Penola, South Australia

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Penola
South Australia
Penola SA town centre.jpg
Penola town centre
Penola is located in Wattle Range Council
Penola
Penola
Coordinates 37°22′0″S 140°50′0″E / 37.36667°S 140.83333°E / -37.36667; 140.83333Coordinates: 37°22′0″S 140°50′0″E / 37.36667°S 140.83333°E / -37.36667; 140.83333
Population 1,317 (2006 census)[1]
Established 1867[2]
Postcode(s) 5277
Elevation 65 m (213 ft)
Location 388 km (241 mi) SE of Adelaide
LGA(s) Wattle Range Council
Region Limestone Coast[3]
County County of Grey[2]
State electorate(s) MacKillop
Federal Division(s) Barker
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
20.0 °C
68 °F
8.3 °C
47 °F
708.5 mm
27.9 in
Localities around Penola:
Maaoupe Coonawarra Dorodong
Monbulla Penola Dorodong
Lake Mundi
Krongart Nangwarry Lake Mundi
Footnotes Adjoining localities[2][4][5]

Penola is a town in the Australian state of South Australia located about 338 kilometres (210 mi) southeast of the state capital of Adelaide in the wine growing area known as the Coonawarra. At the 2006 census, Penola had a population of 1,317.[1]

It is known as the central location in the life of Mary MacKillop (St. Mary of the Cross), the first Australian to gain Roman Catholic sainthood,[6] who alongside Julian Tenison Woods in 1866 established the first free Catholic school[7][8] using the Woods/MacKillop Catholic education system in Australia,[9] St. Joseph's School.[10] Woods and MacKillop also established in Penola 'her' order of nuns, the Congregation of the Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart. The order, otherwise known as the 'Josephites' or 'Brown Joeys', continue to work with the poor and needy communities throughout the world today.[11]

History[edit]

The first Europeans to the area were the Austin brothers who arrived in 1840 and established a run of 109 square miles (282 km²). The first settlers were Scottish-born Alexander Cameron and his wife Margaret in January 1844 after obtaining an occupation licence. In April 1850, Cameron obtained 80 acres (0.3 km²) of freehold land (his station was on a pastoral lease) and established the private town of Panoola, later known as Penola.

By 1850, he had built the Royal Oak Hotel and was doing much business supplying liquor to the many travelers passing through to the Victoria goldfields. Penola Post Office opened around 1852.[12]

John Riddoch purchased Yallum in 1861. Riddoch grew up in poverty in the highlands of Scotland and in 1851 emigrated to try his luck on the Victoria goldfields. Within a few years he was a successful shopkeeper and wine merchant on the Geelong goldfields. He acquired 35,000 acres (142 km²) on which he ran 50,000 head of sheep.

It was Riddoch who planted the first grape vines and helped to diversify the pastoral economy of the area with an agricultural industry. In 1890, he established the Penola Fruit Growing Colony which was renamed Coonawarra in 1897.

In 2010, a strong tornado ripped through the township destroying at least four buildings and damaging many more.[13]

Heritage listings[edit]

Penola has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Penola
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 44.0
(111.2)
44.1
(111.4)
41.3
(106.3)
34.6
(94.3)
28.5
(83.3)
20.4
(68.7)
22.0
(71.6)
24.5
(76.1)
31.2
(88.2)
33.6
(92.5)
39.5
(103.1)
42.9
(109.2)
44.1
(111.4)
Average high °C (°F) 26.3
(79.3)
27.3
(81.1)
24.5
(76.1)
21.0
(69.8)
17.0
(62.6)
14.0
(57.2)
13.6
(56.5)
14.7
(58.5)
16.6
(61.9)
19.2
(66.6)
21.8
(71.2)
24.5
(76.1)
20.0
(68)
Average low °C (°F) 11.8
(53.2)
12.0
(53.6)
11.2
(52.2)
9.0
(48.2)
7.2
(45)
5.2
(41.4)
4.5
(40.1)
5.2
(41.4)
6.5
(43.7)
7.4
(45.3)
9.0
(48.2)
10.7
(51.3)
8.3
(46.9)
Record low °C (°F) 3.0
(37.4)
2.3
(36.1)
2.8
(37)
0.0
(32)
−0.5
(31.1)
−2.2
(28)
−3.2
(26.2)
−1.0
(30.2)
−0.4
(31.3)
0.1
(32.2)
0.2
(32.4)
1.3
(34.3)
−3.2
(26.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 25.2
(0.992)
20.8
(0.819)
33.2
(1.307)
52.9
(2.083)
71.2
(2.803)
81.6
(3.213)
101.9
(4.012)
91.7
(3.61)
76.6
(3.016)
61.0
(2.402)
46.3
(1.823)
40.2
(1.583)
702.6
(27.663)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2mm) 7.5 6.0 8.6 11.9 15.7 16.3 18.7 19.6 16.6 13.7 11.6 10.8 157
Source: Bureau of Meteorology[28]

Today[edit]

Stained glass window at Mary MacKillop shrine, Penola South Australia

The Mary MacKillop Interpretive Centre is located in Penola. It is within close proximity to the two State Heritage sites of Petticoat Lane and the original stone schoolhouse developed by Mary MacKillop in conjunction with Father Julian Tenison Woods in the 1800s.

Penola is in the local government area of the Wattle Range Council. It is in the state electorate of MacKillop and the federal Division of Barker.

The town has an Australian Rules football team competing in the Kowree-Naracoorte-Tatiara Football League.[29]

Penola is also the name of a high school in Melbourne, named after the South Australian town due to its link to its patron saint Mary MacKillop.

Notable people[edit]

Penola has been home to some notable and interesting people. Among them Saint Mary MacKillop, poets John Shaw Neilson and Adam Lindsay Gordon, Father J.T. Woods, William Henry Ogilvie, Sara Douglass, Michael Graham and John Riddoch.

The Antarctic explorer John Riddoch Rymill was born in Penola, named his ship Penola and later successfully farmed the Old Penola Estate.[30]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Penola (Urban Centre/Locality)". 2006 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c "Search result for " Penola (LOCB)" (Record no SA0035800) with the following layers selected - "Suburbs and Localities", "Place names (gazetteer)" "Road Labels " and "Development Plan Layers"". Property Location Browser. Government of South Australia. Retrieved 5 September 2016. 
  3. ^ "Limestone Coast SA Government region" (PDF). The Government of South Australia. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  4. ^ "West Wimmera Shire town and rural districts names and boundaries" (PDF). Locality names and boundary maps. Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, State Government of Victoria, Australia. Retrieved 5 September 2016. 
  5. ^ "Glenelg Shire town and rural districts names and boundaries" (PDF). Locality names and boundary maps. Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, State Government of Victoria, Australia. Retrieved 3 September 2016. 
  6. ^ "MacKillop to become Australia's first saint". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 19 December 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2009. 
  7. ^ "Sisters of St Joseph – Queensland Province – History". n.d. Archived from the original on 26 October 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2009. 
  8. ^ "Sisters of Saint Joseph of the Sacred Heart – South Australian Province – History". n.d. Archived from the original on 16 October 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2009. 
  9. ^ Foale, M. T. (2006). "Background to the Foundation of the Sisters of St Joseph & the Establishment of the Woods/MacKillop System of Catholic Education" (PDF). Retrieved 20 December 2009. 
  10. ^ "Mary MacKillop's Story". n.d. Retrieved 17 December 2009. 
  11. ^ "Sisters of St Joseph – About Us". n.d. Archived from the original on 3 December 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2009. 
  12. ^ Premier Postal History. "Post Office List". Retrieved 2008-04-11. 
  13. ^ "'Wicked' tornado rips through Penola". ABC News. 1 August 2010. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  14. ^ "St Andrew's Presbyterian Church". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  15. ^ "Penola Public Library and Mechanics Institute". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  16. ^ "Dwelling ('Ulva Cottage')". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  17. ^ "National Bank Penola Branch". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  18. ^ "Dwelling (former Bank of South Australia Penola Branch)". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  19. ^ "Heyward's Royal Oak Hotel". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  20. ^ "Former Penola Post Office and Dwelling". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  21. ^ "Bushman's Inn Restaurant (former Bushman's Inn)". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  22. ^ "Dwelling (former Penola Railway Station)". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  23. ^ "Dwelling - John Shaw Neilson's former cottage". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  24. ^ "Woods MacKillop Schoolhouse". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  25. ^ "Former Penola Butter & Cheese Factory". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  26. ^ "Dwelling & Shop - Sharam's Cottage (First)". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  27. ^ "Sharam's Cottage (Second)". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  28. ^ "Penola State Forest Reserve". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  29. ^ Full Points Footy. "Kowree-Naracoorte-Tatiara". Retrieved 2008-07-25. 
  30. ^ "Perennial Pastures on Old Penola Estate.". The Chronicle. Adelaide: National Library of Australia. 9 December 1954. p. 23. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Hanna, Cliff. Corartwalla: A History of Penola, the Land and Its People (Magill Publications, 2001); 382pp ISBN 0-9579652-0-6

External links[edit]