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Pencil beam scans (Medical physics)
Ionizing radiation photons or x-rays (IMRT) use pencil beam scanning to precisely target a tumor. Bone scan densitometry uses a fan scan system that replaces a pencil beam system. Radiation treatment planning has pencil beam scanning as one of its modalities. mean free path is involved in IMRT planning. Also used in Monte Carlo method for photon transport. Another three sources are: Hybrid theory for photon transport in tissue which is a combination of Diffusion theory and the Monte Carlo method all using, in part, pencil beam scanning. Photon pencil beam scans are defined as crossing of two beams to a fine point.
Several charged particles devices used with Proton therapy cancer centers use pencil beam scanning. The newer proton therapy machines use a pencil beam scanning technology. This technique is also called spot scanning. The Paul Scherrer Institute was the developer of spot beam. Here is a Scripps Health (Varian Medical System) diagram. Mayo clinic (Hitachi) has a video demonstrating pencil-beam techniques.
Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy
Varian's IMPT system uses all pencil-beam controlled protons where the beam intensity can also be controlled at this small level. This can be done by going back and forth over a previously radiated area during the same radiation session. This is using the same Raster scan technique that is used in an obsolete cathode ray tube television set and other electronic applications.
- Pencil (mathematics)
- Pencil (optics)
- Radiation treatment planning
- mean free path
- Monte Carlo method for photon transport
- Hybrid theory for photon transport in tissue
- Diffusion theory
- Monte Carlo method
- Varian Medical Systems
- Blake GM, Parker JC, Buxton FM, Fogelman I (October 1993). "Dual X-ray absorptiometry: a comparison between fan beam and pencil beam scans". Br J Radiol 66 (790): 902–6. PMID 8220974.
- The Physics of Radiation Therapy.
- http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cdrh_docs/pdf10/K100766.pdf page4