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Bangladesh

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This article is about the People's Republic of Bangladesh. For other uses, see Bangladesh (disambiguation).
People's Republic of Bangladesh
  • গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ
  • Gônôprôjatôntri Bangladesh  (Bengali)
Flag Emblem
Anthem: "Amar Sonar Bangla"
"My Golden Bengal"

March: "Notuner Gaan"
"The Song of Youth"[1]
Capital
and largest city
Dhaka
23°42′N 90°21′E / 23.700°N 90.350°E / 23.700; 90.350
Official languages Bengali[a]
Other languages English[b]
Ethnic groups (2014[3])
Religion Islam [c]
Demonym Bangladeshi
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic
 -  President Abdul Hamid
 -  Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina
 -  Speaker of the House Shirin Sharmin Chaudhury
 -  Chief Justice Surendra Kumar Sinha
Legislature Jatiyo Sangshad
Formation
 -  Partition of India 15 August 1947 
 -  Declaration of Independence 26 March 1971 
 -  Liberation of Bangladesh 16 December 1971 
 -  Constitution 4 November 1972 
Area
 -  Total 147,570 km2 (94th)
56,977 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 6.4
Population
 -  March 2013 estimate 156,594,962[5] (8th)
 -  Density 1,033.5/km2 (12th)
2,676.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $572.440 billion[6] (34th)
 -  Per capita $3,581[6] (144th)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $205.327 billion[6] (44th)
 -  Per capita $1,284[6] (155th)
Gini (2010) 32.1[7]
medium
HDI (2013) Increase 0.558[8]
medium · 142nd
Currency Taka () (BDT)
Time zone BST (UTC+6)
Date format
  • dd-mm-yyyy
  • BS দদ-মম-বববব (CE−594)
Drives on the left
Calling code +880
ISO 3166 code BD
Internet TLD .bd
.বাংলা

Bangladesh (/bɑːŋlɑːdɛʃ/; Listeni/ˌbæŋɡləˈdæʃ/; বাংলাদেশ, pronounced: [ˈbaŋlad̪eʃ], lit. "The land of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ Gônôprôjatôntri Bangladesh), is a country in South Asia. It is bordered by India to its west, north and east; Burma to its southeast; and is separated from Nepal and Bhutan by the Chicken’s Neck corridor. To its south, it faces the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh is the world's eighth-most populous country, with over 160 million people. It is among the most densely populated countries and is by far the most densely populated of any country, with a population exceeding 10 million. It forms part of the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal, along with the neighbouring Indian states of West Bengal and Tripura.

The present-day borders of Bangladesh took shape during the Partition of Bengal and the British India in 1947, when the region came to be known as East Pakistan, as a part of the newly formed state of Pakistan. It was separated from West Pakistan by 1,400 kilometres (870 mi) of Indian territory. Because of political exclusion, ethnic and linguistic discrimination and economic neglect by the politically dominant western wing, nationalism, popular agitation and civil disobedience led to the Bangladesh Liberation War and independence in 1971. After independence, the new state endured poverty, famine, political turmoil and military coups. The restoration of democracy in 1991 has been followed by relative calm and economic progress. In 2014, the Bangladeshi general election was boycotted by major opposition parties, resulting in a parliament and government dominated by the Awami League and its smaller coalition partners.

Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary republic with an elected parliament called the Jatiyo Sangshad. The native Bengalis form the country's largest ethnic group, along with indigenous peoples in northern and southeastern districts. Geographically, the country is dominated by the fertile Bengal delta, the world's largest delta. This also gives Bangladesh a unique name tag as "the land of rivers". Bangladesh has a rich heritage of ancient civilization.[9][10]Bangladesh's documented history spans 4,000 years.[11][12] Bangladesh human history has lasted for more than 20,000 years.[13]

Bangladesh is a Next Eleven emerging economy. It has achieved significant strides in human and social development since independence, including progress in gender equity, universal primary education, food production, health, and population control.[14][15][16] However, Bangladesh continues to face numerous political, economic, social and environmental challenges, including political instability, corruption, poverty, overpopulation, and global warming.

The country is a founding member of SAARC, the Developing 8 Countries and BIMSTEC. It contributes one of the largest peacekeeping forces to the United Nations. It is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation and the Non-Aligned Movement.

Etymology

While the word "Bengali" is generally used to refer to people of ethnic Bengali descent in Bangladesh including those living in India and other countries, the demonym "Bangladeshi" is used to describe all citizens of Bangladesh, including non-Bengalis. The origin of the name Bengal (known as Bangla and Bongo in Bengali language) is unknown. One theory suggests that the word derives from "Bang", a Dravidian tribe that settled the region around 1000 BC.[17] The word might have been derived from the ancient kingdom of Vanga (or Banga), which came from the Austric word "Bonga" meaning the Sun-god.[18] The Indo-Aryan suffix "(-desh)" is derived from the Sanskrit word deśha- ("region, province, country") (see Desi) means "land" or "country" in Bengali language, so Bangladesh means "The land of Bengal".

The earliest reference to "Vangala" (Bangla) has been traced in the Nesari plates (805 AD) of Rashtrakuta Govinda III which speak of Dharmapala as the king of Vangala. The records of Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty, who invaded Bengal in the 11th century, speak of Govindachandra as the ruler of Vangaladesa.[19][20][21]

History

Main article: History of Bangladesh

Antiquity

Neolithic fossils and tools discovered in Chittagong District indicate Stone Age settlements in the Bengal region during the third millennium BCE.[22] Bengal was settled by Austroasiatic, Dravidian, Indo-Aryan and Tibeto-Burman people during antiquity.[23][24] The Bengal delta was known to the Greek and Roman world as Gangaridai and was chronicled by the invasion army of Alexander the Great in 325 BCE.[25][26] The Wari-Bateshwar ruins are the earliest urban archaeological site in Bangladesh and enjoyed trade links with the Roman Empire and Southeast Asia.[27] The early history of Bengal featured a succession of city-states, maritime kingdoms and pan-Indian empires. The Buddhist Samatata kingdom emerged in east Bengal after 232 BCE. The Mauryan and Gupta empires ruled much of the region between 200BCE-550CE. The Pundravardhana region encompassed much of northwestern Bengal. The Harikela state ruled the northeast and coastal areas. The Hindu leader Shashanka founded the Gauda kingdom in the 7th century. The Buddhist Candra dynasty rose to power in the southeast. Bangladesh history can go back to 100,000 years as Bangladesh has highly rich history [28] After a period of civil war, the Bengali Buddhist Pala Empire was established circa 750 CE.[25] Its rulers were followers of the Mahayana school of Buddhism. The Palas ushered an age of stability and imperialism. They patronized many universities and temples.[29] Pala sculpture and painting are considered among the most finest of ancient Asian art.[29] The cultural and architectural influence of the empire traveled to Tibet and Southeast Asia.[30] The Pala dynasty ruled for four hundred years, reaching its peak under Dharmapala and Devapala. The resurgence of Brahmanical Hinduism brought the Sena and Deva dynasties to power. The Senas consolidated the caste system in Bengal.[31] They ruled for more than 150 years.[25]

Mahasthangarh is the oldest archaeological site in Bangladesh. It dates back to 700 BCE and was the ancient capital of the Pundra Kingdom.
Asia in 323 BC, the Gangaridai Empire in relation to the Nanda Empire, Alexander's Empire and neighbours.
The Somapura Mahavihara, once the largest Buddhist vihara in South Asia, built by Emperor Dharmapala of Bengal.

Islamic Bengal

The Mughal conquest of Bengal in Akbarnama
The Sultanate of Bengal during the reign of Alauddin Hussain Shah in 1500
The Sixty Dome Mosque, a UNESCO World Heritage Site

The excavation of Abbasid Caliphate coins in Bangladeshi archaeological sites indicate trade and political relations between the Pala Empire and the Islamic Middle East.[32] Sufism played an instrumental role in the spread of Islam in Bengal. The Muslim conquest of Bengal began in the early 13th century and was a turning point in Bengali history.[33] The achievements of previous civilizations were, however, not lost, but to a great extent, absorbed into the new Islamic polity, culture and civilization. Bakhtiar Khilji of the Delhi Sultanate defeated Lakhsman Sena of the Sena dynasty in 1204. The Mamluks, Khiljis and Tughluqs ruled the region for more than a century. Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah founded the city of Sonargaon in 1328. The Sultanate of Bengal was proclaimed in 1342.[34] The Ilyas Shahi dynasty ruled Bengal for 123 years. The sultanate was a regional power in Asia and enjoyed links with Ming China, Persia, Hejaz, Indonesia and the Ottoman Empire.[35][36] The House of Raja Ganesha converted to Islam and reingned between 1415 and 1435. The second stint of Ilyas Shahi rule ended in a palace coup by Abyssinian generals in 1487.[34] The Hussain Shahi dynasty gained power in 1494, when Alauddin Hussain Shah, the son of the Sharif of Mecca, became the Sultan of Bengal.[37] Alauddin ushered an age of prosperity and cultural pluralism. His royal court and governors were major patrons of literature and the arts. The sultanate expanded its territory to include Arakan as a dominion.[38] Bengal's trade links on the Indian Ocean were strengthened.[39][40] Its royal court received numerous world explorers, including Ibn Battuta, Niccolo De Conti, Ralph Fitch and Admiral Zheng He.[41][42]

From 1517 onwards, Portuguese traders from Malacca and Goa were traversing the sea routes to Bengal. In 1528 they were permitted to open factories and customs houses in Chittagong, which grew into the settlement of Porto Grande. Sher Shah Suri conquered Bengal in 1538. He developed the Grand Trunk Road from Kabul to Chittagong. The Sur dynasty was replaced by the Afghan Karranis in 1564. The decline of the Bengal Sultanate increased the power of the aristocracy, giving rise to the Baro-Bhuyan landlords. Led by Isa Khan, the Baro-Bhuyans controlled much of eastern Bengal in the late 16th-century. They put up stiff resistance to the expansion of the Mughals, the Ahom kingdom and the Koch dynasty. The Kingdom of Mrauk U was formed in 1530 and placed Chittagong under Arakanese rule. Mrauk U was a focal point for medieval Bengali literary activities, as the royal court of Arakan became a haven for Muslim writers and bureaucrats.[43]

The Mughal Empire controlled Bengal at the end of the 16th century. Dhaka was renamed as Jahangir Nagar and became an important Mughal administrative centre. The Mughals promoted agrarian reform.[33] During the reign of Akbar, the Bengali calendar was modified in line with the Islamic hijri. The region witnessed a boom in manufacturing and agriculture, as exports grew and integration into the world economy increased. Shaista Khan defeated the Arakanese and retook Chittagong in 1666.[33] The decline of Mughal power in the 18th-century led to the formation of the Principality of Bengal. The Nawabs of Bengal presided over a period of increasing influence from European traders. Bengal was probably the wealthiest part of the subcontinent until the 18th century.

British rule

Main article: British Raj
British rule began with Robert Clive's victory at the Battle of Plassey in 1757

The British East India Company gained control of Bengal after defeating its last independent Nawab at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. Company rule saw the formation of the Bengal Presidency. The company instituted the Permanent Settlement in 1793. At its peak, the presidency's jurisdiction included large parts of North India, Burma and the Malacca Straits. The mutiny of 1857 resulted in the transfer of authority directly to the British crown under a viceregal government.[44] After the foundation of the British Indian Empire, Bengal was still under the heavy influence of British culture, including architecture, education and art. The region was a hotbed of revolutionary and anti-colonial movements to overthrow the British Empire. Between 1905 and 1911, an abortive partition created the short lived province of Eastern Bengal and Assam.[45]

The 1937 elections ushered the first democratically elected government in the region. A. K. Fazlul Huq of the Krishak Praja Party became the first elected Premier of British Bengal. The Lahore Resolution was adopted in 1942. It called for the creation of independent states in eastern and northwestern British India. The Muslim League formed a coalition government in 1943, with Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin as premier.

During the Second World War, the Japanese Air Force conducted air raids in Chittagong.[46][47] Allied forces were stationed in bases across the region in support of the Burma Campaign. After the war, the British government began plans for a quick exit from the subcontinent. Negotiations between political parties, principally the Muslim League and the Congress, led to the partition plan of 1947, despite a proposal for a United Bengal, mooted by the liberal democratic Prime Minister of Bengal H. S. Suhrawardy.[48] Famine struck Bengal several times during British rule, including in 1770 and 1943.[49]

East Pakistan

Following the exit of the British Empire in 1947, Bengal was partitioned along religious lines, with the western part going to newly created India and the eastern part (Muslim majority) joining Pakistan as a province called East Bengal (later renamed East Pakistan), with Dhaka as its capital.[50]

The Bengali Language Movement catalysed the assertion of Bengali national identity in East Bengal and later East Pakistan.

In 1950, land reform was accomplished in East Bengal with the abolishment of the feudal zamindari system.[51] Despite the economic and demographic weight of the east, Pakistan's government and military were largely dominated by the upper classes from the west. The Bengali Language Movement of 1952 was the first sign of friction between the two wings of Pakistan.[52] Dissatisfaction with the central government over economic and cultural issues continued to rise through the next decade, during which the Awami League emerged as the political voice of the Bengali-speaking population. It agitated for autonomy in the 1960s, and in 1966, its president, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Mujib), was jailed; he was released in 1969 after an unprecedented popular uprising. In 1970, a massive cyclone devastated the coast of East Pakistan, killing up to half a million people,[53] and the central government's response was seen as poor. The anger of the Bengali population was compounded when Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, whose Awami League had won a majority in Parliament in the 1970 elections,[54] was blocked from taking office. After staging compromise talks with Mujibur Rahman, President Yahya Khan and military officials launched Operation Searchlight,[55] a sustained military assault on East Pakistan, and arrested Mujibur Rahman in the early hours of 26 March 1971. Yahya's methods were extremely bloody, and the violence of the war resulted in many civilian deaths.[56] Yahya's chief targets included intellectuals and Hindus, and about one million refugees fled to neighbouring India.[57] Estimates of those massacred throughout the war range from thirty thousand to three million.[58] Mujibur Rahman was ultimately released on 8 January 1972.[59]

Awami League leaders set up a government-in-exile in Calcutta, India. The exile government formally took oath at Meherpur, in the Kustia district of East Pakistan, on 17 April 1971, with Tajuddin Ahmad as the first Prime Minister and Syed Nazrul Islam as the Acting President. The Bangladesh Liberation War lasted for nine months. A resistance force known as the Mukti Bahini was formed from the Bangladesh Forces (consisting of Bengali regular forces) in alliance with civilian fighters such as the Kader Bahini and the Hemayet Bahini. Led by General M. A. G. Osmani, the Bangladesh Forces were organized into eleven sectors and, as part of Mukti Bahini, conducted a massive guerrilla war against the Pakistan Forces. The war witnessed the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, in which the Pakistan Army and its allied religious militias carried out a wide-scale elimination of Bengali civilians, intellectuals, youth, students, politicians, activists and religious minorities. By winter, Bangladesh-India Allied Forces defeated the Pakistan Army, culminating in its surrender and the Liberation of Dhaka on 16 December 1971.

Bangladesh

Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman signs the Constitution of Bangladesh into law on 16 December 1972

After independence, the Constitution of Bangladesh established a unitary secular multiparty parliamentary democratic system. The Awami League won the first general elections in 1973 with a massive mandate, gaining an absolute parliamentary majority. A nationwide famine occurred during 1973 and 1974,[49] and in early 1975, Mujib initiated a one-party socialist rule with his newly formed BAKSAL. On 15 August 1975, Mujib and most of his family members were assassinated by mid-level military officers.[60] Vice President Khandaker Mushtaq Ahmed was sworn in as President with most of Mujib's cabinet intact. Two Army uprisings on 3 and 7 November 1975 led to a reorganised structure of power. A state of emergency was declared to restore order and calm. Mushtaq resigned, and the country was placed under temporary martial law, with three service chiefs serving as deputies to the new president, Justice Abu Sayem, who also became the Chief Martial Law Administrator. Lieutenant General Ziaur Rahman took over the presidency in 1977 when Justice Sayem resigned. President Zia reinstated multi-party politics, introduced free markets, and founded the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP). Zia's rule ended when he was assassinated by elements of the military in 1981.[60] Bangladesh's next major ruler was Lieutenant General Hossain Mohammad Ershad, who gained power in a coup on 24 March 1982, and ruled until 6 December 1990, when he was forced to resign after a revolt of all major political parties and the public, along with pressure from Western donors (which was a major shift in international policy after the fall of the Soviet Union).

Lt General Ziaur Rahman served as President (1977–1981) and CMLA (1977–1979)

Since then, Bangladesh has reverted to a parliamentary democracy. Zia's widow, Khaleda Zia, led the Bangladesh Nationalist Party to parliamentary victory at the general election in 1991 and became the first female Prime Minister in Bangladeshi history. However, the Awami League, headed by Sheikh Hasina, one of Mujib's surviving daughters, won the next election in 1996. The Awami League lost again to the Bangladesh Nationalist Party in 2001. Widespread political unrest followed the resignation of the BNP in late October 2006, but the caretaker government worked to bring the parties to election within the required ninety days. At the last minute in early January, the Awami League withdrew from the election scheduled for later that month. On 11 January 2007, the military intervened to support both a state of emergency and a continuing but neutral caretaker government under a newly appointed Chief Advisor, who was not a politician. The country had suffered for decades from extensive corruption,[61] disorder, and political violence. The caretaker government worked to root out corruption from all levels of government. It arrested on corruption charges more than 160 people, including politicians, civil servants, and businessmen, among whom were both major party leaders, some of their senior staff, and two sons of Khaleda Zia.

After working to clean up the system, the caretaker government held what was described by observers as a largely free and fair election on 29 December 2008.[62] The Awami League's Sheikh Hasina won with a two-thirds landslide in the elections; she took the oath of Prime Minister on 6 January 2009.[63]

Geography

Satellite image of Bangladesh from space, including Ganges Delta, the world's largest delta with its three distributaries- Padma, Meghna and Jamuna

The geography of Bangladesh is divided between three regions. Most of the country is dominated by the fertile Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. The northwest and central parts of the country are formed by the Madhupur and the Barind plateaus. The northeast and southeast are home to evergreen hill ranges. The Ganges delta is formed by the confluence of the Ganges (local name Padma or Pôdda), Brahmaputra (Jamuna or Jomuna), and Meghna rivers and their respective tributaries. The Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna, finally flowing into the Bay of Bengal. The alluvial soil deposited by the rivers when they overflow their banks has created some of the most fertile plains in the world. Bangladesh has 57 trans-boundary rivers, making water issues politically complicated to resolve – in most cases as the lower riparian state to India.[64]

The country is predominated by rich fertile flat land. Most parts of Bangladesh are less than 12 m (39.4 ft) above sea level, and it is estimated that about 10% of the land would be flooded if the sea level were to rise by 1 m (3.28 ft).[65] 17% of the country is covered by forests and 12% is covered by hill systems. The country's haor wetlands are of significant importance to global environmental science.

In southeastern Bangladesh, experiments have been done since the 1960s to 'build with nature'. Construction of cross dams has induced a natural accretion of silt, creating new land. With Dutch funding, the Bangladeshi government began promoting the development of this new land in the late 1970s. The effort has become a multiagency endeavor, building roads, culverts, embankments, cyclone shelters, toilets and ponds, as well as distributing land to settlers. By fall 2010, the program will have allotted some 27,000 acres (10,927 ha) to 21,000 families.[66] With an elevation of 1,280 m (4,200 ft), the highest peak of Bangladesh is Tahjindong, also known as Bijoy located in Bandarban district.[67]

Climate

Main article: Climate of Bangladesh
Sundarbans, the largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world and a UNESCO World Heritage Site

Straddling the Tropic of Cancer, Bangladesh's climate is tropical with a mild winter from October to March, and a hot, humid summer from March to June. The country has never recorded an air temperature below 0 °C, with a record low of 1.1 °C in the north west city of Dinajpur on 3 February 1905.[68] A warm and humid monsoon season lasts from June to October and supplies most of the country's rainfall. Natural calamities, such as floods, tropical cyclones, tornadoes, and tidal bores occur almost every year,[69] combined with the effects of deforestation, soil degradation and erosion. The cyclones of 1970 and 1991 were particularly devastating. A cyclone that struck Bangladesh in 1991 killed some 140,000 people.[70]

In September 1998, Bangladesh saw the most severe flooding in modern world history. As the Brahmaputra, the Ganges and Meghna spilt over and swallowed 300,000 houses, 9,700 km (6,000 mi) of road and 2,700 km (1,700 mi) of embankment, 1,000 people were killed and 30 million more were made homeless, with 135,000 cattle killed, 50 km2 (19 sq mi) of land destroyed and 11,000 km (6,800 mi) of roads damaged or destroyed. Two-thirds of the country was underwater. There were several reasons for the severity of the flooding. Firstly, there were unusually high monsoon rains. Secondly, the Himalayas shed off an equally unusually high amount of melt water that year. Thirdly, trees that usually would have intercepted rain water had been cut down for firewood or to make space for animals.[71]

Bangladesh-Burma maritime border off the coast of St. Martin's Island and coral reef

Bangladesh is now widely recognised to be one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change. Natural hazards that come from increased rainfall, rising sea levels, and tropical cyclones are expected to increase as climate changes, each seriously affecting agriculture, water and food security, human health and shelter.[72] It is believed that in the coming decades the rising sea level alone will create more than 20 million[73] climate refugees.[74] Bangladeshi water is contaminated with arsenic frequently because of the high arsenic contents in the soil. Up to 77 million people are exposed to toxic arsenic from drinking water.[75][76] Bangladesh is among the countries most prone to natural floods, tornados and cyclones.[77][78] Also, there is evidence that earthquakes pose a threat to the country. Evidence shows that tectonics have caused rivers to shift course suddenly and dramatically. It has been shown that rainy-season flooding in Bangladesh, on the world’s largest river delta, can push the underlying crust down by as much as 6 centimetres, and possibly perturb faults.[79]

Biodiversity

The Bengal tiger is the national animal of Bangladesh

Bangladesh ratified the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 3 May 1994.[80] As of 2014, the country is set to revise its National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.[80]

Bangladesh is located in the Indomalaya ecozone. Its ecology includes a long sea coastline, numerous rivers and tributaries, lakes, wetlands, evergreen forests, semi evergreen forests, hill forests, moist deciduous forests, freshwater swamp forests and flat land with tall grass. The Bangladesh Plain is famous for its fertile alluvial soil which supports extensive cultivation. The country is dominated by lush vegetation, with villages often buried in groves of mango, jackfruit, bamboo, betel nut, coconut and date palm.[81] There are 6000 species of plant life, including 5000 flowering plants.[82] Water bodies and wetland systems provide a habitat for many aquatic plants. Water lilies and lotuses grow vividly during the monsoon. The country has 50 wildlife sanctuaries.

Bangladesh is home to much of the Sundarbans, the world's largest mangrove forest. It covers an area of 6,000 km2 in the southwest littoral region. It is divided into three protected sanctuaries- the South, East and West zones.The forest is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The northeastern Sylhet region is home to haor wetlands, which is a unique ecosystem. It also includes tropical and subtropical coniferous forests, a freshwater swamp forest and mixed deciduous forests. The southeastern Chittagong region covers evergreen and semi evergreen hilly jungles. Central Bangladesh includes the plainland Sal forest running along the districts of Gazipur, Tangail and Mymensingh. St. Martin's Island is the only coral reef in the country.

Bangladesh has an abundance of wildlife in its forests, marshes, woodlands and hills.[81] The vast majority of animals dwell within a habitat of 150,000 km2.[83] The Bengal tiger, clouded leopard, saltwater crocodile, black panther and fishing cat are among the chief predators in the Sundarbans.[84][85] Northern and eastern Bangladesh is home to the Asian elephant, hoolock gibbon, Asian black bear and oriental pied hornbill.[86] The Chital deer are widely seen in southwestern woodlands. Other animals include the black giant squirrel, capped langur, Bengal fox, sambar deer, jungle cat, king cobra, wild boar, mongooses, pangolins, pythons and water monitors. Bangladesh has one of the largest population of Irrawaddy dolphins and Ganges dolphins. A 2009 census found 6,000 Irrawaddy dolphins inhabiting the littoral rivers of Bangladesh.[87] The country has numerous species of amphibians (53), reptiles (139), marine reptiles (19) and marine mammals (5). It has 628 species of birds.[88]

Several animals became extinct in Bangladesh during the last century, including the one horned and two horned rhinoceros and common peafowl. The human population is concentrated in urban areas, hence limiting deforestation to a certain extent. However, rapid urban growth has threatened natural habitats. Though many areas are protected under law, a large portion of Bangladeshi wildlife is threatened by this growth. The Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act was enacted in 1995. The government has designated several regions as Ecologically Critical Areas, including wetlands, forests and rivers. The Sundarbans Tiger Project and the Bangladesh Bear Project are among the key initiatives to strengthen conservation.[86]

Politics

After the Liberation War, Bangladesh adopted the Westminster system of government under the widely hailed 1972 Constitution.[89] It established a unitary state. In 1975, the country was brought under a presidential form of government which lasted until the fall of the Ershad regime in 1990.[89] Bangladesh restored parliamentary democracy in 1991. The Jatiyo Sangshad is the unicameral parliament. The Prime Minister is the head of government and is appointed by the President with the confidence of the majority in parliament. The Prime Minister is traditionally the Leader of the House and the single largest party; he or she heads the Cabinet which holds executive power. The President is the head of state with key ceremonial duties. The President is elected by the parliament for a five-year term.

The Jatiyo Sangshad has 350 members of parliament.[90] Its Speaker is second in line to the presidency. The Leader of the Opposition heads the main opposition in the house. During elections, 300 lawmakers are elected on a first-past-the-post basis from single member constituencies.[91] The Speaker allocates an additional 50 reserved seats for women candidates. The Awami League currently holds control of the house with 273 seats. The Jatiyo Party is the chief opposition with 42 seats. Sheikh Hasina has been the Prime Minister of Bangladesh since 2009. Abdul Hamid is the current President of Bangladesh. The current Speaker of parliament is Shirin Sharmin Chaudhury.

Bangladesh is ranked by Freedom House as "Partly Free" in its Freedom in the World report.[92] The Economist Intelligence Unit classifies the country as a hybrid regime, which is the third best rank out of four in its Democracy Index. The current legislature was elected in the controversial 2014 general election, which was boycotted by the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) led by Khaleda Zia; and other major parties including the Liberal Democratic Party, the Alternative Front and the Gano Forum. 153 out of 300 MPs were elected unopposed before the polls, as rival candidates withdrew their nomination. The polls were also shunned by international observers and were not deemed fully participatory. Opposition parties have demanded the restoration of the caretaker government system, which was repealed by the Awami League in 2011. The system was in place since 1996 and allowed for a neutral administration to hold elections after a parliament's tenure ended. Three caretaker governments held elections in 1996, 2001 and 2008. The polls were considered the most free and fair in Bangladesh's history. Ironically, it was the League which campaigned for the system in the 1990s and pressured the BNP into introducing it.

Law

Main article: Law of Bangladesh

The legal system of Bangladesh is primarily in accordance with English Common Law.[93] The higher judiciary consists of the Supreme Court, which includes an Appellate Division and the Bangladesh High Court. The current Chief Justice is Surendra Kumar Sinha. The constitution has undergone fifteen amendments since 1972.

Foreign relations

Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina with President Vladimir Putin

Bangladesh pursues a moderate foreign policy, which is articulated by its principle of friendship towards all and malice towards none.[94] The country places a heavy reliance on multilateral diplomacy, especially in the United Nations. After liberation, it joined the Commonwealth of Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement and the OIC. It has been elected twice to serve on the UN Security Council- from 1978–1979 and 2000–2001. In the 1980s, Bangladesh pioneered the formation of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). Since the founding of SAARC in 1985, a Bangladeshi has held the post of Secretary-General on two occasions. It co-founded the Developing 8 Countries and the Bay of Bengal Initiative. It is a member of the Asia-Europe Meeting, the ASEAN Regional Forum, the Asia Cooperation Dialogue, BCIM, the G-77, the Indian Ocean Rim Association and the World Trade Organization.

Bangladesh's foreign policy priorities include promoting multilateral engagement, regional security and cooperation, combating terrorism and the expansion of trade and investment.[95] Bangladesh is one of the world's largest contributors of UN peacekeeping forces. As of 2014, it has taken part in over 54 UN peacekeeping missions in Africa, the Balkans, the Middle East and the Caribbean, with an estimated 113,000 military personnel.[96] Bangladesh participated in Operation Desert Storm during the Gulf War in 1991. In Afghanistan, the development agency BRAC serves 12 million people in areas of primary and secondary education, the empowerment of women and microfinance.[97]

Bangladesh is the world's largest contributor of UN peacekeeping forces

Bangladesh is a key strategic ally of the United States in South Asia.[98] Their relationship is bounded by shared democratic ideals, despite strains under the current Awami League government after the controversial 5 January election. According to a Pew research poll in 2014, 76% of Bangladeshis express a favorable view of the US.[99] American companies are among the largest foreign investors in the country.[100] The US Military has extensive cooperation with the Bangladesh Armed Forces. Japan and Bangladesh have strong relations with common strategic and political goals.[94] Japan has been Bangladesh's largest development partner since independence, providing US$11 billion in assistance since 1972. Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced a further US$6 billion aid package for the country in 2014.[101] The European Union is the most important trading partner of Bangladesh. The United Kingdom has strong security, political, economic and cultural relations with the country.

Bangladesh's most important foreign relationship is with neighboring India. The relationship is borne out of historic and cultural affinities; and strengthened by India's support and role during the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971. Bangladesh is India's largest trading partner in South Asia.[102] It is also India's fifth-largest remittance source.[103] However, relations are plagued by concerns over border security, ease of doing business, trade barriers and water sharing on 54 common rivers. In recent years, the two countries have forged greater engagement and become strong allies in the fight against terrorism. Burma has a growing relationship with Bangladesh, despite irritants over Rohingya refugees. Bangladesh seeks to become a dialogue partner in ASEAN.[104] Laos and Cambodia are the first countries to support its bid for associate membership in ASEAN.[104]

Bangladesh enjoys very warm relations with the People's Republic of China. It is China's third largest trading partner in South Asia. China is also a major defence supplier to the Bangladesh military. Being the third largest Muslim-majority country in the world, Bangladesh is often praised as a voice of moderation.[105] It mediated a ceasefire during the Iran-Iraq War and is a key supporter of the Palestinian struggle. Bangladesh is one of the 29 UN member states which does not recognize Israel and maintains a complete economic boycott of the country. Bangladeshi passport restricts its citizens from traveling to Israel.[106] Bangladesh has historic relations with the Russian Federation, dating back to the role of the Soviet Union during the Liberation War. 20% of Bangladesh's existing electricity infrastructure was built with Soviet and Russian assistance.[107] In 2013, Russia and Bangladesh began constructing the Ruppur Nuclear Power Plant.[108] Bangladesh enjoys growing relations with Brazil. Trade with Brazil crossed $700 million in 2013.[109]

In 2012, the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea announced the delimitation of the maritime border between Bangladesh and Burma in the Bay of Bengal.[110] The two countries had a brief naval standoff in November 2008 over Burmese attempts at oil and gas exploration in disputed territory. The standoff was resolved through considerable back-channel diplomacy. In 2014, the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague announced the demarcation of maritime boundary between India and Bangladesh. The court awarded Bangladesh 19,467 km2 out of the total 25,602 km2 of disputed territory.[111]

Military

As of 2012, the current strength of the army is around 300,000 including reservists,[112] the air force 22,000,[113] and navy 24,000.[114] In addition to traditional defence roles, the military has been called on to provide support to civil authorities for disaster relief and internal security during periods of political unrest. Bangladesh has consistently been the world's largest contributor to UN peacekeeping forces for many years. In February 2015, Bangladesh had major deployments in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Darfur, Côte d'Ivoire, Haiti, South Sudan, Lebanon, Cyprus and the Golan Heights.[115]

Administrative divisions

Bangladesh is divided into seven administrative divisions,[116][117] each named after their respective divisional headquarters: Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi, Sylhet and Rangpur.

Divisions are subdivided into districts (zila). There are 64 districts in Bangladesh, each further subdivided into upazila (subdistricts) or thana. The area within each police station, except for those in metropolitan areas, is divided into several unions, with each union consisting of multiple villages. In the metropolitan areas, police stations are divided into wards, which are further divided into mahallas. There are no elected officials at the divisional or district levels, and the administration is composed only of government officials. Direct elections are held for each union (or ward), electing a chairperson and a number of members. In 1997, a parliamentary act was passed to reserve three seats (out of 12) in every union for female candidates.[118]

Division Bengali 2011 Census population[119] Area (km2)[119] Population density
2011 (people/km2)[119]
Largest city
Barisal বরিশাল 8,325,666 13,297 626 Barisal (328,278)
Chittagong চট্টগ্রাম 28,423,019 33,771 841 Chittagong (2,592,439)
Dhaka ঢাকা 47,424,418 31,120 1,523 Dhaka (7,033,075)
Khulna খুলনা 15,687,759 22,272 704 Khulna (663,342)
Rajshahi রাজশাহী 18,484,858 18,197 1,015 Rajshahi (449,756)
Rangpur রংপুর 15,787,758 16,317 960 Rangpur (343,122)
Sylhet সিলেট 9,910,219 12,596 780 Sylhet (479,837)
Bangladesh বাংলাদেশ 144,043,697 147,570 976 Dhaka (7,033,075)

[120]

Economy

Main article: Economy of Bangladesh
Bangladesh is the world's largest user of off grid solar power.[121]

Bangladesh is a Next Eleven developing nation with a US$175 billion economy and a per capita income of US$1,190.[122] The Taka is the currency of Bangladesh. The central bank is the Bangladesh Bank. The service sector accounts for 51% of GDP, the industrial sector 30% and agriculture 18%. Bangladesh is a major agricultural producer, particularly in the global production of rice (4th), fisheries (5th), jute (2nd), tea (10th) and tropical fruits (5th).[123][124] Major industries include textiles, pharmaceuticals, shipbuilding, steel, electronics, telecommunications, energy, fertilizer, cement, leather, food processing and ceramics. The country is the seventh-largest natural gas producer in Asia.[125] Its exports amounted to US$30 billion in the fiscal year 2013–14.[126] 70% of export earnings came from the textile industry, which is the world's fourth largest textile exporter (after China, India, Germany and Italy).[127] Remittances from the Bangladeshi diaspora and overseas workers provide vital foreign exchange earnings, accounting for US$14 billion in FY2013-14.[128]

Bangladesh has a large, often inefficient, public sector, including state owned utilities, banks and industries. The government provides heavy subsidies for fuel prices and irrigation. Since the British Raj, jute and tea were the backbones of the economy. East Bengal once accounted for 80% of the world jute trade, which peaked during the Second World War.[129] The country's tea industry includes many of the world's largest tea plantations.[130]

A Danish ferry built in Chittagong. The country has a rapidly growing shipbuilding industry

After independence, the international community poured substantial foreign aid into Bangladesh to help develop its infrastructure, education, healthcare and demographic prospects. Today, the country has decreased its dependency on foreign aid from 85% (in 1988) to 2% (in 2010), for the annual development budget.[131] Since 2004, the economy has grown at an average rate of 6%. Bangladesh has seen rising foreign direct investment, particularly in energy, telecoms and export processing zones. Bangladesh has one of the largest financial industries in South Asia. Its twin stock markets are the Dhaka Stock Exchange and the Chittagong Stock Exchange.

The telecoms industry in Bangladesh is one of the fastest growing markets in the world, with 114 million cellphone subscribers in December 2013.[132] The pharmaceutical industry meets 97% of domestic demand and exports to 52 countries.[133] The shipbuilding industry has seen rapid growth in recent years. The steel industry in Bangladesh is concentrated in the port city of Chittagong. It is buoyed by the boom in shipbuilding, construction and real estate. Bangladesh is increasing its export of ceramics, particularly bone china and porcelain. It is a major exporter of fish, seafood, frozen and processed food. It has a fast growing solar power industry and ranks as the country with the fifth-largest number of green jobs.[134]

A significant contributor to the economy is the microfinance sector. Pioneered by Muhammad Yunus and the Grameen Bank in the late 1970s, it has grown to include more than thirty million borrowers and has lent billions of dollars in microcredit loans.[135][136] The industry stimulates a dynamic rural economy, supporting entrepreneurship in agriculture, cottage industries and small businesses. Microcredit organizations such as BRAC and Grameen Bank have diversified into education, housing and renewable energy.[136]

Transport is a major sector in the Bangladesh economy. The country has a 2,706 km rail network operated by the Bangladesh Railway. It has one of the largest inland waterway networks in the world,[137] with 8,046 km of navigable waterways. The Port of Chittagong is its busiest seaport, handling over US$60 billion in annual trade.[138] More than 80% of the country's export-import trade passes through Chittagong. The second largest seaport is the Port of Mongla. The insufficient power supply is a significant obstacle to growth. According to the World Bank, poor governance, corruption and weak public institutions are major challenges for Bangladesh's development.[139] In April 2010, Standard & Poor's awarded Bangladesh a BB- long term credit rating, which is below India and above Pakistan and Sri Lanka.[140]

Demographics

The population of Bangladesh as of 15 March 2011 is 142.3 million (census 2011 result),[141] much less than recent (2007–2010) estimates of Bangladesh's population ranging from 150 to 170 million and it is the 8th most populous nation in the world. In 1951, the population was 44 million.[142] It is also the most densely populated large country in the world, and it ranks 11th in population density, when very small countries and city-states are included.[143]

Historical populations in millions
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1971 67.8 —    
1980 80.6 +1.94%
1990 105.3 +2.71%
2000 129.6 +2.10%
2010 148.7 +1.38%
2012 161.1 +4.09%
Source: OECD/World Bank[144]

Bangladesh's population growth rate was among the highest in the world in the 1960s and 1970s, when its population grew from 65 to 110 million. With the promotion of birth control in the 1980s, the growth rate began to slow. The fertility rate now stands at 2.55, lower than India (2.58) and Pakistan (3.07) The population is relatively young, with 34% aged 15 or younger and 5% 65 or older. Life expectancy at birth is estimated to be 70 years for both males and females in 2012.[116] Despite the rapid economic growth, about 26% of the country still lives below the international poverty line which means living on less than $1.25 per day.[145] Bengalis constitute 98% of the population.[146]

National minorities

Minorities include indigenous people in the Chittagong Hill Tracts and other parts of northern Bangladesh. The Hill Tracts are home to 11 ethnic tribal groups, notably the Chakma, Marma, Tanchangya, Tripuri, Kuki and Bawm. The Sylhet region is home to the Manipuri tribe. The Mymensingh region has a substantial Garo population. The North Bengal region is home to aboriginal Santals. Bangladesh is also home to a significant Ismaili community.[147]

The southeastern region has received an influx of Rohingya refugees from Burma, particularly during Burmese military crackdowns in 1978 and 1991.[148] During renewed sectarian unrest in Rakhine State in 2012, Bangladesh closed its borders amid fears of a third major exodus from Burma.[149] Stranded Pakistanis are a contentious dispute between Bangladesh and Pakistan. In 2008, the Bangladesh High Court granted full citizenship to all second generation Stranded Pakistanis born after 1971.[150] The Hill Tracts region suffered unrest and an insurgency from 1975 to 1997 due to a movement by indigenous people for autonomy. A peace accord was signed in 1997; however, the region remains heavily militarized.[151]

Urbanization

Dhaka is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. The cities with a city corporation, having mayoral elections, include Dhaka South, Dhaka North, Chittagong, Khulna, Sylhet, Rajshahi, Barisal, Rangpur, Comilla and Gazipur. Other major cities, these and other municipalities electing a chairperson, include Mymensingh, Gopalganj, Jessore, Bogra, Dinajpur, Saidapur, Narayanganj and Rangamati. Both the municipal heads are elected for a span of five years.


Languages

More than 98% of Bangladeshis speak Bengali as their native language, which is also the official language.[153][154] English is also used as a second language among the middle and upper classes and is also widely used in higher education and the legal system.[155] Historically, laws were written in English and were not translated into Bengali until 1987, when the procedure was reversed. Bangladesh's Constitution and all laws are now in both English and Bengali.[156] There are also several indigenous minority languages.

Religion

Religions in Bangladesh[3]
Religion Percent
Muslim
  
90.4%
Hindu
  
8.5%
Buddhist
  
0.6%
Christian
  
0.3%
Others
  
0.1%

Islam is the largest religion of Bangladesh, making up 90.4% of the population.[157] Hinduism makes up 8.5% of the population, Buddhism 0.6% and Christianity 0.3%.[158] The majority of Muslims are Sunni, roughly 4% are non-denominational Muslims[159] and a small number are Shia,[160] and about 100,000 Ahmadi Muslims.[161] Bangladesh has the fourth largest Muslim population after Indonesia, Pakistan and India.[162] Hindus are the second biggest religious group in Bangladesh, and the third largest in the world after India and Nepal.[163] Buddhists are concentrated in the southeast while Christians in urban areas.

After gaining independence from Pakistan, Bangladesh became the first country in South Asia to constitutionally proclaim secularism in 1972.[164] It was followed by India in 1976.[165] However, the military junta led by Ziaur Rahman removed secularist principles enshrined in the document through a martial law ordinance in 1977.[166] In 1988, President H. M. Ershad, another de facto military ruler, promoted a parliamentary amendment that made Islam the state religion.[167] In 2010, the High Court ruled that Zia's changes under martial law were illegal and void, and upheld the secular principles of the 1972 constitution.[168] But it allowed to keep Islam as the state religion. The Constitution calls for a secular government and bans religion-based politics.[169] Bangladesh combines secular state laws with individual personal religious codes.[170]

Many people in Bangladesh practice Sufism, as historically Islam was brought to the region by Sufi saints. Sufi influences in the region go back many centuries.[171] The largest gathering of Muslims in the country is the Bishwa Ijtema, held annually by the Tablighi Jamaat. The Ijtema is the second largest Muslim congregation in the world after the Hajj.

Education

The University of Dhaka is the country's largest public university

Bangladesh has a low literacy rate, estimated at 61.3% for males and 52.2% for females in 2010.[116] The educational system in Bangladesh is three-tiered and highly subsidized. The government of Bangladesh operates many schools in the primary, secondary, and higher secondary levels. It also subsidises parts of the funding for many private schools. In the tertiary education sector, the government also funds more than 15 state universities through the University Grants Commission.

The education system is divided into 5 levels: Primary (from grades 1 to 5), Junior Secondary (from grades 6 to 8), Secondary (from grades 9 to 10), Higher Secondary (from grades 11 to 12) and tertiary.[172] The five years of lower secondary education concludes with a Secondary School Certificate (SSC) Examination, but since 2009 it concludes with a Primary Education Closing (PEC) Examination. Also earlier Students who pass this examination proceed to four years Secondary or matriculation training, which culminate in a Secondary School Certificate (SSC) Examination, but since 2010 the Primary Education Closing (PEC) passed examinees proceed to three years Junior Secondary, which culminate in a Junior School Certificate (JSC) Examination. Then students who pass this examination proceed to two years Secondary or matriculation training, which culminate in a Secondary School Certificate (SSC) Examination. Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of Higher Secondary or intermediate training, which culminate in a Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSC) Examination.[172]

Education is mainly offered in Bengali, but English is also commonly taught and used. A large number of Muslim families send their children to attend part-time courses or even to pursue full-time religious education, which is imparted in Bengali and Arabic in madrasahs.[172]

Bangladesh conforms fully to the Education For All (EFA) objectives, the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and international declarations. Article 17 of the Bangladesh Constitution provides that all children between the ages of six and ten years receive a basic education free of charge.

Universities in Bangladesh are mainly categorized into three different types: public university (government owned and subsidized), private university (private sector owned universities) and international university (operated and funded by international organizations). Bangladesh has some thirty-four public, sixty-four private and two international universities. National University has the largest enrollment among them and University of Dhaka (established 1921) is the oldest university of the country. Islamic University of Technology, commonly known as IUT is a subsidiary organ of the Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation (OIC), representing fifty seven member countries from Asia, Africa, Europe and South America. Asian University for Women located in Chittagong is the preeminent liberal arts university for women in South Asia, representing 14 countries from Asia. The faculty members are from many well-known academic institutions of North America, Europe, Asia, Australia, and the Middle East.[173] BUET, CUET, BUTex, DUET are among the 6 public Engineering Universities in the country. There are also some Science and technology universities including SUST, MIST, PUST etc. Bangladeshi universities are accredited by and affiliated with the University Grants Commission (UGC), a commission created according to the Presidential Order (P.O. No 10 of 1973) of the Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh.[174] Medical education in the country is provided by 29 government and some other private medical colleges. All medical colleges are affiliated with Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

Health

Main article: Health in Bangladesh

Health and education levels remain relatively low, although they have improved recently as poverty (26% at 2012[175]) levels have decreased. In the rural areas, village doctors with little or no formal training constitute 62% of the healthcare providers practicing modern medicine and the formally trained providers are occupying a mere 4% of the total health workforce. A survey conducted by Future Health Systems revealed significant deficiencies in treatment practices of village doctors, with a wide prevalence of harmful and inappropriate drug prescriptions.[176] There are market incentives for accessing health care through informal providers and it is important to understand these markets in order to facilitate collaboration across actors and institutions in order to provide incentives for better performance.[177]

Community health workers form the backbone of rural health services

A 2007 study of 1000 households in rural Bangladesh found that direct costs (payment to formal and informal health care providers) and indirect costs (loss of earnings associated with workdays lost because of illness) associated with illness were important deterrents to accessing health care from qualified healthcare providers.[176] A community survey with 6183 individuals in rural Bangladesh found a clear gender difference in treatment-seeking behaviour, with women less likely to seek treatment compared to men.[178] The use of skilled birth attendants, however, has risen between 2005 and 2007 by women in all wealth quintiles except the highest quintile.[179] A pilot community empowerment tool, called a health watch, was successfully developed and implemented in south-eastern Bangladesh in order to improve uptake and monitoring of public health services.[180]

The poor health conditions in Bangladesh is attributed by the lack of healthcare and services provision by the government. The total expenditure on healthcare as a percentage of their GDP was only 3.35% in 2009, according to a World Bank report published in 2010.[181] The number of hospital beds per 10,000 population is 4.[182] The General government expenditure on healthcare as a percentage of total government expenditure was only 7.9% as of 2009 and the citizens pay most of their health care bills as the out-of-pocket expenditure as a percentage of private expenditure on health is 96.5%.[181]

Malnutrition has been a persistent problem for the poverty-stricken country. The World Bank estimates that Bangladesh is ranked 1st in the world of the number of children suffering from malnutrition.[183][184] In Bangladesh, 26% of the population are undernourished[185] and 46% of the children suffers from moderate to severe underweight problem.[186] 43% of children under 5 years old are stunted. One in five preschool age children are vitamin A deficient and one in two are anemic.[187] Child malnutrition in Bangladesh is amongst the highest in the world. Two-thirds of the children, under the age of five, are under-nourished and about 60% of them, who are under six, are stunted.[188] More than 45 percent of rural families and 76 percent of urban families were below the acceptable caloric intake level.[189]

Culture

Reflecting the long history of the region, Bangladesh has a culture that encompasses elements both old and new.

Literature

Late 19th and early 20th century polymaths Rabindranath Tagore and Kazi Nazrul Islam

Bengali has a rich literary heritage, which Bangladesh shares with the Indian state of West Bengal. The earliest literary text in Bengali is the 8th century Charyapada. Medieval Bengali literature was often either religious (for example, Chandidas), or adapted from other languages (for example, Alaol). Bengali literature reached its full expression in the 19th century, with its greatest icons being poets, the national poet Kazi Nazrul Islam, Rabindranath Tagore, Sarat Chandra, Jasim Uddin, Jibanananda Das, Shamsur Rahman, Al Mahmud, Sukanta Bhattacharya, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Michael Madhusudan Dutt and present day Humayun Ahmed, Muhammed Zafar Iqbal. Bangladesh also has a long tradition in folk literature, for example Maimansingha Gitika, Thakurmar Jhuli and stories related to Gopal Bhar, Birbal and Molla Nasiruddin.

Music and the arts

The one string ektara is often played by Baul folk minstrels

The musical tradition of Bangladesh is lyrics-based (Baniprodhan), with minimal instrumental accompaniment. Numerous musical traditions exist including Gombhira, Bhatiali and Bhawaiya, varying from one region to the next. Folk music is accompanied by the ektara, an instrument with only one string. Other instruments include the dotara, dhol, flute, and tabla. Bangladesh also has an active heritage in North Indian classical music. Similarly, Bangladeshi dance forms draw from folk traditions, especially those of the tribal groups, as well as the broader Indian dance tradition.[190] The Baul tradition was included in the list of "Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity" by UNESCO.[191]

Cinema

Main article: Cinema of Bangladesh

The Bangladeshi film industry has been based in Bangladesh's capital, Dhaka, since 1956. As of 2004, it produced approximately 100 movies a year, with an average movie budget of about 20,000,000 Bangladeshi taka. The film industry is known as Dhallywood, a portmanteau of the words Dhaka and Hollywood. Bangladesh produces about 80 films a year.[192]

Media

Main article: Media of Bangladesh

Around 200 daily newspapers are published in Bangladesh, along with more than 500 periodicals. However, regular readership is low at just under 15% of the population.[193] Bangladeshis listen to a variety of local and national radio programs like Bangladesh Betar. Several private FM radio stations (Radio Foorti, ABC Radio, Radio Today, Radio Amar etc.) are popular among urban youths. International Bengali-language broadcasts include BBC Bangla and Voice of America. The dominant television channel is the state-owned Bangladesh Television, but in the last few years, privately owned channels have developed considerably. Some popular privately owned TV channels are ATN Bangla, Channel i, NTV, Ekushey Television, Desh TV, RTV, Banglavision, Islamic TV, Boishakhi TV, Mohona TV, ATN News, Somoy TV, Independent TV, Channel 9 Bangladesh etc.

Cuisine

Main article: Bangladeshi cuisine
Cham cham, a traditional sweet in Bangladeshi cuisine

The culinary tradition of Bangladesh has close relations to surrounding Bengali and North-East Indian cuisine as well as having its own unique traits. Rice and fish are traditional favourites. With an emphasis on fish, vegetables and lentils served with rice as a staple diet. Biryani is a favourite dish of Bangladesh and this includes egg biryani, mutton biryani and beef biryani. Bengaladeshi cuisine is known for its subtle (yet sometimes fiery) flavours, and its huge spread of confectioneries and desserts. Bangladeshis make distinctive sweetmeats from milk products, some common ones being Rôshogolla, Rasmalai, Rôshomalai, chômchôm and kalojam. It also has the only traditionally developed multi-course tradition from the Indian subcontinent that is analogous in structure to the modern service à la russe style of French cuisine, with food served course-wise rather than all at once.

Textiles and craftsmanship

The Sari (শাড়ি shaŗi) is by far the most widely worn dress by Bangladeshi women. A guild of weavers in Dhaka is renowned for producing saris from exquisite Jamdani muslin. The salwar kameez (shaloar kamiz) is also quite popular, especially among the younger females, and in urban areas some women wear western attire. Among men, western attire is more widely adopted. Men also wear the Panjabi[194][195] and paejama combination, often on special occasions, and the lungi, a kind of long skirt for men.

Festivals

Shaheed Minar, as displayed on the annual anniversary of Bengali Language Movement Day (International Mother Language Day)

The Muslim holidays of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha, the Bengali New Year, Independence day, Victory Day, the Hindu festivals of Durga Puja and Krishna Janmashtami, the Buddhist festival of Buddha Purnima, which marks the birth of Gautama Buddha, and Christmas, called Borodin (" the Great day"), are national holidays in Bangladesh and see the most widespread celebrations in the country.

Pohela Boishakh, the Bengali new year, is the major festival of Bengali culture and sees widespread festivities. Of the major holidays celebrated in Bangladesh, only Pohela Boishakh comes without any preexisting expectations (specific religious identity, culture of gift-giving, etc.). Unlike holidays like Eid al-Fitr, where dressing up in lavish clothes has become a norm, or Christmas where exchanging gifts has become an integral part of the holiday, Pohela Boishakh is really about celebrating the simpler, rural roots of the Bengal. As a result, more people can participate in the festivities together without the burden of having to reveal one's class, religion, or financial capacity. Other cultural festivals include Nabonno, and Poush porbon (festival of Poush), both Bengali harvest festivals.

Alongside these are national days like the remembrance of 21 February 1952 Language Movement Day (International Mother Language Day), Independence Day and Victory Day. On Language Movement Day, people congregate at the Shaheed Minar in Dhaka to remember the national heroes of the Bengali Language Movement, and at the Jatiyo Smriti Soudho on Independence Day and Victory Day to remember the national heroes of the Bangladesh Liberation War. These occasions are observed with public ceremonies, parades, rallies by citizens, political speeches, fairs, concerts, and various other public and private events celebrating the history and traditions of Bangladesh. TV and radio stations broadcast special programs and patriotic songs. And many schools and colleges organise fairs, festivals, and concerts in which citizens from all levels of society can participate.

Architecture

Bangladesh has appealing architecture from historic treasures to contemporary landmarks. The architecture of Bangladesh has a long history and is rooted in Bangladesh's culture, religion and history. [196] It has evolved over centuries and assimilated influences from social, religious and exotic communities. The architecture of Bangladesh bears a remarkable impact on the lifestyle, tradition and cultural life of Bangladeshi people. Bangladesh has many architectural relics and monuments dating back thousands of years.

Bangladesh has a strong tradition of regional modernism and combining the cultural and environmental heritage of the Bengal delta with contemporary modern architecture. Many prominent international architects have worked in Bangladesh, including Louis Kahn, Konstantinos Doxiadis, Richard Neutra, Stanley Tigerman, Paul Rudolph and Robert Boughey. Leading Bangladeshi architects include Fazlur Rahman Khan, Muzharul Islam, Rafiq Azam, Kashef Mahboob Chowdhury, Bashirul Haq, Ehsan Khan and others.[197][198]

Sports

Main article: Sports in Bangladesh

Cricket is one of the most popular sports in Bangladesh, followed by football. The national cricket team participated in their first Cricket World Cup in 1999, and the following year was granted elite Test cricket status. But they have struggled to date, recording only ten Test match victories: eight against Zimbabwe with five in 2005 and three in 2014, the other two came in a 2-0 series victory over the West Indies in 2009.[199] The team has been more successful in One Day International cricket. In July 2010, they celebrated their first ever win over England in any form of match. Later in 2010, they beat New Zealand for the first time. In late 2012, they won a five-match home ODI series 3-2 against a full-strength West Indies National team. In 2011, Bangladesh successfully co-hosted the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011 with India and Sri Lanka. In 2012, the country hosted the Asia Cup. The team beat India and Sri Lanka but failed to keep the reputation in the final game against Pakistan. However, it was the first time Bangladesh had advanced to the final of any major cricket tournament.

They participated at the 2010 Asian Games in Guangzhou, defeating Afghanistan to claim their Gold Medal in the first ever cricket tournament held in the Asian Games. Bangladeshi cricketer Sakib Al Hasan is no.1 on the ICC's all-rounder rankings in all three formats of the cricket.[200]

Kabaddi is a very popular game in Bangladesh, considered the national game.[201] Other popular sports include field hockey, tennis, badminton, handball, basketball, volleyball, chess, shooting, angling. The National Sports Council regulates 42 different sporting federations.[202]

Bangladesh have 5 grand masters in chess. Among them, Niaz Murshed was the first grand master in South Asia. In another achievement, Margarita Mamun, a Russian rhythmic gymnast of Bangladeshi origin, became world's champion in 2013 and 2014.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ The constitution spells Bangla to refer Bengali Language[2]
  2. ^ Bengali is the sole official language and also the de jure national language. Alongside Bengali, English is often used for official purposes, specially in judiciary systems.
  3. ^ Islam is the State religion, but the constitution still ensure equal status and equal right in the practice of the Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity and other religions.[4]

References

  1. ^ "NATIONAL SYMBOLS→National march". Bangladesh Tourism Board. Bangladesh: Ministry of Civil Aviation & Tourism. In 13 January 1972, the ministry of Bangladesh has adopted this song as a national marching song on its first meeting after the country’s independence. 
  2. ^ "3. The state language". Laws of Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  3. ^ a b "বাংলাদেশকে জানুন" [Discover Bangladesh] (in Bengali). National Web Portal of Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  4. ^ "2A. The state religion". Laws of Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  5. ^ "Population, Total". World Bank. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Bangladesh". World Economic Outlook Database. IMF. 
  7. ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2011. 
  8. ^ "Human Development Report 2014 Summary" (PDF). United Nations. 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014. 
  9. ^ http://www.travelbd.com/ancient_bengal.
  10. ^ http://en.people.cn/200404/02/eng20040402_139287.shtml
  11. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-03/12/content_4293312.htm
  12. ^ http://www.harekrsna.com/sun/features/07-09/features1425.htm
  13. ^ https://mukto-mona.com/new_site/mukto-mona/bengali_heritage/bengal_history.htm
  14. ^ "Ban lauds Bangladesh’s progress on women’s and children’s health". UN News Center (United Nations). 15 November 2011. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2012. 
  15. ^ "Meeting Millennium Development Goals". BBC News. 10 May 2010. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2012. 
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Cited sources

Further reading

  • Iftekhar Iqbal (2010) The Bengal Delta: Ecology, State and Social Change, 1840–1943, Cambridge Imperial and Post-Colonial Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, Pages: 288, ISBN 0230231837
  • M. Mufakharul Islam (edited) (2004) Socio-Economic History of Bangladesh: essays in memory of Professor Shafiqur Rahman, 1st Edition, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, OCLC 156800811
  • M. Mufakharul Islam (2007), Bengal Agriculture 1920–1946: A Quantitative Study, Cambridge South Asian Studies, Cambridge University Press, Pages: 300, ISBN 0521049857
  • Meghna Guhathakurta & Willem van Schendel (Edited) (2013) The Bangladesh Reader: History, Culture, Politics (The World Readers), Duke University Press Books, Pages: 568, ISBN 0822353040
  • Sirajul Islam (edited) (1997) History of Bangladesh 1704–1971(Three Volumes: Vol 1: Political History, Vol 2: Economic History Vol 3: Social and Cultural History), 2nd Edition (Revised New Edition), The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Pages: 1846, ISBN 9845123376
  • Sirajul Islam (Chief Editor) (2003) Banglapedia: A National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh.(10 Vols. Set), (written by 1300 scholars & 22 editors) The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Pages: 4840, ISBN 9843205855
  • Srinath Raghavan (2013) ‘1971: A Global History of the Creation of Bangladesh’, Harvard University Press, Pages: 368, ISBN 0674728645

External links