Penrith and The Border (UK Parliament constituency)
|Penrith and the Border|
for the House of Commons
Boundary of Penrith and the Border in Cumbria.
Location of Cumbria within England.
|Electorate||65,234 (December 2010)"Electorate Figures - Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011.|
|Major settlements||Appleby-in-Westmorland, Brampton, Penrith and Wigton|
|Member of parliament||Rory Stewart (Conservative)|
|Number of members||One|
|Created from||Penrith & Cockermouth, North Cumberland and Workington|
|European Parliament constituency||North West England|
- 1 History
- 2 Constituency profile
- 3 Members of Parliament
- 4 Elections
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes and references
Penrith and the Border was first contested in 1950 since which it has to date been a safe Conservative seat and on rare occasions a marginal. The Conservatives came close to losing the seat in a 1983 by-election, when the former cabinet minister 'Willie' Whitelaw became the leader of the House of Lords: the by-election took place a mere seven weeks after his success in the 1983 general election. Since that year the Liberal Democrats have come second behind the Conservatives until the 2015 general election when they came fourth.
History of boundaries
1950-1983: The Urban District of Penrith, and the Rural Districts of Alston with Garrigill, Border, Penrith, and Wigton. (These districts were abolished in 1974 but the constituency boundaries remained the same.)
1983-1997: The District of Eden wards of Alston Moor, Appleby, Appleby Bongate, Askham, Brough, Crosby Ravensworth, Dacre, Eamont, Greystoke, Hartside, Hesket, Kirkby Thore, Kirkoswald, Langwathby, Lazonby, Long Marton, Lowther, Penrith East, Penrith North, Penrith South, Penrith West, Skelton, Ullswater, and Warcop, the City of Carlisle wards of Arthuret, Brampton, Burgh, Dalston, Great Corby and Geltsdale, Hayton, Irthing, Lyne, St Cuthbert Without, Stanwix Rural, and Wetheral, and the District of Allerdale wards of Aspatria, Boltons, Marsh, Silloth, Tarns, Wampool, Warnell, Waver, and Wigton.
1997-2010: The District of Eden, the City of Carlisle wards of Arthuret, Brampton, Great Corby and Geltsdale, Hayton, Irthing, Lyne, Stanwix Rural, and Wetheral, and the District of Allerdale wards of Marsh, Wampool, Warnell, and Wigton.
2010-present: The District of Eden, the City of Carlisle wards of Brampton, Great Corby and Geltsdale, Hayton, Irthing, Longtown and Rockcliffe, Lyne, and Stanwix Rural, and the District of Allerdale wards of Warnell and Wigton.
The constituency was created in 1950 by merging part of Penrith and Cockermouth with North Cumberland. It was redrawn in 1983 by taking in most of the northern part of the old Westmorland constituency and in 1997 by taking in the Kirkby Stephen and Tebay areas of the pre-1997 Westmorland and Lonsdale constituency by doing so the constiuency covered the entire district of Eden. The constituency also includes parts of Allerdale and Carlisle districts but has been losing parts of these areas to other seats at each boundary review.
Penrith and The Border is the largest constituency by area in England. Despite the name it only includes part of the English border with Scotland. The neighbouring constituency of Hexham (together with Berwick-upon-Tweed) also takes in the border area. The name stems from the fact that when the constituency was first created it consisted of the Penrith Rural and Urban Districts, the Border Rural District and also the Alston with Garrigill Rural District.
A heavily undulating, mostly farmed terrain dotted by market towns and historic villages, with wooded mountainsides and heath-covered tops, the constituency is focussed on the Eden Valley beside the Pennines and the Lake District, with the vale of the River Irthing above Carlisle. In the north towards Scotland are 8 of its 42 wards all beside or in the market town of Brampton which sits beside Hadrian's Wall.
The constituency tends to have modest incomes,2001 Census low unemploymentUnemployment claimants by constituency The Guardian and a rate of dependency on social housing lower than urban centres2011 census interactive maps
Members of Parliament
Despite its location, Penrith and the Border has been continuously represented by Scots MPs for the last sixty years. The seat was represented for nearly three decades by William Whitelaw, who served as a cabinet minister in various capacities during Conservative governments of the 1970s and 1980s and later joined the House of Lords. His successor the former Conservative Chief Whip and junior minister, David Maclean sat as MP from 1983 to 2010 when he stood down due to the state of his health; he was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in 1996. He was succeeded by Rory Stewart.
|1983 by-election||David Maclean||Conservative|
Elections in the 2010s
|Liberal Democrat||Neil Hughes|
|Liberal Democrat||Neil Hughes||3,745||8.5||-19.9|
|Liberal Democrat||Peter Thornton||12,830||28.5||+2.6|
Elections in the 2000s
|Liberal Democrat||Kenneth Walker||12,142||25.9||+4.1|
|Legalise Cannabis||Mark Gibson||549||1.2||−0.8|
|Liberal Democrat||Kenneth Walker||9,625||21.8||−4.9|
|Legalise Cannabis||Mark Gibson||870||2.0||N/A|
Elections in the 1990s
|Liberal Democrat||Kenneth Walker||13,067||26.7||−2.3|
|Liberal Democrat||Kenneth Walker||15,359||26.1||−2.6|
|Green||Robert A. Gibson||610||1.0||N/A|
|Natural Law||Ian Docker||129||0.2||N/A|
Elections in the 1980s
|Monster Raving Loony||Screaming Lord Sutch||412||1.1||N/A|
|Retired Naval Officer||Eric Morgan||150||0.4||N/A|
|Death off Roads: Freight on Rail||Helen Anscomb||72||0.2||N/A|
|Independent Socialist||John Connell||69||0.2||N/A|
|New Britain||Peter Smith||35||0.1||N/A|
Elections in the 1970s
|Labour||Joseph Norman David Weedall||9,791||24.14|
|Labour||Joseph Norman David Weedall||9,095||20.69|
Elections in the 1960s
|Labour||Kate M.A. Roberts||12,081||30.34|
|Liberal||John R. Howe||6,757||16.97|
|Labour||Kate M.A. Roberts||10,490||25.59|
Elections in the 1950s
|Labour||Bernard P. Atha||9,342||23.07|
|Liberal||Brian G. Ashmore||7,602||18.77|
|Labour Co-op||Thomas L MacDonald||9,119||23.02|
|Liberal||Frederick James Sleath||7,342||18.53|
|Independent Conservative||William Brownrigg||368||0.93|
|Liberal||Stafford Vaughan Stepney Howard||8,857||20.57|
|Independent Conservative||William Brownrigg||158||0.37|
|Conservative win (new seat)|
Notes and references
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "P" (part 2)[self-published source][better source needed]
- "General election 2017: Full list of candidates". ITV News. 12 May 2017.
- "Election Data 2015". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "Penrith & The Border". BBC News. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
- "Election Data 2010". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "Election Data 2005". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 2001". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1997". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1992". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1987". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1983". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- The Times' Guide to the House of Commons. 1955.