martial art stances is called kuda-kuda which relates to horse stance position, commonly found in most of Asian martial arts. Kuda-kuda is the basic stance of Pencak Silat, it was meant to provides stability and firm body position, from which the practitioner might embark on an assault or defense movement. The muscles trained to have a firm stances are feet, legs, thigh, glutes and back. Most common stance position is horse stance, while tiger stance, held the body quite low almost in crawling position. The low tiger stance is most common in Minang silek.

The stances is trained in par with steps or langkah. There are many forms of stances and steps according to its style and discipline. The basic stances such as the 8 directions steps.[24] The steps or langkah is usually trained as jurus (form) which is pre-meditated steps and movements.


Jurus or forms are pre-meditated set of steps and movements that corresponds to martial art disciplines, either as an assault or as a defense. By training the langkah and jurus, the Pencak Silat practitioner is expected to develop the agility as well as the reflexes or "body memory" of the movement, hence they could act and react correctly in any given combative situation just in a split-second. Practitioners of Pencak Silat techniques use their jurus to develop reflexes and condition their bodies for combat.[2]

The jurus is also contributed to the aesthetic aspect of Pencak Silat. The kembang (lit. "flower") is a certain hands movements performed in slow and in such graceful way that somehow resembles traditional dance. Those not aware of the combative nature of these moves, however, might think the forms were Indonesian dancing rather than the formalized conditioning for Pencak Silat techniques.[2]


In Pencak Silat, there are various punch techniques that depend on Pencak silat's origin, style and discipline.[23] The basic strikes of Pencak Silat are punch (pukulan) and kick (tendangan), and many variations in between. The punch might be performed in clasping fist or open palm, in penetrating punch or slapping strike. The sikut strikes uses elbow, while lutut or dengkul strikes uses knee. The guntingan (lit. "scissors") is a grapling method using legs grip to disable or immobile the opponent, while sapuan (lit. "sweeping") is a foot assault movement to pull down the opponent's stances and overthrown the opponent.


Block or tangkisan is also a basic movement in Pencak Silat.[23] They might named differently according to each schools and disciplines. The blocks usually uses forearms and hands, or sometimes shoulders.


Main article: Weapons of silat

Despite many Pencak Silat styles and movements seems to be a weaponless hands-based martial art, some schools might uses simple to elaborate set of weapons. Some weapons that might be used in Pencak Silat combat are:

  • Kris: A dagger, often with a wavy blade made by folding different types of metal together and then washing it in acid.
  • Kujang: Sundanese blade roughly shaped like a deer's antler.
  • Samping/Linso: Piece of silk fabric worn around the waist or shoulder, used in locking techniques and for defense against blades.
  • Toya: Rod or staff made from wood, steel or bamboo.
  • Kipas: Traditional folding fan preferably made of hardwood or iron.
  • Kerambit/Kuku Macan: A blade shaped like a tiger's claw
  • Sabit/Celurit: A sickle, commonly used in farming, cultivation and harvesting of crops.
  • Sundang: A double edge Bugis sword, often wavy-bladed
  • Rencong/Tumbuk Lada: Slightly curved Minang dagger, literally meaning "pepper crusher".
  • Tombak/Lembing: Spear or javelin made of bamboo, steel or wood that sometimes has horsehair attached near the blade.
  • Parang/Golok: Machete or broadsword, commonly used in daily tasks such as cutting through forest brush.
  • Trisula: A trident or 3-pronged spear
  • Cabang: Short-handled trident, literally meaning "branch"

International competitions[edit]

Indonesia vs. Malaysia in the Pencak Silat women's final match at the 2011 Southeast Asian Games.

The major international competition is Pencak Silat World Championship, organised by PERSILAT.[25] This competition takes place every 2 or 3 years period. More than 30 national teams competed in the latest tournament in Jakarta, 12–17 December 2010.

List of Pencak Silat World Championships[edit]

Year Host Nations Events
1982 Indonesia Jakarta, Indonesia 7
1984 Indonesia Jakarta, Indonesia 9
1986 Austria Vienna, Austria 14
1987 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 18
1988 Singapore Singapore 18
1990 Netherlands Den Haag, Netherlands 18
1992 Indonesia Jakarta, Indonesia 20
1994 Thailand Hatyai, Thailand 19
1997 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 20
2000 Indonesia Jakarta, Indonesia 20
2002 Malaysia Penang, Malaysia 19
2004 Singapore Singapore 20
2007 Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia 26
2010 Indonesia Jakarta, Indonesia 32 23
2012 Thailand Chiang Rai, Thailand  ?
2015 Thailand Phuket, Thailand 37 37

All-medal table[edit]

 Rank  Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Indonesia 12 7 16 35
2  Malaysia 9 4 8 21
3  Thailand 7 4 14 23
4  Singapore 8 3 9 20
5  Iran 4 8 5 17
6  Vietnam 3 7 7 17
7  France 3 4 6 13
8  China 2 5 9 16
9  Netherlands 2 6 11 19
10  Hong Kong 2 1 4 7
11  South Africa 1 2 4 7
12  Canada 0 4 4 8
13  United Kingdom 0 4 1 5
14  Israel 0 3 2 5
15  Brazil 0 2 1 3
Total 53 65 92 212

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d Donn F. Draeger (1992). Weapons and fighting arts of Indonesia. Rutland, Vt. : Charles E. Tuttle Co. ISBN 978-0-8048-1716-5. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Pencak Silat: Techniques and History of the Indonesian Martial Arts". Black Belt Magazine. Retrieved 6 July 2015. 
  3. ^ Howard Alexander, Quintin Chambers, Donn F. Draeger (1979). Pentjak Silat: The Indonesian Fighting Art. Tokyo, Japan : Kodansha International Ltd. 
  4. ^ Sheikh Shamsuddin (2005). The Malay Art Of Self-defense: Silat Seni Gayong. North Atlantic Books. ISBN 1-55643-562-2. 
  5. ^ a b c Het nieuws van den dag voor Nederlandsch-Indië 20-02-19
  7. ^ Sumatra-courant : nieuws- en advertentieblad 23-11-1872
  8. ^ Bataviaasch nieuwsblad 24-04-1928
  9. ^ a b "Silek Harimau Minangkabau: the True Martial Art of West Sumatra". Wonderful Indonesia. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
  10. ^ a b "KOARMATIM Siap Tarung" (in Indonesian). Tentara Nasional Indonesia. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
  11. ^ Ika Krismantari (5 December 2012). "Passing on a legacy". The Jakarta Post (Jakarta). Retrieved 4 August 2015. 
  12. ^ Uwe Patzold (2011). Self-Defense and Music in Muslim Context in West Java in Divine Inspirations: Music and Islam in Indonesia. Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-538541-0. 
  13. ^ Thesis: Seni Silat Melayu by Abd Rahman Ismail (USM 2005 matter 188)
  14. ^ Djamal, Mid. Filsafat dan Silsilah Aliran-Aliran Silat Minangkabau. Penerbit CV. Tropic - Bukittinggi.1986
  15. ^ "Cimande". Cimande France. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
  16. ^ Nathalie Abigail Budiman (1 August 2015). "Betawi pencak silat adapts to modern times". The Jakarta Post (Jakarta). Retrieved 10 August 2015. 
  17. ^ "Sejarah Merpati Putih" (in Indonesian). PPS Betako Merpati Putih, Pewaris - Pengurus Pusat. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
  18. ^ a b "Merpati Putih" (in Indonesian). PPS Betako Merpati Putih, Pewaris - Pengurus Pusat. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
  19. ^ "Welcome to MP USA". MP USA. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
  20. ^ "Merpati Putih Japan". MP Japan. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
  21. ^ "Merpati Putih Europe". MP Nederland. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
  22. ^ a b "Tentang Bakti Negara" (in Indonesian). Bakti Negara. Retrieved 10 August 2015. 
  23. ^ a b c "Pencak Silat Punch and Blocking Techniques". Retrieved 7 July 2015. 
  24. ^ "Pencak Silat Body Basics". Retrieved 7 July 2015. 
  25. ^ "International Pencak Silat Competition Regulations". PERSILAT. 2004. Retrieved 2010-12-21. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Quintin Chambers and Donn F. Draeger (1979). Javanese Silat: The Fighting Art of Perisai Diri. ISBN 0-87011-353-4. 
  • Sean Stark (2007). Pencak Silat Pertempuran: Vol. 1. Stark Publishing. ISBN 978-0-615-13968-5. 
  • Sean Stark (2007). Pencak Silat Pertempuran: Vol. 2. Stark Publishing. ISBN 978-0-615-13784-1. 
  • O'ong Maryono (2002). Pencak Silat in the Indonesian Archipelago. ISBN 9799341604. 
  • Suwanda, Herman (2006). Pencak Silat Through my eyes. Los Angeles: Empire Books. p. 97. ISBN 9781933901039. 
  • Mason, P.H. (2012) "A Barometer of Modernity: Village performances in the highlands of West Sumatra," ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies, 31(2), 79-90.

External links[edit]