Penola Conservation Park
|Penola Conservation Park|
|Nearest town or city||Penola |
|Established||19 February 1970|
|Area||227 hectares (560 acres)|
|Managing authorities||Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources |
|Website||Penola Conservation Park|
|See also||Protected areas of South Australia|
Penola Conservation Park is a protected area located in the Australian state of South Australia in the locality of Monbulla about 329 kilometres (204 mi) south-east of the state capital of Adelaide and about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) west of the town of Penola.
The conservation park occupies land in sections 255 and 256 of the cadastral unit of the Hundred of Monbulla. It is bounded by roads on three sides - Clay Wells Road (also known as the Robe - Penola road) to the south, Searle Road to the east and Rifle Range Road to the west. A wetland called Green Swamp located in its south-west was described in 1990 as “a semi-permanent wetland of approximately 10 hectares (25 acres)” while in its south-east corner, there is a “small disused quarry.” 
It originally acquired protected area status as one of two parcels of land proclaimed as a fauna sanctuary on 19 February 1970 under the Fauna Conservation Act 1964-1965 with the other parcel being located in the Hundred of Penola. On 10 September 1970, Sections 255 and 256 in the Hundred of Monbulla were proclaimed under the National Parks Act 1966 as the Penola National Park. On 27 April 1972, it was renamed as the Penola Conservation Park upon the proclamation of the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 which repealed both of the above-mentioned acts along with other statutes concerned with conservation. The land was reported in 1990 as being previously used for grazing on the basis of the condition of the vegetation and the presence of a well at the edge of the Green Swamp. As of 2016, it covered an area of 227 hectares (560 acres).
A fine reserve preserving a range of habitat types representative of the stranded dune and swale terrain of the lower south-east of South Australia. The Park incorporates both dune and swale with associated seasonal swamp. Macropus rufogriseus, Trichosurus vulpecula, Tachylglossus aculeatus and Rattus leutreolus. The diverse avifauna is augmented by a winter influx of waterbirds.
In 1990, the conservation park was described as follows: 
…underlain by consolidated calcarenite dunes, overlain with red, weakly structured sandy soils and unconsolidated stranded dunes of bleached sands with a yellow-grey B horizon. Two large wetland areas have a marl base and black organic soils. River red gum flats have sandy, mottled-yellow duplex soil.
In 1990, the following vegetation associations were present:
- A “woodland or open woodland of brown stringybark” occupied the dunes.
- A river red gum woodland with an understorey of “annual grasses and herbs and scattered shrubs” was present on “the flats associated with the wetlands.”
- “Isolated stands” of swamp gum and rough barked manna gum were present on “the edges of the wetter areas.”
- The north-west of the conservation park which was subject to periodic inundation supported “a large area of low heath.”
- ”Water-ribbons and [Villarsia|yellow marsh flower]]” were present in the wetlands.
As of 1990, visitation consisted of use “mainly by local residents and schools groups” and “occasional” use for “bush camping.”
- "Terrestrial Protected Areas of South Australia (refer 'DETAIL' tab )". CAPAD 2016. Australian Government, Department of the Environment (DoE). 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
- "Search results for Penola Conservation Park' with the following datasets selected – 'Suburbs and Localities', 'NPW and Conservation Properties', 'Hundreds', 'Roads' and 'Gazetteer'". Location SA Map Viewer. South Australian Government. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
- Hall, Steele (19 February 1970). "FAUNA CONSERVATION ACT, 1964-1965: HUNDREDS OF MONBULLA AND PENOLA—FAUNA SANCTUARY DECLARED" (PDF). South Australian Government Gazette. South Australian Government. p. 794. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
- "Protected Areas Information System Reserve List" (PDF). Government of South Australia. 14 December 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- South Australia. Department of Environment and Planning, National Parks and Wildlife Service, South East District (October 1990), Sutherland, Andrea, ed., Small parks of the Lower South East Management Plans : South East South Australia (PDF), South Australia. Department of Environment and Planning, pp. 3, 12 and 13, ISBN 978-0-7308-0481-9
- Shard, A.J. (10 September 1970). "NATIONAL PARKS ACT, 1966: HUNDRED OF MONBULLA-—PENOLA NATIONAL PARK DECLARED" (PDF). South Australian Government Gazette. South Australian Government. p. 1103. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
- "No. 56 of 1972 (National Parks and Wildlife Act, 1972)". The South Australian Government Gazette. Government of South Australia: 660 & 701. 27 April 1972. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
- "Penola Conservation Park (Place ID 8252)". Australian Heritage Database. Department of the Environment.