Pentatomomorpha

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Pentatomomorpha
Coreidae squash bug.jpg
Squash bug, Coreidae
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Suborder: Heteroptera
Infraorder: Pentatomomorpha
Superfamilies

5–7, see text

The Pentatomomorpha comprise an infraorder of insects in the true bug order Hemiptera. It unites such animals as the stink bugs (Pentatomidae), flat bugs (Aradidae), seed bugs (Lygaeidae and Rhyparochromidae), etc. They are closely related to the Cimicomorpha.[1]

Based on the fossil morphology, the common ancestor of Pentatomomorpha must be older than the fossils in the late Triassic. They play an important role in agriculture and forestry industries and they are also used as controlling agents in studies.

[2]

Systematics[edit]

Five superfamilies are usually placed in the Pentatomomorpha. The Aradoidea represent the most basal extant lineage, while the others, often united as clade Trichophora, are more modern:[3]

Among these, the Pentatomoidea seem to represent a by and large monophyletic lineage as traditionally understood, while the other three form a close-knit group and are in serious need of redelimitation.[3] The Idiostolidae are sometimes placed in the Lygaeoidea, sometimes in a distinct monotypic superfamily Idiostoloidea, for example.

The Piesmatidae, usually placed in the Lygaeoidea also, are better considered incertae sedis pending a more thorough analysis, as the most ancient member of that family is strikingly similar to some prehistoric Aradoidea; until their relationships are cleared up the recognition of another monotypic superfamily Piesmatoidea is probably somewhat premature but may eventually turn out to be the most warranted approach.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dimitri Forero (February 27, 2009). "Heteroptera. True bugs". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
  2. ^ Liu, Li, Song, Zhao, Wilson, Cai, Yingqi, Hu , Fan, Yisheng , John‐James, Wanzhi (21 March 2019). "Higher‐level phylogeny and evolutionary history of Pentatomomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences". science.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ a b "Pentatomomorpha. Flat bugs, stink bugs, seed bugs, leaf-footed bugs, scentless plant bugs, etc". Tree of Life Web Project. January 1, 1995. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
  4. ^ David A. Grimaldi & Michael S. Engel (2007). "An unusual, primitive Piesmatidae (Insecta: Heteroptera) in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (Burma)" (PDF). American Museum Novitates. 3611: 1–17. doi:10.1206/0003-0082(2008)3611[1:AUPPIH]2.0.CO;2.

External links[edit]