Pentafluorobenzoic acid

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Pentafluorobenzoic acid
Pentafluorobenzoic acid.svg
Pentafluorobenzoic acid-3D-balls.png
IUPAC name
2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzoic acid
Other names
perfluorobenzoic acid
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.009.115
RTECS number Drug
Molar mass 212.076 g/mol
Appearance White crystalline powder
Density 1.942 g/cm^3
Melting point 100-102
Boiling point 220
very soluble
log P 2.06
Vapor pressure 0.07 (25 C)
Acidity (pKa) 1.60
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., waterHealth code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroformReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 87 °C (189 °F; 360 K)
Related compounds
benzoic acids,
Nitrobenzoic acids
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Pentafluorobenzoic acid (PFBA) is an organofluorine compound with the formula C6F5CO2H. It is a white crystalline powder that has a high solubility in water. Its pKa of 1.48 indicates that it is a strong acid.[1]


Pentafluorobenzoic acid is prepared by treating pentafluorophenyllithium (or pentafluorophenyl Grignard reagent) with carbon dioxide. These reagents are usually prepared in situ from pentafluorobenzene and bromopentafluorobenzene.[1][2]

It arises via the reaction of perfluorotoluene with trifluoroacetic acid and antimony pentafluoride.[3]

Substitution reactions[edit]

Substitution of fluoride occurs typically at the para position. This reaction has been used to anchor the −C6F4CO2H group to surfaces. Magnesium methoxide results in ortho methoxylation. Cleavage of this ether gives tetrafluorosalicylic acid. Via similar ortho-directed reactivity, nickel complexes catalyse the defluoridation of 2 and 5 positions. Without nickel, defluoridation occurs with para-selectivity.[1]


  1. ^ a b c Prakash, G. K. S.; Hu, J. "Pentafluorobenzoic Acid" e-EROS Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, 2005. doi:10.1002/047084289X.rn00682
  2. ^ Haper, R. J.; Jr; Soloski, E. J.; Tamborski, C. (1964). "Reactions of Organometallics with Fluoroaromatic Compounds". J. Org. Chem. 29: 2385. doi:10.1021/jo01031a067.
  3. ^ Yaroslav V. Zonov, Victor M. Karpov, Vyacheslav E. Platonov "Transformation of perfluorinated benzocycloalkenes and alkylbenzenes to their carbonyl derivatives under the action of CF3COOH/SbF5" Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, 2007, vol. 128, pp. 1058-1064. doi:10.1016/j.jfluchem.2007.05.020