Pentagonal icositetrahedron

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Pentagonal icositetrahedron
Pentagonal icositetrahedron, anticlockwise twistPentagonal icositetrahedron
(Click ccw or cw for rotating models.)
Type Catalan
Conway notation gC
Coxeter diagram CDel node fh.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node fh.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node fh.png
Face polygon DU12 facets.png
irregular pentagon
Faces 24
Edges 60
Vertices 38 = 6 + 8 + 24
Face configuration V3.3.3.3.4
Dihedral angle 136° 18' 33'
Symmetry group O, ½BC3, [4,3]+, 432
Dual polyhedron snub cube
Properties convex, face-transitive, chiral
Pentagonal icositetrahedron
Net
A geometric construction of the Tribonacci constant (AC), with compass and marked ruler, according to the method described by Xerardo Neira.
3d model of a pentagonal icositetrahedron

In geometry, a pentagonal icositetrahedron or pentagonal icosikaitetrahedron[1] is a Catalan solid which is the dual of the snub cube. In crystallography it is also called a gyroid.[2][3]

It has two distinct forms, which are mirror images (or "enantiomorphs") of each other.

Construction[edit]

The pentagonal icositetrahedron can be constructed from a snub cube without taking the dual. Square pyramids are added to the six square faces of the snub cube, and triangular pyramids are added to the eight triangular faces that do not share an edge with a square. The pyramid heights are adjusted to make them coplanar with the other 24 triangular faces of the snub cube. The result is the pentagonal icositetrahedron.

Cartesian coordinates[edit]

Denote the tribonacci constant by . (See snub cube for a geometric explanation of the tribonacci constant.) Then Cartesian coordinates for the 38 vertices of a pentagonal icositetrahedron centered at the origin, are as follows:

  • the 12 even permutations of (±1, ±(2t+1), ±t2) with an even number of minus signs
  • the 12 odd permutations of (±1, ±(2t+1), ±t2) with an odd number of minus signs
  • the 6 points (±t3, 0, 0), (0, ±t3, 0) and (0, 0, ±t3)
  • the 8 points (±t2, ±t2, ±t2)

Geometry[edit]

The pentagonal faces have four angles of and one angle of . The pentagon has three short edges of unit length each, and two long edges of length . The acute angle is between the two long edges. The dihedral angle equals .

If its dual snub cube has unit edge length, its surface area and volume are:[4]

Orthogonal projections[edit]

The pentagonal icositetrahedron has three symmetry positions, two centered on vertices, and one on midedge.

Orthogonal projections
Projective
symmetry
[3] [4]+ [2]
Image Dual snub cube A2.png Dual snub cube B2.png Dual snub cube e1.png
Dual
image
Snub cube A2.png Snub cube B2.png Snub cube e1.png

Variations[edit]

Isohedral variations with the same chiral octahedral symmetry can be constructed with pentagonal faces having 3 edge lengths.

This variation shown can be constructed by adding pyramids to 6 square faces and 8 triangular faces of a snub cube such that the new triangular faces with 3 coplanar triangles merged into identical pentagon faces.

Pentagonal icositetrahedron variation0.png
Snub cube with augmented pyramids and merged faces
Pentagonal icositetrahedron variation.png
Pentagonal icositetrahedron
Pentagonal icositetrahedron variation net.png
Net

Related polyhedra and tilings[edit]

Spherical pentagonal icositetrahedron

This polyhedron is topologically related as a part of sequence of polyhedra and tilings of pentagons with face configurations (V3.3.3.3.n). (The sequence progresses into tilings the hyperbolic plane to any n.) These face-transitive figures have (n32) rotational symmetry.

n32 symmetry mutations of snub tilings: 3.3.3.3.n
Symmetry
n32
Spherical Euclidean Compact hyperbolic Paracomp.
232 332 432 532 632 732 832 ∞32
Snub
figures
Spherical trigonal antiprism.png Spherical snub tetrahedron.png Spherical snub cube.png Spherical snub dodecahedron.png Uniform tiling 63-snub.svg Snub triheptagonal tiling.svg H2-8-3-snub.svg Uniform tiling i32-snub.png
Config. 3.3.3.3.2 3.3.3.3.3 3.3.3.3.4 3.3.3.3.5 3.3.3.3.6 3.3.3.3.7 3.3.3.3.8 3.3.3.3.∞
Gyro
figures
Uniform tiling 432-t0.png Uniform tiling 532-t0.png Spherical pentagonal icositetrahedron.png Spherical pentagonal hexecontahedron.png Tiling Dual Semiregular V3-3-3-3-6 Floret Pentagonal.svg 7-3 floret pentagonal tiling.svg H2-8-3-floret.svg Order-3-infinite floret pentagonal tiling.png
Config. V3.3.3.3.2 V3.3.3.3.3 V3.3.3.3.4 V3.3.3.3.5 V3.3.3.3.6 V3.3.3.3.7 V3.3.3.3.8 V3.3.3.3.∞

The pentagonal icositetrahedron is second in a series of dual snub polyhedra and tilings with face configuration V3.3.4.3.n.

4n2 symmetry mutations of snub tilings: 3.3.4.3.n
Symmetry
4n2
Spherical Euclidean Compact hyperbolic Paracomp.
242 342 442 542 642 742 842 ∞42
Snub
figures
Spherical square antiprism.png Spherical snub cube.png Uniform tiling 44-snub.png H2-5-4-snub.svg Uniform tiling 64-snub.png Uniform tiling 74-snub.png Uniform tiling 84-snub.png Uniform tiling i42-snub.png
Config. 3.3.4.3.2 3.3.4.3.3 3.3.4.3.4 3.3.4.3.5 3.3.4.3.6 3.3.4.3.7 3.3.4.3.8 3.3.4.3.∞
Gyro
figures
Spherical tetragonal trapezohedron.png Spherical pentagonal icositetrahedron.png Tiling Dual Semiregular V3-3-4-3-4 Cairo Pentagonal.svg H2-5-4-floret.svg
Config. V3.3.4.3.2 V3.3.4.3.3 V3.3.4.3.4 V3.3.4.3.5 V3.3.4.3.6 V3.3.4.3.7 V3.3.4.3.8 V3.3.4.3.∞

The pentagonal icositetrahedron is one of a family of duals to the uniform polyhedra related to the cube and regular octahedron.

Uniform octahedral polyhedra
Symmetry: [4,3], (*432) [4,3]+
(432)
[1+,4,3] = [3,3]
(*332)
[3+,4]
(3*2)
{4,3} t{4,3} r{4,3}
r{31,1}
t{3,4}
t{31,1}
{3,4}
{31,1}
rr{4,3}
s2{3,4}
tr{4,3} sr{4,3} h{4,3}
{3,3}
h2{4,3}
t{3,3}
s{3,4}
s{31,1}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node h.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node h.png CDel node h.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png
CDel node h0.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
= CDel nodes 11.pngCDel split2.pngCDel node.png
CDel node h0.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
= CDel nodes 11.pngCDel split2.pngCDel node 1.png
CDel node h0.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
= CDel nodes.pngCDel split2.pngCDel node 1.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node h.png CDel node h1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png =
CDel nodes 10ru.pngCDel split2.pngCDel node.png or CDel nodes 01rd.pngCDel split2.pngCDel node.png
CDel node h1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png =
CDel nodes 10ru.pngCDel split2.pngCDel node 1.png or CDel nodes 01rd.pngCDel split2.pngCDel node 1.png
CDel node h.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node h0.png =
CDel node h.pngCDel split1.pngCDel nodes hh.png
Uniform polyhedron-43-t0.svg Uniform polyhedron-43-t01.svg Uniform polyhedron-43-t1.svg
Uniform polyhedron-33-t02.png
Uniform polyhedron-43-t12.svg
Uniform polyhedron-33-t012.png
Uniform polyhedron-43-t2.svg
Uniform polyhedron-33-t1.png
Uniform polyhedron-43-t02.png
Rhombicuboctahedron uniform edge coloring.png
Uniform polyhedron-43-t012.png Uniform polyhedron-43-s012.png Uniform polyhedron-33-t0.pngUniform polyhedron-33-t2.png Uniform polyhedron-33-t01.pngUniform polyhedron-33-t12.png Uniform polyhedron-43-h01.svg
Uniform polyhedron-33-s012.svg
Duals to uniform polyhedra
V43 V3.82 V(3.4)2 V4.62 V34 V3.43 V4.6.8 V34.4 V33 V3.62 V35
CDel node f1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node f1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node f1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node f1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node fh.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node fh.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node fh.png CDel node fh.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node fh.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node fh.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node fh.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png
CDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node f1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node fh.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node fh.png CDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node fh.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node fh.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node fh.png
Octahedron.jpg Triakisoctahedron.jpg Rhombicdodecahedron.jpg Tetrakishexahedron.jpg Hexahedron.jpg Deltoidalicositetrahedron.jpg Disdyakisdodecahedron.jpg Pentagonalicositetrahedronccw.jpg Tetrahedron.jpg Triakistetrahedron.jpg Dodecahedron.jpg

References[edit]

  1. ^ Conway, Symmetries of things, p.284
  2. ^ "Promorphology of Crystals I".
  3. ^ "Crystal Form, Zones, & Habit". Archived from the original on 2003-08-23.
  4. ^ Eric W. Weisstein, Pentagonal icositetrahedron (Catalan solid) at MathWorld.

External links[edit]