5-cell

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For the sequence of fifth element numbers of Pascal's triangle, see Pentatope number.
Regular 5-cell
(pentachoron)
(4-simplex)
Schlegel wireframe 5-cell.png
Schlegel diagram
(vertices and edges)
Type Convex regular 4-polytope
Schläfli symbol {3,3,3}
Coxeter diagram CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
Cells 5 {3,3} 3-simplex t0.svg
Faces 10 {3} 2-simplex t0.svg
Edges 10
Vertices 5
Vertex figure 5-cell verf.png
(tetrahedron)
Petrie polygon pentagon
Coxeter group A4, [3,3,3]
Dual Self-dual
Properties convex, isogonal, isotoxal, isohedral
Uniform index 1
Vertex figure: tetrahedron

In geometry, the 5-cell is a four-dimensional object bounded by 5 tetrahedral cells. It is also known as a C5, pentachoron, pentatope, pentahedroid,[1] or tetrahedral pyramid. It is a 4-simplex, the simplest possible convex regular 4-polytope (four-dimensional analogue of a Platonic solid), and is analogous to the tetrahedron in three dimensions and the triangle in two dimensions. The pentachoron is a four dimensional pyramid with a tetrahedral base.

The regular 5-cell is bounded by regular tetrahedra, and is one of the six regular convex 4-polytope, represented by Schläfli symbol {3,3,3}.

Alternative names[edit]

  • Pentachoron
  • 4-simplex
  • Pentatope
  • Pentahedroid (Henry Parker Manning)
  • Pen (Jonathan Bowers: for pentachoron)[2]
  • Hyperpyramid, tetrahedral pyramid

Geometry[edit]

The 5-cell is self-dual, and its vertex figure is a tetrahedron. Its maximal intersection with 3-dimensional space is the triangular prism. Its dihedral angle is cos−1(1/4), or approximately 75.52°.

Construction[edit]

The 5-cell can be constructed from a tetrahedron by adding a 5th vertex such that it is equidistant from all the other vertices of the tetrahedron. (The 5-cell is essentially a 4-dimensional pyramid with a tetrahedral base.)

The Cartesian coordinates of the vertices of an origin-centered regular 5-cell having edge length 2 are:

\left( \frac{1}{\sqrt{10}},\  \frac{1}{\sqrt{6}},\  \frac{1}{\sqrt{3}},\  \pm1\right)
\left( \frac{1}{\sqrt{10}},\  \frac{1}{\sqrt{6}},\  \frac{-2}{\sqrt{3}},\ 0   \right)
\left( \frac{1}{\sqrt{10}},\  -\sqrt{\frac{3}{2}},\ 0,\                   0   \right)
\left( -2\sqrt{\frac{2}{5}},\ 0,\                   0,\                   0   \right)

Another set of origin-centered coordinates in 4-space can be seen as a hyperpyramid with a regular tetrahedral base in 3-space, with edge length 2√2:

\left( 1,1,1,-1/\sqrt{5}  \right)
\left( 1,-1,-1,-1/\sqrt{5}  \right)
\left( -1,1,-1,-1/\sqrt{5}  \right)
\left( -1,-1,1,-1/\sqrt{5}  \right)
\left( 0,0,0,\sqrt{5}-1/\sqrt{5}  \right)

The vertices of a 4-simplex (with edge √2) can be more simply constructed on a hyperplane in 5-space, as (distinct) permutations of (0,0,0,0,1) or (0,1,1,1,1); in these positions it is a facet of, respectively, the 5-orthoplex or the rectified penteract.

Boerdijk–Coxeter helix[edit]

A 5-cell can constructed as a Boerdijk–Coxeter helix of five chained tetrahedra, folded into a 4-dimensional ring. The 10 triangle faces can be seen in a 2D net within a triangular tiling, with 6 triangles around every vertex, although folding into 4-dimensions causes edges to coincide. The purple edges represent the Petrie polygon of the 5-cell.

5-cell 5-ring net.png

Projections[edit]

The A4 Coxeter plane projects the 5-cell into a regular pentagon and pentagram.

orthographic projections
Ak
Coxeter plane
A4 A3 A2
Graph 4-simplex t0.svg 4-simplex t0 A3.svg 4-simplex t0 A2.svg
Dihedral symmetry [5] [4] [3]
Projections to 3 dimensions
Stereographic polytope 5cell.png
Stereographic projection wireframe (edge projected onto a 3-sphere)
5-cell.gif
A 3D projection of a 5-cell performing a simple rotation
Pentatope-vertex-first-small.png
The vertex-first projection of the 5-cell into 3 dimensions has a tetrahedral projection envelope. The closest vertex of the 5-cell projects to the center of the tetrahedron, as shown here in red. The farthest cell projects onto the tetrahedral envelope itself, while the other 4 cells project onto the 4 flattened tetrahedral regions surrounding the central vertex.
5cell-edge-first-small.png
The edge-first projection of the 5-cell into 3 dimensions has a triangular dipyramidal envelope. The closest edge (shown here in red) projects to the axis of the dipyramid, with the three cells surrounding it projecting to 3 tetrahedral volumes arranged around this axis at 120 degrees to each other. The remaining 2 cells project to the two halves of the dipyramid and are on the far side of the pentatope.
5cell-face-first-small.png
The face-first projection of the 5-cell into 3 dimensions also has a triangular dipyramidal envelope. The nearest face is shown here in red. The two cells that meet at this face projects to the two halves of the dipyramid. The remaining three cells are on the far side of the pentatope from the 4D viewpoint, and are culled from the image for clarity. They are arranged around the central axis of the dipyramid, just as in the edge-first projection.
5cell-cell-first-small.png
The cell-first projection of the 5-cell into 3 dimensions has a tetrahedral envelope. The nearest cell projects onto the entire envelope, and, from the 4D viewpoint, obscures the other 4 cells; hence, they are not rendered here.

Irregular 5-cell[edit]

There are many lower symmetry forms, including:

Symmetry [3,3,3]
Order 120
[3,3,1]
Order 24
[3,2,1]
Order 12
[3,1,1]
Order 6
[5]+
Order 5
Name Regular 5-cell Tetrahedral pyramid Triangular-pyramidal pyramid Pentagonal hyperdisphenoid
Schläfli symbol {3,3,3} {3,3} ∨ ( ) {3} ∨ { }
Example 5-simplex verf.png
5-simplex
vertex figure
Truncated 5-simplex verf.png
Truncated 5-simplex
vertex figure
Bitruncated 5-simplex verf.png
Bitruncated 5-simplex
vertex figure
Canitruncated 5-simplex verf.png
Cantitruncated 5-simplex
vertex figure
Omnitruncated 4-simplex honeycomb verf.png
Omnitruncated 4-simplex honeycomb
vertex figure

The tetrahedral pyramid is a special case of a 5-cell, a polyhedral pyramid, constructed as a regular tetrahedron base in a 3-space hyperplane, and an apex point above the hyperplane. The four sides of the pyramid are made of tetrahedron cells.

Many uniform 5-polytopes have tetrahedral pyramid vertex figures:

Symmetry [3,3,1], order 24
Schlegel
diagram
5-cell prism verf.png Tesseractic prism verf.png 120-cell prism verf.png Truncated 5-simplex verf.png Truncated 5-cube verf.png Truncated 24-cell honeycomb verf.png
Name
Coxeter
diagram
{ }×{3,3,3}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
{ }×{4,3,3}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
{ }×{5,3,3}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 5.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
t{3,3,3,3}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
t{4,3,3,3}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
t{3,4,3,3}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png

Other uniform 5-polytopes have irregular 5-cell vertex figures. The symmetry of a vertex figure of a uniform polytope is represented by removing the ringed nodes of the Coxeter diagram.

Symmetry [3,2,1], order 12 [3,1,1], order 6 [2+,4,1], order 8 [2,1,1], order 4
Schlegel
diagram
Bitruncated 5-simplex verf.png Bitruncated penteract verf.png Canitruncated 5-simplex verf.png Canitruncated 5-cube verf.png Bicanitruncated 5-simplex verf.png Bicanitruncated 5-cube verf.png
Name
Coxeter
diagram
t12α5
CDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
t12γ5
CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
t012α5
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
t012γ5
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
t123α5
CDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
t123γ5
CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
Symmetry [2,1,1], order 2 [2+,1,1], order 2 [ ]+, order 1
Schlegel
diagram
Runcicantitruncated 5-simplex verf.png Runcicantitruncated 5-cube verf.png Runcicantitruncated 5-orthoplex verf.png Omnitruncated 5-simplex verf.png Omnitruncated 5-cube verf.png
Name
Coxeter
diagram
t0123α5
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
t0123γ5
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
t0123β5
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png
t01234α5
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
t01234γ5
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png

Related polytopes and honeycomb[edit]

The pentachoron (5-cell) is the simplest of 9 uniform polychora constructed from the [3,3,3] Coxeter group.

Schläfli {3,3,3} t{3,3,3} r{3,3,3} rr{3,3,3} 2t{3,3,3} tr{3,3,3} t0,3{3,3,3} t0,1,3{3,3,3} t0,1,2,3{3,3,3}
Coxeter CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
Schlegel Schlegel wireframe 5-cell.png Schlegel half-solid truncated pentachoron.png Schlegel half-solid rectified 5-cell.png Schlegel half-solid cantellated 5-cell.png Schlegel half-solid bitruncated 5-cell.png Schlegel half-solid cantitruncated 5-cell.png Schlegel half-solid runcinated 5-cell.png Schlegel half-solid runcitruncated 5-cell.png Schlegel half-solid omnitruncated 5-cell.png
1k2 figures in n dimensions
Space Finite Euclidean Hyperbolic
n 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Coxeter
group
E3=A2A1 E4=A4 E5=D5 E6 E7 E8 E9 = {\tilde{E}}_{8} = E8+ E10 = {\bar{T}}_8 = E8++
Coxeter
diagram
CDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png CDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch 01l.png CDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch 01lr.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png CDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch 01lr.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png CDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch 01lr.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png CDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch 01lr.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png CDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch 01lr.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png CDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch 01lr.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png
Symmetry
(order)
[3−1,2,1] [30,2,1] [31,2,1] [[32,2,1]] [33,2,1] [34,2,1] [35,2,1] [36,2,1]
Order 12 120 192 103,680 2,903,040 696,729,600
Graph Trigonal hosohedron.png 4-simplex t0.svg Demipenteract graph ortho.svg Up 1 22 t0 E6.svg Up2 1 32 t0 E7.svg Gosset 1 42 polytope petrie.svg - -
Name 1-1,2 102 112 122 132 142 152 162
2k1 figures in n dimensions
Space Finite Euclidean Hyperbolic
n 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Coxeter
group
E3=A2A1 E4=A4 E5=D5 E6 E7 E8 E9 = {\tilde{E}}_{8} = E8+ E10 = {\bar{T}}_8 = E8++
Coxeter
diagram
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node.png CDel nodea 1.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch.png CDel nodea 1.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png CDel nodea 1.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png CDel nodea 1.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png CDel nodea 1.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png CDel nodea 1.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png CDel nodea 1.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png
Symmetry [3−1,2,1] [30,2,1] [[31,2,1]] [32,2,1] [33,2,1] [34,2,1] [35,2,1] [36,2,1]
Order 12 120 384 51,840 2,903,040 696,729,600
Graph Trigonal dihedron.png 4-simplex t0.svg 5-cube t4.svg Up 2 21 t0 E6.svg Up2 2 31 t0 E7.svg 2 41 t0 E8.svg - -
Name 2-1,1 201 211 221 231 241 251 261

It is in the sequence of regular polychora: the tesseract {4,3,3}, 120-cell {5,3,3}, of Euclidean 4-space, and hexagonal tiling honeycomb {6,3,3} of hyperbolic space. All of these have a tetrahedral vertex figure.

{p,3,3}
Space S3 H3
Form Finite Paracompact Noncompact
Name {3,3,3} {4,3,3} {5,3,3} {6,3,3} {7,3,3} {8,3,3} ... {∞,3,3}
Image Stereographic polytope 5cell.png Stereographic polytope 8cell.png Stereographic polytope 120cell faces.png H3 633 FC boundary.png Heptagonal tiling honeycomb.png
Cells
{p,3}
Tetrahedron.png
{3,3}
Hexahedron.png
{4,3}
Dodecahedron.png
{5,3}
Uniform tiling 63-t0.png
{6,3}
H2 tiling 237-1.png
{7,3}
H2 tiling 238-1.png
{8,3}
H2 tiling 23i-1.png
{∞,3}

It is similar to three regular polychora: the tesseract {4,3,3}, 600-cell {3,3,5} of Euclidean 4-space, and the order-6 tetrahedral honeycomb {3,3,6} of hyperbolic space. All of these have a tetrahedral cells.

{3,3,p}
Space S3 H3
Form Finite Paracompact Noncompact
Name {3,3,3}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
{3,3,4}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel split1.pngCDel nodes.png
{3,3,5}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 5.pngCDel node.png
{3,3,6}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch.png
{3,3,7}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 7.pngCDel node.png
{3,3,8}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 8.pngCDel node.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch.pngCDel label4.png
... {3,3,∞}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel infin.pngCDel node.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch.pngCDel labelinfin.png
Image Stereographic polytope 5cell.png Stereographic polytope 16cell.png Stereographic polytope 600cell.png H3 336 CC center.png H3 337 UHS plane at infinity.png H3 338 UHS plane at infinity.png H3 33inf UHS plane at infinity.png
Vertex
figure
5-cell verf.png
{3,3}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
16-cell verf.png
{3,4}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel split1.pngCDel nodes.png
600-cell verf.png
{3,5}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 5.pngCDel node.png
Uniform tiling 63-t2.png
{3,6}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch.png
H2 tiling 237-4.png
{3,7}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 7.pngCDel node.png
H2 tiling 238-4.png
{3,8}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 8.pngCDel node.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch.pngCDel label4.png
H2 tiling 23i-4.png
{3,∞}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel infin.pngCDel node.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch.pngCDel labelinfin.png
{3,p,3}
Space S3 H3
Form Finite Compact Paracompact Noncompact
Name {3,3,3} {3,4,3} {3,5,3} {3,6,3} {3,7,3} {3,8,3} ... {3,∞,3}
Image Stereographic polytope 5cell.png Stereographic polytope 24cell.png H3 353 CC center.png H3 363 FC boundary.png
Cells Tetrahedron.png
{3,3}
Octahedron.png
{4,3}
Icosahedron.png
{3,5}
Uniform tiling 63-t2.png
{3,6}
H2 tiling 237-4.png
{3,7}
H2 tiling 238-4.png
{3,8}
H2 tiling 23i-4.png
{3,∞}
Vertex
figure
5-cell verf.png
{3,3}
24 cell verf.png
{4,3}
Order-3 icosahedral honeycomb verf.png
{5,3}
Uniform tiling 63-t0.png
{6,3}
H2 tiling 237-1.png
{7,3}
H2 tiling 238-1.png
{8,3}
H2 tiling 23i-1.png
{∞,3}
{p,3,p}
Space S3 Euclidean H3
Form Finite Affine Compact Paracompact Noncompact
Name {3,3,3} {4,3,4} {5,3,5} {6,3,6} {7,3,7} {8,3,8}... {∞,3,∞}
Image Stereographic polytope 5cell.png Cubic honeycomb.png H3 535 CC center.png H3 636 FC boundary.png
Cells Tetrahedron.png
{3,3}
Hexahedron.png
{4,3}
Dodecahedron.png
{5,3}
Uniform tiling 63-t0.png
{6,3}
H2 tiling 237-1.png
{7,3}
H2 tiling 238-1.png
{8,3}
H2 tiling 23i-1.png
{∞,3}
Vertex
figure
5-cell verf.png
{3,3}
Cubic honeycomb verf.png
{3,4}
Order-5 dodecahedral honeycomb verf.png
{3,5}
Uniform tiling 63-t2.png
{3,6}
H2 tiling 237-4.png
{3,7}
H2 tiling 238-4.png
{3,8}
H2 tiling 23i-4.png
{3,∞}

References[edit]

  1. ^ Matila Ghyka, The geometry of Art and Life (1977), p.68
  2. ^ Category 1: Regular Polychora
  • T. Gosset: On the Regular and Semi-Regular Figures in Space of n Dimensions, Messenger of Mathematics, Macmillan, 1900
  • H.S.M. Coxeter:
    • Coxeter, Regular Polytopes, (3rd edition, 1973), Dover edition, ISBN 0-486-61480-8, p. 296, Table I (iii): Regular Polytopes, three regular polytopes in n-dimensions (n≥5)
    • H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular Polytopes, 3rd Edition, Dover New York, 1973, p. 296, Table I (iii): Regular Polytopes, three regular polytopes in n-dimensions (n≥5)
    • Kaleidoscopes: Selected Writings of H.S.M. Coxeter, edited by F. Arthur Sherk, Peter McMullen, Anthony C. Thompson, Asia Ivic Weiss, Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1995, ISBN 978-0-471-01003-6 [1]
      • (Paper 22) H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi Regular Polytopes I, [Math. Zeit. 46 (1940) 380-407, MR 2,10]
      • (Paper 23) H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes II, [Math. Zeit. 188 (1985) 559-591]
      • (Paper 24) H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes III, [Math. Zeit. 200 (1988) 3-45]
  • John H. Conway, Heidi Burgiel, Chaim Goodman-Strass, The Symmetries of Things 2008, ISBN 978-1-56881-220-5 (Chapter 26. pp. 409: Hemicubes: 1n1)
  • Norman Johnson Uniform Polytopes, Manuscript (1991)
    • N.W. Johnson: The Theory of Uniform Polytopes and Honeycombs, Ph.D. (1966)

External links[edit]