Penicillium crustosum

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Penicillium crustosum
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Eurotiomycetes
Order: Eurotiales
Family: Trichocomaceae
Genus: Penicillium
P. crustosum
Binomial name
Penicillium crustosum
Thom (1930)

Penicillium expansum var. crustosum,[1]
Penicillium solitum var. crustosum,[1]
Penicillium terrestre,[1]
Penicillium aurantiogriseum var. poznaniense,[1]
Penicillium schmidtii,[1]
Penicillium pseudocasei,[1]
Penicillium farinosum[1]

Penicillium crustosum is a blue-green or blue-grey mold that can cause food spoilage, particularly of protein-rich foods such as meats and cheeses. It is identified by its complex biseriate conidiophores on which phialides produce asexual spores. It can grow at fairly low temperatures (it is a psychrophile), and in low water activity environments.[2]

Penicillium crustosum produces mycotoxins, most notoriously the neurotoxic penitrems, including the best known penitrem toxin, penitrem A,[3] and including penitrems A through G. Penitrem G has been shown to have insecticidal activity.[4] In addition, P. crustosum can produce thomitrems A and E, and roquefortine C.[5] Consumption of foods spoiled by this mold can cause transient neurological symptoms such as tremors.[6] In dogs, symptoms can include vomiting, convulsion, tremors, ataxia, and tachycardia.[7]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g MycoBank
  2. ^ Alexopolous, C.J.; Mims, Charles W.; Blackwell, M. (1996). Introductory Mycology (4th ed.). Wiley. ISBN 0-471-52229-5.
  3. ^ Kalinina SA, Jagels A, Cramer B, Geisen R, Humpf HU (2017). "Influence of Environmental Factors on the Production of Penitrems A-F by Penicillium crustosum". Toxins (Basel). 9 (7): 210. doi:10.3390/toxins9070210. PMC 5535157. PMID 28671569.
  4. ^ González MC, Lull C, Moya P, Ayala I, Primo J, Primo Yúfera E (2003). "Insecticidal activity of penitrems, including penitrem G, a new member of the family isolated from Penicillium crustosum". J. Agric. Food Chem. 51 (8): 2156–60. doi:10.1021/jf020983e. PMID 12670149.
  5. ^ Rundberget T, Skaar I, O'Brien O, Flåøyen A (2004). "Penitrem and thomitrem formation by Penicillium crustosum". Mycopathologia. 157 (3): 349–57. doi:10.1023/b:myco.0000024180.99262.b1. PMID 15180164.
  6. ^ Moldes-Anaya A, Rundberget T, Fæste CK, Eriksen GS, Bernhoft A (2012). "Neurotoxicity of Penicillium crustosum secondary metabolites: tremorgenic activity of orally administered penitrem A and thomitrem A and E in mice". Toxicon. 60 (8): 1428–35. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.10.007. PMID 23085423.
  7. ^ Eriksen GS, Jäderlund KH, Moldes-Anaya A, Schönheit J, Bernhoft A, Jaeger G, Rundberget T, Skaar I (2010). "Poisoning of dogs with tremorgenic Penicillium toxins". Med. Mycol. 48 (1): 188–96. doi:10.3109/13693780903225821. PMID 19886763.