Pentavryso, Kastoria

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From the old mill-road by the river Aliakmonas towards the town of Pentavriso

Pentavryso (Greek: Πεντάβρυσον; Bulgarian and Macedonian Slavic: Зелегоже Zelegože) is a village in the municipality of Agia Triada, in the regional unit of Kastoria, Greece. It is part of the region West Macedonia. Before 1928 and certainly since Rigas Feraios Charta the town's name was Zelegoz. There are some uncertainties as to the actual spelling of the formal name of the town. The old name changes from Zelegoze to Zelegosh or Zelegozde to Zeligozdi, according to the writer or observer. It certainly[citation needed] has a heavy influence from Turkish with some Greek and Latin meanings attached to it. It certainly[citation needed] is a composite word consisting of the word Zele (Greek Ζήλος) changed to Roman Zele, and adopted by the Turks as such, meaning "special", and not jealousy as the same does in modern Greek. The second part of the word, goz or in its variations goze, gozde or gozdi, are all Turkish (Göz) meaning "eye", "view", "outer" "look" and their synonyms. So, the old name of the town Zelegoz most probably means "Special View" or "Special Lookout/Position". This agrees with the geographical position of the town and the strategic place of its geographical and morphological place. It also agrees with the influence of the Turkish language due to the long and brutal occupation by the Osmanli Turks of the area (1385–1912). All the toponyms of the area immediately around the town are also Turkish or heavily influenced by this language. It is certain that the spelling of the name falls in dispute because the era of Turkish rule otherwise known as Ottoman occupation was too long and the extremely few records that have survived were all written in Arabic and thus all transcriptions or translations deriving from it and into Latin characters requires deep knowledge of both languages. It is beyond any doubt that the name Zelegoz has nothing to do with the Bulgarian or any Slavic language, not only because linguistically it is not possible but also because the town was always heavily occupied by a strong Ottoman garrison and the vast majority of the civilians were Turks (second only to Kastoria, and at times third after Argos Orestiko), with a small minority of Greeks.

Beyond the Ottoman occupation the town was certainly in existence according to the archaeological discoveries of the recent years. The name of the town during the Byzantine, Roman, Classical, or even prehistoric times is unknown, as yet although there are strong evidence of an important settlement in the same place throughout all these periods.

Finally, it is understood[by whom?] that the current name of the town (Πεντάβρυσον, Πεντάβρυσος, Πεντάβρυσο, Pentavryson, Pentavrisos, Pentavrysso or Pentavrysos) means "the place with plenty of water springs". And thus, the variations 'games' of both old and new names of the town continue to date, the official since 1928 being Πεντάβρυσον.


The town centre is on an altitude of 790 m. The town is sprawling from the northern slopes of a range of green and sandy hills called Tsemna. The Tsemna range has many hills of more than 900 meters tall but the most unique[citation needed] of them all is the Kinina hill (902 m) at the forefront of the range standing over Pentavrisos and overlooking the plain of Kastoria. Pentavrisos is 15 km SW from the city of Kastoria and approximately 13 km W from the town of Argos Orestiko. In the northern direction of the town and at about 1 km lies the main body of the river Aliakmon which flows eastwards, receiving waters from numerous creeks from the surrounding areas. Pentavrisos borders with the town of Ypsilon 2.5 km SE (home of some of the finest local wines and "tsipouro"), Omorfoklisia 4.5 km SW (home of Saint Georgios Byzantine church), Tsakoni 3 km NE (on the road to the manicipality's of Agia Triada centre Maniaki and the city of Kastoria) and Avgi 3 km E (home of the newly discovered prehistoric settlement, on the road to Argos Orestiko). Across from the river Aliakmon and over a modern bridge the closest towns are Kalochori 4.5 km N and Kranochori 6.5 km NW (both of these towns are linked to the main road Kastoria-Nestorio).

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Coordinates: 40°27′N 21°08′E / 40.45°N 21.14°E / 40.45; 21.14