Track gauge in the United States
|By transport mode|
|Tram · Rapid transit
Miniature · Scale model
|By size (list)|
|Change of gauge|
|Break-of-gauge · Dual gauge ·
Conversion (list) · Bogie exchange · Variable gauge
|North America · South America · Europe|
Originally, various gauges were used in the United States. Some railways, primarily in the northeast, used standard gauge; others used gauges ranging from 2 ft (610 mm) to 6 ft (1,829 mm). As a general rule, southern railroads were built to one or another broad gauge, mostly 5 ft (1,524 mm), while northern railroads that were not standard-gauge tended to be narrow-gauge. Problems began as soon as lines began to meet and in much of the north-eastern United States, standard gauge was adopted. Non-standard gauges remain in use for some municipal and regional mass transit systems not requiring interchange of equipment.
- 1 Broad gauges
- 2 Narrow gauges
- 3 Towards standardization
- 4 References
6 ft (1,829 mm) gauge
The Erie Railroad was originally 6 ft (1,829 mm) gauge.
5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) gauge
Portland gauge of 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) was used on the Grand Trunk Railway, Maine Central Railroad, and a system of connecting lines to funnel interior traffic through the port of Portland, Maine, in competition with the standard gauge railway system serving the port of Boston. The Portland Company was formed to build locomotives of this gauge for use on the local rail system. The gauge was known as "Texas gauge" while required by Texas law until 1875, and used by the New Orleans, Opelousas and Great Western Railroad (NOO&GW) until 1872, and by the Texas and New Orleans Railroad until 1876. The New England railways were similarly standard-gauged in the 1870s, but the gauge reappeared in the San Francisco Bay Area a century later where it remains in use by the expanding Bay Area Rapid Transit system.
5 ft 2 1⁄2 in (1,588 mm) gauge
5 ft (1,524 mm) gauge
In most of the southern states, the 5 ft (1,524 mm) gauge was preferred (a broad gauge which later was adopted by Russia for its new railroad and became known as Russian gauge). This configuration allowed for wider rolling stock that could more efficiently accommodate cotton bales, the most commonly transported good in the South at the time.
4 ft 10 in (1,473 mm)
Most of the original track in Ohio was built in 4 ft 10 in (1,473 mm) gauge, the "Ohio Gauge".
4 ft 8 1⁄4 in (1,429 mm) gauge
3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge
The San Francisco cable cars use the Cape Gauge of 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm), as did the Los Angeles Railway and the San Diego Electric Railway until 1898, and that gauge is still widely used in the U.S. mining industry.
3 ft (914 mm) gauge
3 ft (914 mm) gauge railways became the dominant narrow gauge throughout the United States from the Boston, Revere Beach and Lynn Railroad of Massachusetts to the Pacific Coast Railway of California. The gauge was also used by the Oahu Railway and Land Company of Hawaii and the White Pass and Yukon Route of Alaska. Heritage railroads operate portions of the formerly extensive Colorado system as the Durango and Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad and Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railroad.
2 ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge
The Angels Flight and Court Flight funicular railways of Los Angeles used 2 ft 6 in (762 mm). The gauge was also used for the Yosemite Short Line Railway, the Pacific Coast Steamship Company's horse-powered tramway near Pismo Beach, California, Michigan's Harbor Springs Railway, and several Hawaiian sugar plantation railways. This became a popular gauge for heritage railways in California, Florida, Hawaii, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Oregon, and Pennsylvania.
2 ft (610 mm) gauge
Several Maine railroads used 2 ft (610 mm) gauge following demonstration on the Billerica and Bedford Railroad in 1877. When these railroads ceased operation in the 1940s, their equipment was tranferred to the Edaville Railroad, which remains in operation as one of the oldest American heritage railroads. The gauge was also used by the Mount Gretna Narrow Gauge Railway, and by some mining railways of the Rocky Mountains. Similar 600 mm gauge equipment manufactured for the trench railways of World War I was used on United States military bases in Alabama, Georgia, Indiana, New Jersey, and Oklahoma through World War II; and sold as military surplus for earth-moving construction through the 1920s.
In the early days of rail transport in the United States, railroads tended to be built out of coastal cities into the hinterland, and systems did not connect. Each builder was free to choose its own gauge, although the availability of British-built locomotives encouraged some railroads to be built to standard gauge.
When American railroads' track extended to the point that they began to interconnect, it became clear that a single nationwide gauge would be a good idea.
Where different gauges meet, there is a "break of gauge". To overcome this issue, special compromise cars were able to run 4 ft 10 in (1,473 mm) and standard gauge track. Another application was the Ramsey Car Transfer Apparatus.
In Erie, Pennsylvania, the 6 ft (1,829 mm) Erie Railroad terminated while adjacent railroads used 4 ft 10 in (1,473 mm) gauge, also known as "Ohio gauge." This led to the Erie Gauge War in 1853-54 when the Erie mayor and citizens temporarily prevented a gauge standardization, as there would then be less trans-shipping work and through passengers would no longer have to stopover at Erie.
Pacific Railway Act of 1863
Break of gauge would prove to be a nightmare during the American Civil War (1861–1865), often hindering the Confederacy's ability to move goods efficiently over long distances. The Pacific Railway Act of March 3, 1863, specified that the federally funded transcontinental railroad was to use standard gauge and helped to further popularize it among American railroads, although the standard gauge was already in use on many other lines prior to 1863.
Pressure for standardization
Following the Civil War, trade between the South and North grew and the break of gauge became a major economic nuisance. Competitive pressures had forced all the Canadian railways to convert to standard gauge by 1880, and Illinois Central converted its south line to New Orleans to standard gauge in 1881, putting pressure on the southern railways.
Unification to standard gauge on May 31, 1886
In 1886, the southern railroads agreed to coordinate changing gauge on all their tracks. After considerable debate and planning, most of the southern rail network was converted from 5 ft (1,524 mm) gauge to 4 ft 9 in (1,448 mm) gauge, then the standard of the Pennsylvania Railroad, over two remarkable days beginning on Monday, May 31, 1886. Over a period of 36 hours, tens of thousands of workers pulled the spikes from the west rail of all the broad gauge lines in the South, moved them 3 in (76 mm) east and spiked them back in place. The new gauge was close enough that standard gauge equipment could run on it without problem. By June 1886, all major railroads in North America were using approximately the same gauge. The final conversion to true standard gauge took place gradually as track was maintained. Now, the only broad-gauge rail systems in the United States are some city transit systems.
- Holt, Jeff (1985). The Grand Trunk in New England. Railfare. ISBN 0-919130-43-7.
- HOUSTON AND TEXAS CENTRAL RAILWAY
- Hilton, George W.; Due, John Fitzgerald (1 January 2000). The Electric Interurban Railways in America. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-4014-2. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
Worst of all, not all city systems were build to the standard American and European gauge of 4'-8 1⁄2". Pittsburgh and most other Pennsylvania cities used 5'-2 1⁄2", which became known as the Pennsylvania trolley gauge. Cincinnati used 5'-2 1⁄2", Philadelphia 5'-2 1⁄4", Columbus 5'-2", Altoona 5'-3", Louisville and Camden 5'-0", Canton and Pueblo 4'-0", Denver, Tacoma, and Los Angeles 3'-6", Toronto an odd 4'-10 7⁄8", and Baltimore a vast 5'-4 1⁄2".
- Stoek, H. H.; Fleming, J. R.; Hoskin, A. J. (July 1922). A Study of Coal Mine Haulage in Illinois. Engineering Experiment Station Bulletin 132 (University of Illinois). pp. 102–103. Retrieved June 22, 2011.
- Moody, Linwood W. (1959). The Maine Two-Footers. Howell-North.
- Small, Charles S. (1982). Two-Foot Rails to the Front. Railroad Monographs.
- Dunn, Rich (1979). "Military Light Railway Locomotives of the U.S.Army". Narrow Gauge and Short Line Gazette.
- John F. Stover (1995). History of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Purdue University Press.
- Hankey, John P. (2011). "The Railroad War". Trains (Kalmbach Publishing Company) 71 (3): 24–35.
- Southern railfan