The compounds currently available for clinical use are:
- sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam; manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline; available in United States [through the Centers for Disease Control only] and UK), which is administered by slow intravenous injection.
- meglumine antimoniate (Glucantim; manufactured by Aventis; available in Brazil, France and Italy), which is administered by intramuscular or intravenous injection.
The pentavalent antimonials can only be given by injection: there are no oral preparations available.
In many countries, widespread resistance to antimony has meant that amphotericin or miltefosine are now used in preference.Wardha Refai, Nayani Madarasingha, Rohini Fernandopulle, Nadira Karunaweera (2016). "Non-responsiveness to standard treatment in cutaneous leishmaniasis: A case series from Sri Lanka". Tropical Parasitology. 6 (2): 156–128. doi:10.4103/2229-5070.190835.
- Lima EB, Porto C, Motta JCO, Sampaio RNR.Treatment of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. An Bras Dermatol. 2007;82(2):111-24.
- Olliaro P, Guerin P, Gerstl S (2005). "Treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis: a systematic review of clinical studies done in India, 1980–2004". Lancet Infect Dis. 5 (12): 763–774. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(05)70296-6. PMID 16310148.
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