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Penis enlargement, or male enhancement, is any technique aimed to increase the size of a human penis. Some methods aim to increase total length, others the shaft's girth, and yet others the glans size. Techniques include pills, hormones, massage, stretching, inflation, incision, injections, and implants. While some techniques are hoaxes, others may be somewhat effective, perhaps at risk of complications.
Some surgical methods have the most evidence of effectiveness, while others have fairly frequent complications, sometimes severe, including scarring that leads, after all, to penis shrinkage or erectile dysfunction. Fat injection, division of the suspensory ligament, and the injection of dermal fillers, silicone gel, or PMMA (Poly(methyl methacrylate)) have proven to be ineffective and often unsafe. Noninvasive methods have received little scientific study, and most lack scientific evidence of effectiveness, although scientific evidence supports some elongation by prolonged traction. Some quack products may improve penis erection, mistaken by consumers for penis enlargement.
Because of great risk and uncertainty, most medical professionals are generally skeptical of penile enlargement treatments that involve fat injection, dermal fillers, silicone gel, PMMA, or division of the suspensory ligament. Medical doctors do treat micropenis as a medical condition, however, usually by surgery, which can be warranted to improve urinary or sexual function. Most men seeking penis enlargement have normal-size penises, and many may experience penile dysmorphophobia by underestimating their own penis size while overestimating the average size.
There are several surgical treatments, most of which carry a risk of significant complications. Procedures by unlicensed surgeons can lead to serious complications. Risky surgical treatments include subcutaneous fat injection, division of the suspensory ligament, and the injection of dermal fillers, silicone gel, or PMMA. The American Urological Association (AUA) and the Urology Care Foundation "consider subcutaneous fat injection for increasing penile girth to be a procedure which has not been shown to be safe or efficacious. The AUA also considers the division of the suspensory ligament of the penis for increasing penile length in adults to be a procedure which has not been shown to be safe or efficacious." Dermal fillers are also not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the penis.
Penis-enlargement pills, patches, and ointments are sold online. While some products contain ingredients generally recognized as safe, others contain questionable ingredients, sometimes undisclosed. Such products are generally considered ineffective.
Physical techniques involve extension devices, hanging weights, and vacuum pressure. There is also significant overlap between techniques intended to enlarge the penis and techniques intended to achieve other, related objectives, such as reversing impotence, extending the duration of erections, or enhancing sexual climax.
Commonly called a "penis pump", a vacuum erection device, or VED, creates negative pressure that expands and thereby draws blood into the penis. Medically approved VEDs, which treat erectile dysfunction, limit maximum pressure, whereas the pumps commonly bought by consumers seeking penis enlargement can reach dangerous pressure, damaging penis tissue. To retain tumescence after breaking the device's airtight seal, one must constrict the penis' base, but constriction worn over 30 minutes can permanently damage the penis and cause erectile dysfunction. Although vacuum therapy can treat erectile dysfunction sufficiently to prevent penis deterioration and shrinkage, clinical trials have not found it effective for penis enlargement.
Performed on the halfway tumescent penis, jelqing is a manual manipulation of simultaneous squeezing and stroking the shaft from base to corona. Also called "milking", the technique has ancient Arab origins. Despite many anecdotal reports of success, medical evidence is absent. Journalists have dismissed the method as biologically implausible, or even impossible, albeit unlikely to seriously damage the penis. Still, if done excessively or harshly, jelqing could conceivably cause ruptures, scarring, disfigurement, and desensitization.
Traction is a nonsurgical method to lengthen the penis by employing devices that pull at the glans of the penis for extended periods of time. As of 2013, the majority of research investigates the use of penile traction focuses on treating the curvature and shrinkage of the penis as a result of Peyronie's disease, although some literature exists on the impact on men with short penises.
Society and culture
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2017)
In 2013 in Vietnam, many Vietnamese men attempted self penis enlargement by injecting liquid silicone into their penises, and subsequently suffered from complications such as infections, necrosis, tumors, swelling, deformities, sexual dysfunction, and were hospitalized.
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