A penny is a coin (pl. pennies) or a unit of currency (pl. pence) in various countries. Borrowed from the Carolingian denarius (whence its former abbreviation d.), it is usually the smallest denomination within a currency system. Presently, it is the formal name of the British penny (abbr. p) and the informal name of the American and Irish cents (abbr. ¢ and c, respectively). It is the informal name of the cent unit of account in Australia and Canada, despite both of these countries having discontinued minting coins of such a value. The name is also used in reference to various historical currencies also derived from the Carolingian system, such as the French denier and the German pfennig. It may also be informally used to refer to any similar smallest-denomination coin, such as the euro cent or Chinese fen.
The Carolingian penny was originally a .940-fine silver coin weighing 1/240 pound. It was adopted by Offa of Mercia and other English kings and remained the principal currency in Europe over the next few centuries until repeated debasements necessitated the development of more valuable coins. The British penny remained a silver coin until the expense of the Napoleonic Wars prompted the use of base metals in 1797. Despite the decimalization of currencies in the United States and, later, throughout the British Commonwealth, the name remains in informal use.
No penny is currently formally subdivided, although farthings (¼ d.), halfpennies, and half cents have previously been minted and the mill (1/10¢) remains in use as a unit of account in some contexts.
Penny is first attested in a 1394 Scots text,[n 1] a variant of Old English peni, a development of numerous variations including pennig, penning, and pending.[n 2] The etymology of the term "penny" is uncertain, although cognates are common across almost all Germanic languages[n 3] and suggest a base *pan-, *pann-, or *pand- with the individualizing suffix -ing. Common suggestions include that it was originally *panding as a West Germanic form of Old High German pfant ("pawn" in its pawn shop sense, involving repayment of loans); *panning as a form of the West Germanic word for "frypan", presumably owing to its shape; and *ponding as a very early borrowing of Latin pondus ("pound"). Recently, it has been proposed that it may represent an early borrowing of Punic PN BʿL (Pane or Pene Baʿal, "Face of Baʿal"), an epithet of the Carthaginian fertility goddess Tanit, who was represented on nearly all Carthaginian currency.
The regular plural pennies fell out of use in England from the 16th century, except in reference to coins considered individually. It remains common in Scottish English and is standard for all senses in American English, where, however, the informal "penny" is typically only used of the coins in any case, values being expressed in "cents". The informal name for the American cent seems to have spread from New York.
In British English, prior to decimalization, values from two to eleven pence and of twenty pence are often written and spoken as a single word, as twopence, threepence, &c. (Other values were usually expressed in terms of shillings and pence or written as two words, which may or may not be hyphenated.) Where a single coin represented a number of pence, it was treated as a single noun, as a sixpence or two eightpences. In British English, divisions of a penny were added to such combinations without a conjunction, as sixpence-farthing, and such constructions were also treated as single nouns. Adjectival use of such coins used the ending -penny, as sixpenny.
The British &c. abbreviation d. derived from the Latin denarius. It has been replaced since decimalization by p, usually written without a period. From this abbreviation, it is common to speak of pennies and values in pence as "p". In North America, it is common to abbreviate cents with the currency symbol ¢. Elsewhere, it is usually written with a simple c.
Origin and history of development
The silver penny of medieval Europe was modelled on similar small silver coins from antiquity: the Greek drachma and Roman denarius. There are also archaeology exhibitions that show traces of pennies in Sweden and Norway. Researchers believe that this might be the result of Viking influence in northern Europe.
When Britain was under Roman rule, most of Britain used the Roman Empire's coin-based monetary system, but this changed soon after the Romans left. As the invading Anglo-Saxons began to settle and establish their own kingdoms, some started to make gold coins based on the old Roman designs, or designs copied from the coins used in the Frankish kingdoms. Their monetary system had a serious flaw: gold was so rare and valuable that even the smallest coins were very valuable, and thus could only be used in very large transactions, and were sometimes not available at all.
Between AD 641 and 670, there seems to have been a movement by the Anglo-Saxons to use debased coins with a lower gold content. This made the coins appear paler, decreased their value, and may have increased the number that could be made, but it did not solve the problem of value and scarcity of these coins.
Around the year 680 a new type of small silver coin appeared, which some have identified as sceattas or sceatt. Others suggest that the sceatta was a specific measurement of a precious metal.
Until the end of the 7th century, all Anglo-Saxon metal coins had been minted in gold. In Northumbria, silver pennies were minted in the name of Bishop Eadbert (consecrated between 772 and 782, died between 787 and 789), and some in the name of his brother Archbishop Egbert. This shilling is the oldest of English coins, preceding the penny.
In France, Pepin the Short minted the novus denarius ("new penny") in about 735. This was a silver coin based on the denarius, and the penny was based[clarification needed] on the novus denarius. Pepin declared that 240 pennies or pfennigs should be minted from one Carolingian pound, about 326 g (10.5 troy ounces) of silver, so a single coin contained about 1.36 g (21 grains troy) of silver. (As of September 2013, this would cost about £0.60 or 1 US dollar.)
Around 790, Charlemagne instituted a major monetary reform, introducing a new silver penny with a smaller diameter but greater weight. Surviving examples of this penny have an average weight of 1.70 grams, although some experts estimate the ideal theoretical[clarification needed] mass at 1.76 grams. The purity is variously given as 0.95 or 0.96.
The penny was introduced into England by Offa, the king of Mercia from 757 until his death in July 796, using as a model a coin first struck by Pepin the Short. Offa minted a penny made of silver which weighed 221⁄2 grains or 240 pennies weighing one Saxon pound, equal to 5,400 grains. This was later known as the Tower pound, and led to the term pennyweight.
The coinage of Offa's lifetime falls essentially into two phases: the light pennies of medium flan comparable to those of Pepin and the first decades of Charlemagne in France; and the heavier pennies struck on larger flans that date from Offa's last years and correspond in size to Charlemagne's novus denarius introduced in 793/4. But the sceat fabric survived in East Anglia under Beonna and until the mid 9th century in Northumbria, while the new-style coinages were struck not only by Offa, but also by the kings of East Anglia, Kent, and Wessex, by two archbishops of Canterbury, and even in the name of Offa's queen, Cynethryth.
In 1257, Henry III minted a gold penny which had the value of twenty silver pence. The weight and value of the silver penny steadily declined from 1300 onwards.
In 1527 the Tower pound of 5,400 grains was abolished and replaced by the Troy pound of 5,760 grains.
Halfpence and farthings became a regular part of the coinage at that time. These coins were created by cutting pennies into halves or quarters for trade purposes, a practice said to have originated in the reign of Æthelred II.
First use of copper
"The first copper coins that Matthew Boulton minted for the British government have become known as 'cartwheels', because of their large size and raised rims. His Soho Mint (created at his Soho Manufactury in 1788, in Handsworth, West Midlands, England) struck 500 short tons (450 t) of these penny and two-penny pieces in 1797, and further issued copper coins for the Government in 1799, 1806, and 1807. All together the Mint produced over £600,000 worth of official English copper coinage, as well as separate copper coins for Ireland and the Isle of Man".
The penny that was brought to the Cape Colony (in what is now South Africa) was a large coin — 36 mm in diameter, 3.3 mm thick and 1 oz (28 g) — and the twopence was correspondingly larger at 41 mm in diameter, 5 mm thick and 2 oz (57 g). On them was Britannia with a trident in her hand. The English called this coin the Cartwheel penny due to its large size and raised rim, but the Capetonians (what citizens of Cape Town, South Africa call themselves) referred to it as the Devil's Penny as they assumed that only the Devil used a trident. The coins were very unpopular due to their large weight and size.
On 6 June 1825, Lord Charles Somerset, the governor, issued a proclamation that only British Sterling would be legal tender in the Cape (South Africa colony). The new British coins (which were introduced in England in 1816), among them being the shilling, six-pence of silver, the penny, half-penny, and quarter-penny in copper, were introduced to the Cape. Later two-shilling, four-penny, and three-penny coins were added to the coinage. The size and denomination of the 1816 British coins, with the exception of the four-penny coins, were used in South Africa until 1960.
Use of bronze
In 1860 in Britain bronze pennies were introduced in place of copper ones, bronze being made of an alloy of metals, the main part is copper, alloyed with tin and a third metal that acts as a flux (anciently gold, silver, or lead, modernly nickel, silicon, manganese, aluminum, etc.); these coins were an alloy containing 95 parts of copper, 4 of tin, and 1 of zinc. The weight was also reduced: 1 lb of bronze was coined into 48 pennies, versus 1 lb of copper which was coined into 24 pennies.
The penny is among the smallest denominations of coins in circulation.
- 1⁄100 of the British pound sterling (see British one penny coin), the former Irish pound, the Gibraltar pound, the Saint Helena pound, the Falkland Islands pound, or a coin with that value: see History of the English penny.
- 1⁄240 of the British pound sterling or Irish pound before decimalisation on 15 February 1971, of the Pound Scots prior to 1707, and also the pre-decimalisation currencies of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa (1⁄12 of the shilling), or a coin of that value.
- A common colloquial name for the one-cent coin currently used in the United States and formerly used in Canada, worth 1⁄100 of the dollar: see Penny (U.S. coin), Penny (Canadian coin).
In addition, variants of the word penny, with which they share a common root, are or were the names of certain units of currency in non-English-speaking countries:
- A fening is 1⁄100 of a Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark
- A Pfennig was 1⁄100 of a German Mark and is sometimes still used by Germans as the name for the 1c coin of the Euro
- A penni was 1⁄100 of a Finnish markka
In most of the English-speaking world, the plural of "penny" is "pence" when referring to a quantity of money and "pennies" when referring to a number of coins. Thus a coin worth five times as much as one penny is worth five pence, but "five pennies" means five coins, each of which is a penny. In the US and Canada (when Canada still had them), "five pennies" also refers to five physical coins, but the value is "five cents".
When dealing with British or Irish (pound) money, amounts of the decimal "new pence" less than £1 may be suffixed with "p", as in 2p, 5p, 26p, 72p. Pre-1971 amounts of less than 1/- (one shilling) were denoted with a "d" which derived from the term "denarius", as in 2d, 6d, 10d, although terms such as "2s 6d" were perfectly acceptable.
Following decimalization, the British and Irish coins were marked "new penny" until 1982 and 1985, respectively. Irish pound decimal coinage only used "p" to designate units (possibly as this sufficed for both the English word "pence", and Irish form "pingin").
|O: Draped bust of Aethelred left. +ÆĐELRED REX ANGLOR||R: Long cross. +EADǷOLD MO CÆNT|
|Anglo-Saxon silver "Long Cross" penny of Aethelred II, moneyer Eadwold, Canterbury, c. 997–1003. The cross made cutting the coin into half-pennies or farthings (quarter-pennies) easier. (Note spelling Eadƿold in inscription, using Anglo-Saxon letter wynn in place of modern w.)|
Handling and counting penny coins makes transaction costs that may be higher than a penny. It has been claimed that for micropayments the mental arithmetic costs more than the penny. Australia and New Zealand adopted 5¢ and 10¢, respectively, as their lowest denomination, followed by Canada which adopted 5¢ as their lowest denomination in 2012.
Changes in the price of metal commodity, combined with the continual debasement of paper currencies, causes the metal value of pennies to exceed their face value. Several nations have stopped minting equivalent value coins, and efforts have been made to end the routine use of pennies in several countries, including the United States. In the UK, since 1992, one- and two-penny coins have been made from copper-plated steel (making them magnetic) instead of bronze.
To "spend a penny" in British idiom means to urinate. The etymology of the phrase is literal; some public toilets used to be coin-operated, with a pre-decimal penny being the charge levied. The first recorded charge of a penny for use of a toilet was at The Great Exhibition of 1851. Eventually, around the same time as the introduction of decimal coinage, British Rail gradually introduced better public toilets with the name Superloo and the much higher charge of 6d (21⁄2p).
Finding a penny is sometimes considered lucky and gives rise to the saying, "Find a penny, pick it up, and all the day you'll have good luck." This may be a corruption of "See a pin and pick it up, all the day you'll have good luck" and similar verses, as quoted in The Frank C. Brown collection of North Carolina folklore and other places.
The first known record of the phrase "a penny for your thoughts" is found in a 1547 collection of contemporary English language phrases compiled by John Heywood called A dialogue conteinying the nomber in effect of all the proverbes in the Englishe tongue. A possibly related idiomatic expression, "my two cents", may use the low-value denomination to figuratively devalue the speaker's opinions for the sake of irony or humility.
List of pennies
- Australia: penny (1911–1964) and cent (1966–1992)
- Canada: cent (1858–2012)
- Denmark: penning (c. 830–a. 1873)
- England: penny (c. 785–1707)
- France: denier (c. 755–1794)
- Various German states: pfennig (c. 755–2002)
- Ireland: penny, as 1/240 Irish pound (1928-1968) and as 1/100 Irish pound (1971–2000), and euro cent (1999–present)
- New Zealand: penny (1940–1967) and cent (1967–1987)
- Norway: penning (c. 1000–1873)
- Sweden: penning (c. 1150–1548)
- South Africa: penny (1923–c. 1961) and cent (1961–2002)
- Transvaal: penny (1892–1900)
- United Kingdom: penny, as 1/240 British pound (1707–1970) and as 1/100 British pound (1971–present)
- United States: cent (1793–present)
- Coins of the pound sterling
- Efforts to eliminate the penny in the United States
- History of the English penny (c. 600 – 1066)
- Legal Tender Modernization Act
- One-cent coin (disambiguation)
- Penny sizes of nails
- Smashed penny
- "He sal haf a penny til his noynsankys..."
- The Oxford English Dictionary notes two families of variants, one comprising pæning, pending, peninc, penincg, pening, peningc, and Northumbrian penning and the other peneg, pennig, pænig, penig, penug, pæni, and peni, the later of which gave rise to the modern form.
- Germanic cognates of penny include Dutch, Danish, Swedish, and Old Saxon penning and German Pfennig in reference to the coin and Icelandic peningur, Swedish pengar',' and Danish penge in reference to "money". Gothic, however, has skatts for the occurrence of "denarius" (Greek: δηνάριος, dēnários) in the New Testament.
- Slater, J. (1952), Early Scots Texts, Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press.
- "penny, n.", Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed., 2005.
- Vennemann, Theo (2013), "Ne'er-a-Face: A Note on the Etymology of Penny, with an Appendix on the Etymology of Pane", Germania Semitica, Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs, No. 259, Walter de Gruyter, pp. 467 ff.
- The New Statesman, London: Statesman Publishing, 16 December 1966, p. 896.
- Constellation, 12 March 1831, p. 133.
- Medieval European Coinage: Volume 1, the Early Middle Ages
- One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Penny". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Allen, Larry (2009). "The Encyclopedia of Money". Ghost Money. ABC-CLIO. p. 164. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- Cipolla, Carlo M. "Before the industrial revolution: European society and economy, 1000-1700" 1993 p.129
- Frassetto, Michael, "Encyclopedia of barbarian Europe: society in transformation" 2003 p. 131
- National Bank of Belgium museum Home » News » Islam and the Carolingian penny
- Medieval European Coinage: Volume 1, the Early Middle Ages, page 277
- Keary, Charles Francis. (2005). A Catalogue of English Coins in the British Museum. Anglo-Saxon Series. Volume I. Poole, Reginald Stewart, ed. pp. xxii.
- "The United States Mint Historian's Corner". The United States Mint
- Severn Internet Services - www.severninternet.co.uk. "Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery Information Centre". BMAGiC. Retrieved 2011-12-22.
- "South African History of Coins".
- "Currencyhelp.net". Currencyhelp.net. Retrieved 2011-12-22.
- Colonial Metals Co. bronze ingot and casting chart
- "TreasureRealm". TreasureRealm. Retrieved 2011-12-22.
- "Kenelks.co.uk". Kenelks.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-12-22.
- "Canada's last penny minted". CBC News.
- "Penny". Oxford English Dictionary.
- https://web.archive.org/20080612152006/http://www.mytelus.com:80/ncp_news/article.en.do?pn=canada&articleID=2897480, archived from the original on June 12, 2008, retrieved 2009-05-07 Missing or empty
- Smith, Joanna (2012-03-30). "Federal budget 2012: pennies to be withdrawn from circulation". The Star (Toronto).
- Around the Nation; Treasurer Says Zinc Penny May Save $50 Million a Year, New York Times, 1 April 1981, retrieved 2009-05-07
- Hagenbaugh, Barbara (10 May 2006), Coins cost more to make than face value, USA Today, retrieved 2009-05-07
- Lewis, Mark (5 July 2002). "Ban The Penny". Forbes. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- BBC Nation on Film - Rise and Fall of LNER Mod Cons - Engines Must Not Enter the Potato Siding: "Spend a 6d in the superloo"
- "Mother Goose's chimes, rhymes & melodies". H.B. Ashmead. c. 1861. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
- Corrado, John (11 October 2001). "What's the origin of "a penny for your thoughts"?". the Straight Dope. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- Gullbekk, Svein H. (2014), "Vestfold: A Monetary Perspective on the Viking Age", Early Medieval Monetary History: Studies in Memory of Mark Blackburn, Studies in Early Medieval Britain and Ireland, Farnham: Ashgate, p. 343.
- Copper Penny Importance – Blog post & video covering the importance of retaining copper pennies.
- The MegaPenny Project – A visualisation of what exponential numbers of pennies would look like.
- Silver Pennies – Pictures of English silver pennies from Anglo-Saxon times to the present.
- Copper Pennies – Pictures of English copper pennies from 1797 to 1860.
- US Lincoln Penny on the Planet Mars – Curiosity Rover (September 10, 2012).
- "Penny". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.