People's Bank of China
|Headquarters||Beijing and Shanghai|
|Established||December 1, 1948|
|Central bank of||People's Republic of China|
CNY (ISO 4217)
|Interest on reserves||3.5%|
|Preceded by||Central Bank of the Republic of China|
|For other currencies named "Yuan" and their respective central banks, see Chinese Yuan.|
|People's Bank of China|
|Literal meaning||China People Bank|
|Alternative Chinese name|
|Literal meaning||People Bank|
|Second alternative Chinese name|
|Literal meaning||Central Bank|
|Zhuang||Cunghgoz Yinzminz Yinzhangz|
جۇڭگو خەلق بانكا
The People's Bank of China (PBC or PBOC, Chinese: 中国人民银行, zhongguo renmin yinhang) is the central bank of the People's Republic of China with the power to carry out monetary policy and regulate financial institutions in mainland China. The People's Bank of China has more financial assets than any single public institution, and is second only to the Federal Reserve System of the United States in terms of overall central bank assets.
The bank was established on December 1, 1948, based on the consolidation of the Huabei Bank, the Beihai Bank and the Xibei Farmer Bank. The headquarters was first located in Shijiazhuang, Hebei, and then moved to Beijing in 1949. Between 1950 and 1978 the PBC was the only bank in the People's Republic of China and was responsible for both central banking and commercial banking operations. All other banks within Mainland China such as the Bank of China were either organized as divisions of the PBC or were non-deposit taking agencies.
In the 1980s, as part of economic reform, the commercial banking functions of the PBC were split off into four independent but state-owned banks and in 1983, the State Council promulgated that the PBC would function as the central bank of China. Mr. Chen Yuan was instrumental in modernizing the bank in the early 1990s. Its central bank status was legally confirmed on March 18, 1995 by the 3rd Plenum of the 8th National People's Congress. In 1998, the PBC underwent a major restructuring. All provincial and local branches were abolished, and the PBC opened nine regional branches, whose boundaries did not correspond to local administrative boundaries. In 2003, the Standing Committee of the Tenth National People's Congress approved an amendment law for strengthening the role of PBC in the making and implementation of monetary policy for safeguarding the overall financial stability and provision of financial services.
The People's Bank of China (PBC) is the largest central bank at US$3.201 trillion.
The top management of the PBC are composed of the governor and a certain number of deputy governors. The governor of the PBC is appointed into or removed by the National People's Congress or its Standing Committee. The candidate for the governor of the PBC is nominated by the Premier of the People's Republic of China approved by the National People's Congress. When the National People's Congress is in adjournment, the Standing Committee sanctions the candidacy for the governor of the PBC. The deputy governors of the PBC are appointed to or removed from office by the Premier of the State Council.
The PBC adopts a governor responsibility system under which the governor supervises the overall work of the PBC while the deputy governors provide assistance to the governor to fulfill his or her responsibility.
The current governor is Zhou Xiaochuan:. Deputy governors of the management team include: Yi Gang, Wang Huaqing, Pan Gongsheng, Fan Yifei, Guo Qingping, Zhang Xiaohui, and Yang Ziqiang. Former top-level managers include: Ms. Hu Xiaolian, Liu Shiyu, Li Dongrong and Ms. Jin Qi.
The PBC has established 9 regional branches, one each in Tianjin, Shenyang, Shanghai, Nanjing, Jinan, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Chengdu and Xi'an, 2 operations offices in Beijing and Chongqing, 303 municipal sub-branches and 1809 county-level sub-branches.
It has 6 overseas representative offices (PBC Representative Office for America, PBC Representative Office (London) for Europe, PBC Tokyo Representative Office, PBC Frankfurt Representative Office, PBC Representative Office for Africa, Liaison Office of the PBC in the Caribbean Development Bank).
The PBC consists of 18 functional departments (bureaus) as below:
- General Administration Department
- Legal Affairs Department
- Monetary Policy Department
- Financial Market Department
- Financial Stability Bureau
- Financial Survey and Statistics Department
- Accounting and Treasury Department
- Payment System Department
- Technology Department
- Currency, Gold and Silver Bureau
- State Treasury Bureau
- International Department
- Internal Auditing Department
- Personnel Department
- Research Bureau
- Credit Information System Bureau
- Anti-Money Laundering Bureau (Security Bureau)
- Education Department of the CPC PBC Committee
The following enterprises and institutions are directly under the PBC:
- China Anti-Money Laundering Monitoring and Analysis Center
- PBC Graduate School
- China Financial Publishing House
- Financial News
- China National Clearing Center
- China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation
- China Gold Coin Incorporation
- China Financial Computerization Corporation
- China Foreign Exchange Trade System
List of Governors
|№||Name||Took office||Left office||Premier||Notes|
|1||Nan Hanchen (南汉宸)||October 1949||October 1954||Zhou Enlai|
|2||Cao Juru (曹菊如)||October 1954||October 1964||Zhou Enlai|
|3||Hu Lijiao (胡立教)||October 1964||1966||Zhou Enlai|
|4||Chen Xiyu (陈希愈)||May 1973||January 1978||Zhou Enlai
|5||Li Baohua (李葆华)||January 1978||April 1982||Hua Guofeng
|6||Lü Peijian (吕培俭)||April 1982||March 1985||Zhao Ziyang|
|7||Chen Muhua (陈慕华)(female)||March 1985||April 1988||Zhao Ziyang||State Councilor (1982–1988)|
|8||Li Guixian (李贵鲜)||April 1988||July 1993||Li Peng||State Councilor (1988–1998)|
|9||Zhu Rongji (朱镕基)||July 1993||June 1995||Li Peng||First-ranked Vice-Premier (1993–1998)|
|10||Dai Xianglong (戴相龙)||June 1995||December 2002||Li Peng
|11||Zhou Xiaochuan (周小川)||December 2002||Incumbent||Zhu Rongji
|Vice Chairman of the CPPCC
National Committee (2013–incumbent)
Previously, interest rates set by the bank were always divisible by nine, instead of by 25 as in the rest of the world. However, this is no longer applied since the central bank started changing rates by 0.25 percentage points on October 19, 2010 (which was a rate increase).
PBC latest interest rate changes
|Change date||Interest rate|
|August 25, 2015||4.600%|
|June 27, 2015||4.850%|
|May 10, 2015||5.100%|
|February 28, 2015||5.350%|
|November 21, 2014||5.600%|
|July 6, 2012||6.000%|
|June 8, 2012||6.310%|
|July 7, 2011||6.560%|
|April 6, 2011||6.310%|
|February 9, 2011||6.060%|
|December 26, 2010||5.810%|
Reserve Requirement Ratio (RRR)
PBC latest Reserve Requirement Ratio changes
|Change date||Reserve Requirement Ratio||Extra Cash for financial system|
|December 2011||20.5%||350 billion yuan ($55 billion) |
|May 2012||20.0%||400 billion yuan ($63.4 billion) |
|February 2015||19.5%||600 billion yuan ($96 billion) |
|April 2015||18.5%||1.5 trillion yuan ($240 billion) |
|August 2015||18.0%||650 billion de yuans ($101 billion)|
|Date||Foreign-exchange reserves (US$ billion)|
- Rapoza, Kenneth (October 15, 2011). "China's Cash Position Swells To Record High". BEIJING: Forbes. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
- "Exactly who is in charge here? Power has shifted from nations to companies". The Times. Archived from the original on March 2, 2009.
Consider the enormous power wielded by Wu Xaioling, who governs the foreign reserves of the People’s Bank of China. She controls an entity with more financial assets than any other single public finance institution in the history of the world.
- "All Reserve Banks, total assets.".
- "History of Bank of China", boc.cn, Retrieved 2015-11-23.
- "History", China Construction Bank webpage. Retrieved 2015-11-23.
- "Management Team", pbc.gov.cn, November 23, 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-23.
- The People's Bank of China. "Management and Organizational Structure". Retrieved May 29, 2012.
- The People's Bank of China. "Enterprises and Institutions directly under the PBC". Retrieved May 29, 2012.
- "AFI members". AFI Global. October 10, 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-23.
- "Calendar, Abacus Help Determine Size of Chinese Rate Increases". Bloomberg. May 18, 2007.
- Viewpoint: The "divisible by nine" rule
- "PBC base interest rate - Chinese central bank’s interest rate", global-rates.com. Retrieved 2015-11-23.
- "china-cuts-reserve-requirement-for-banks-as-europe-crisis-threatens-growth", bloomberg.com, November 30, 2011.
- "china-cuts-banks-reserve-requirements-to-sustain-growth", bloomberg.com, May 12, 2012.
- "china-cuts-reserve-requirement-ratio", wsj.com.
- "economists-react-chinas-aggressive-cut-in-banks-reserve-requirement-ratio", blogs.wsj.com, April 20, 2015.
- "CNGFOREX:IND", bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2015-11-23.
- "China's foreign exchange reserves, 1977-2014", chinability.com, Retrieved 2015-11-23.
- Stephen Bell and Hui Feng. The Rise of the People's Bank of China: The Politics of Institutional Change (Harvard University Press; 2013) 384 pages; Recent history; uses interviews with key figures
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to People's Bank of China.|
- China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation
- Renminbi, the Chinese national currency
- Bank of China, state-owned commercial bank
- Hong Kong Monetary Authority
- Monetary Authority of Macao
- Central Bank of Taiwan
- People's Bank of China official website