List of people considered father or mother of a field
The following is a list of significant men and women known for being the father, mother, or considered the founders mostly in Western societies in a field, listed by category. In most non-science fields, the title of being the "father" is debatable.
|Cowboy sculpture||Frederic Remington||Created first bronze cowboy sculpture in 1895|
|3D gaming||Yu Suzuki
|Creator of Hang-On, Virtua Racing, Virtua Fighter and Shenmue |
Creator of Wolfenstein 3D and Doom
|Collectible Card Game||Richard Garfield||Creator of Magic:The Gathering|
|Miniature wargaming||H. G. Wells||Publication of Little Wars|
|Modern video game||Shigeru Miyamoto||Creator of Mario, Donkey Kong, The Legend of Zelda, Star Fox, F-Zero, Pikmin, and Wii|
|Role-playing game||Gary Gygax||Creator of Dungeons & Dragons|
|Stealth game||Hideo Kojima||Creator of the Metal Gear stealth-action games|
|Video game||Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr.||Inventor of the first video game[dubious ]|
|Video game industry||Nolan Bushnell||Creator of Pong; founder of Atari and Chuck E. Cheese's|
|Wargaming||Charles S. Roberts||Designer of tactics|
|1:8 radio-controlled off-road buggy||Yuichi Kanai (godfather)||Kyosho's lead designer and lifelong employee; best known for the Inferno series of cars, credited for redefining the class from being unreliable and fragile to being tough and user friendlier that helped his employer to lead the 1/8 buggy renaissance from the 1990s, becoming one of the most dominant cars of all time.|
|American football||Walter Camp|
|American motocross||Edison Dye||Introduced motorcross to American riders|
|American road racing||Cameron Argetsinger||Introduced the first US auto race that was dedicated to road courses at Watkins Glen|
|American soccer||Steve Ross (godfather)||created the New York Cosmos soccer team and imported a number of well known international footballers to the team in an attempt to bring interest to soccer in the US|
|Angling||Izaak Walton||Author of The Compleat Angler|
|Argentine football||Alexander Watson Hutton|
|Argentine professional golf||José Jurado|
|Argentine winter sports||Otto Meiling|
|Association football||Ebenezer Cobb Morley|
|Australian rules football||Tom Wills|
|H. C. A. Harrison|
|Basketball||James Naismith||Created basketball|
|Black basketball||Edwin Henderson||Introduced the sport to the black community of Washington, D.C. in the first decade of the 20th century, and organized many early competitions for African Americans|
|Brazilian football||Charles William Miller|
|Camel Lights||Jim Downing||Built a racecar a season before it became the basis of a new lightweight prototype class in 1985|
|Canadian rodeo||O. Raymond Knight||Coined the rodeo term "stampede" and was world's first rodeo producer, rodeo stock contractor, and rodeo champion in 1902|
|Modern chess||Wilhelm Steinitz||First official world chess champion|
|Drag racing||Wally Parks||Founder of the NHRA and organized the first legitimate drag race|
|Don Garlits||Innovator of drag racing safety|
|Eddie Hill||Regarded as the "Four Father" of drag racing for being the first to break the 5-second barrier. AKA "First in the Fours."|
|Drifting||Kunimitsu Takahashi||Introduced an aggressive high speed cornering technique that became widely used for illicit purposes, which eventually became a sport|
|East Coast skateboarding||Vinny Raffa (godfather)|
|Florida skateboarding||Bruce Walker (godfather)|
|Modern football||Ebenezer Cobb Morley|
|Freestyle BMX||Bob Haro|
|Freestyle Motocross||Mike Metzger (godfather)||[why?]|
|Funny Car||Dick Landy|
|Modern gymnastic||Friedrich Ludwig Jahn|
|Modern Handball||Karl Schelenz|
|Ice hockey||James Creighton||Captained one of the two teams that participated in the first indoor hockey game on March 3, 1875 in Montreal|
|Import drag racing||Frank Choi||Hosted one of the first events specifically for import cars in the mid-1990s to keep drivers out of street racing that progressed into a professional category|
|Italian football||James Richardson Spensley||Associated with Genoa CFC; contributed to the modern day-variation of the game in Italy|
|William Garbutt||Laid the foundations of skilled coaching in Italian football|
|Japanese baseball||Horace Wilson||Credited with introducing baseball in Japan|
|Hiroshi Hiraoka||Credited with establishing the first baseball team|
|Jogging||Jim Fixx||Founding father[why?]|
|Kart racing||Art Ingels||Developed the world's first kart (1956)|
|Kenyan running||Colm O'Connell||Founded the first running camp in Kenya|
|Lacrosse||William George Beers||Codified the sport|
|Mexican taekwondo||Dai-won Moon||Credited with introducing the sport to Mexico; founded school that has trained tens of thousands in the sport|
|Mississippi rodeo||Earl W. Bascom
Weldon Bascom 
|Produced the first rodeo in Columbia, Mississippi in 1935|
|Mixed martial arts||Edward William Barton-Wright||Experimented 1898–1902 with Shinden Fudo Ryu jujutsu, Kodokan judo, British boxing, Swiss schwingen, French savate and a defensive la canne (stick fighting) style that had been developed by Pierre Vigny of Switzerland ,which led to the invention of Bartitsu|
|Model aviation||Joseph S. Ott||Chicago Tribune, in an obituary, referred him as the father mainly for his designs of thousands of model aircraft spanning from the 1920s up to his death in 1986.|
|Modern bodybuilding||Eugen Sandow|
|Harold Zinkin||Called so by Arnold Schwarzenegger during a press statement on his passing in 2004; inventor of modern exercise machines|
|Modern boxing||James Figg|
|James J. Corbett|
|Modern figure skating||Jackson Haines||"Jackson Haines - The Father of Figure Skating," according to Roy Blakey|
|Modern football in Japan||Dettmar Cramer|
|Modern Rodeo||Earl W. Bascom||Inventor of rodeo gear and equipment that made rodeo into a modern international sport|
|Modern tennis||Jack Kramer||Creator of the "Open"-era tournaments and the Association of Tennis Professionals|
|Para-equestrian dressage||Lee Pearson (godfather)||Most decorated para-equestrian rider of all time|
|Organized radio controlled racing||Ted Longshaw||Regarded as a grandfather of the sport; founded an organization for racing in the United Kingdom (1971); founded governing bodies for organized racing in Europe (1973), the far east (1980) and worldwide (1979)|
|Roger Curtis||Co-founder of Associated Electrics, one of the most significant R/C car brands; contributed to racing|
|Modern sabre fencing||Italo Santelli|
|Modern surfing||Duke Kahanamoku|
|Rodeo bareback bronc riding||Earl W. Bascom||Designed and made the first one-hand rigging in 1924|
|Rugby union||A. G. Guillemard|
|William Webb Ellis||"Who with a fine disregard for the rules of football as played in his time first took the ball in his arms and ran with it thus originating the distinctive feature of the rugby game".|
|Scuba diving||Jacques Cousteau||Developed the aqua-lung jointly with Émile Gagnan; popularized scuba diving as a research diver, writer, and film and television producer and personality|
|Skateboarding||Skip Engblom (godfather)|
|Tony Hawk (godfather)|
|Rodney Mullen (godfather)|
|Snooker||Neville Francis Fitzgerald Chamberlain||Adopted the name and framed the rules in Ooty, India|
|Snowboarding||Jake Burton Carpenter|
|Stock car racing||Bill France, Sr.||Founded the sanctioning body for stock car racing|
|Supercross||Mike Goodwin||Organized the first supercross race|
|Televised golf||Frank Chirkinian||Personally responsible for much of the production conventions of modern golf broadcasting|
|Aerodynamics (modern)||Sir George Cayley||Founding father of modern aerodynamics; first to identify the four aerodynamic forces of flight—weight, lift, drag, and thrust; modern airplane design is based on those discoveries|
|Architecture||Imhotep||Built the first pyramid|
|Aviation||Father Francesco Lana-Terzi||Wrote Prodromo alla Arte Maestra (1670); first to describe the geometry and physics of a flying vessel|
|British watchmaking||Thomas Tompion|
|Clinical trials||James Lind||Conducted the first controlled clinical trial in the modern era of medicine, an investigation on using citrus food as a treatment for scurvy aboard HMS Salisbury in 1747|
|Computing||Charles Babbage||Inventor of the analytical engine, which was never constructed in his lifetime|
|Gastrointestinal physiology||William Beaumont|
|Genetics||Gregor Johann Mendel||Founder of genetics|
|Green Revolution||Norman Borlaug|
|Modern bladesmithing||William F. Moran||Founder of the American Bladesmith Society|
|Modern kinematics||Ferdinand Freudenstein||Applied digital computation to the kinematic synthesis of mechanisms|
|Modern Knifemaking||Bob Loveless||Founder of the Knifemakers' Guild|
|Modern Linguistics||Noam Chomsky|
|Nanotechnology||Richard Smalley||Nobel Prize Biography|
William Henry Fox Talbot
|Robotics||Al-Jazari||Al-Jazari Invented the first programmable humanoid robot in 1206
The Bānu Musā brothers invented an automatic flute which may have been the first programmable machine
|C (programming language)||Dennis Ritchie|
|Compiler||John Backus||Credited as having introduced the first complete compiler in 1957, although rudimental compilers (linker) were created by Grace Hopper in 1952 and by J. Halcombe Laning and Neal Zerlier (Laning and Zierler system) in 1954|
|Computer||Charles Babbage||The concepts he pioneered in his analytical engine later formed the basis of modern computers.|
|Alan Turing||Secret code breaker during WWII; invented the Turing machine (1936)|
|John V. Atanasoff||Invented the digital computer in the 1930s|
|Konrad Zuse||Invented world's first functional program-controlled computer|
|John von Neumann||Became "intrigued" with Turing's universal machine and later emphasised the importance of the stored-program concept for electronic computing (1945), including the possibility of allowing the machine to modify its own program in useful ways while running. John von Neumann is also considered to be the inventor of flowchart.|
|John W. Mauchly
|Invented the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) in 1946. ENIAC was the first general-purpose electronic computer capable of being reprogrammed to solve a full range of computing problems.|
|Computer program||Ada Lovelace||Recognized by historians as the writer of the world's first computer program which was for the Charles Babbage Analytical Engine, but was never completed.|
||Co-invented Internet protocol (IP) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) in 1973, the two original protocols of the Internet protocol suite.|
|Pentium microprocessor||Vinod Dham||The original Pentium (P5) was developed by a team of engineers, including John H. Crawford, chief architect of the original 386, and Donald Alpert, who managed the architectural team. Dror Avnon managed the design of the FPU. Dham was general manager of the P5 group. Some media sources have called him the "father of the Pentium".|
|Personal computer||Chuck Peddle||Developed the 6502 microprocessor, the KIM-1 and the Commodore PET|
|Henry Edward "Ed" Roberts
André Truong Trong Thi
|Programmable logic controller||Dick Morley|
|Search engine||Alan Emtage||Created Archie, a pre-Web search engine which pioneered many of the techniques used by subsequent search engines|
|World Wide Web||Tim Berners-Lee|
|Visual Basic||Alan Cooper|
|Air conditioning||Willis Carrier|||
|Battery||Alessandro Volta||Invented the first electrical battery, the Voltaic pile.|
|Chronograph||George Graham||Referred so by Bernard Humbert of the Horology School of Bienne on his 1990 book The Chronograph as Graham was the first to construct a horological mechanism|
|Color photography||Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky||A Russian chemist and photographer. He is best known for his pioneering work in color photography of early 20th-century Russia.|
|Compact Disc||Kees Immink|
|Ekranoplan||Rostislav Alexeev||Alexeyev revolutionised the shipbuilding industry (though in secrecy) by inventing craft that use ground effect, whereby a wing traveling close to the ground is provided with a better lift-drag ratio - thereby enabling a combination of greater aircraft weight for less power and/or enhanced fuel economy.|
|Modern firearms||John Moses Browning||Browning revolutionized the firearm industry with his automatic rifles that were manufactured by Winchester, Colt, Remington and Savage|
|Glow plug engine||Ray Arden||Invented the first glow plug for model engines|
|Helicopter||Igor Sikorsky||Invented the first successful helicopter, upon which further designs were based.|
|Instant noodle||Momofuku Ando||Inventor of the instant noodle, also founder of Nissin Foods to produce and market them.|
|Japanese television||Kenjiro Takayanagi|
|Jet engine||Frank Whittle|
|Karaoke||Daisuke Inoue||Inventor of the machine as a means of allowing people to sing without the need of a live back-up.|
|Laser||Charles Hard Townes|
|Lightning prediction system||Alexander Stepanovich Popov||The first lightning prediction system, the Lightning detector, was invented in 1894 by Alexander Stepanovich Popov.|
|Marine chronometer||John Harrison|
|Mobile phone||Martin Cooper|
|Periodic table||Dmitri Mendeleev||Russian chemist, Dmitri Mendeleev, arranged the elements in an order that we would now recognise. He realised that the physical and chemical properties of elements were related to their atomic mass in a 'periodic' way, and arranged them so that groups of elements with similar properties fell into vertical columns in his table.|
|Plastics||Leo Baekeland||Baekeland was responsible for the creation of Bakelite, an early marketable plastic, in 1907.|
Jagdish Chandra Bose
|The research of these pioneers led to the invention of radio|
|Radio (Radio broadcasting)||Reginald Fessenden
David Sarnoff
|Fessenden is credited as the first to broadcast radio signals on Christmas Eve, 1906. Sarnoff proposed a chain of radio stations to Marconi's associates in 1915.|
|Radio (FM radio)||Edwin H. Armstrong||Obtained the first Federal Communications Commission (FCC) license to operate an FM station in Alpine, New Jersey at approximately 50 megahertz (1939)|
|Spread spectrum||Paul Beard||Inventor of the spread spectrum, created Spektrum to promote its use.|
|Telephone||Johann Philipp Reis
Alexander Graham Bell
|See Invention of the telephone|
|Television||Philo T. Farnsworth||Co-Inventors of the Electronic Television. Farnsworth invented the Image dissector while Zworykin created the Iconoscope, both fully electronic forms of television. Logie Baird invented the world's first working television system, also the first electronic color television system.|
|Tube structure||Fazlur Rahman Khan||One of the greatest engineers of the 20th century. Invented the tube structural system and first employed it in his designs for the DeWitt-Chestnut Apartments, John Hancock Center and Sears Tower.|
Towns, cities, and regions
|British Columbia||James Douglas||Fur trader and manager for the North West Company and Hudson's Bay Company, Governor of the Colony of Vancouver Island and first Governor of the Colony of British Columbia.|
|Lan Kwai Fong||Allan Zeman||Noted for turning a small square of streets in Central, into a thriving bar and night life districts in Hong Kong.|
|Miami, Florida||Henry Flagler||Builder of the Florida East Coast Railway|
|San Bernardino County, California||Jefferson Hunt||Captain in the Mormon Battalion (1846), California State Legislator (1852), Brigadier General of the California Militia (1855)|
|20th century American car industry||Henry Ford||Noted for introducing a simple and affordable car for the ordinary American masses.|
|American Interstate Highway System||Dwight D. Eisenhower||Proposed and signed the act which created the System|
|Automatic transmission||Oscar Banker|
|Flight simulator||Edwin Albert Link||Developed the Link Trainer|
|Full-suspension mountain bike||Jon Whyte||Used his suspension design expertise at Benetton Formula to design the first full-suspension mountain bike for Marin Bikes.|
|Electric Automobile (Flocken Elektrowagen)||Andreas Flocken|
|Gasoline Automobile (Benz Patent-Motorwagen)||Carl Benz|
|Gasoline Omnibus||Carl Benz|
|Gasoline Motorcycle (Daimler Reitwagen)||Gottlieb Daimler/Wilhelm Maybach|
|Gasoline Truck||Gottlieb Daimler (DMG Lastkraftwagen)/Carl Benz|
|High-performance VW industry||Gene Berg|
|Hot rod||Ed Winfield|
|Import car culture||RJ DeVera||Influential for popularizing the import car scene in the mid-1990s.|
|Kustom Kulture||Von Dutch|
|Monster truck||Bob Chandler||Famed for building Bigfoot, which was the first to be capable of driving over cars and subsequently became one of the most famous monster truck in history|
|Mountain bike||Gary Fisher|
|Rock Crawling||Marlin Czajkowski||In 1994, Marlin made final drive ratios of 200:1 and lower possible in typical off road vehicles (primarily Toyota Hilux trucks) and changed the way people access remote off-roading destinations.|
|Rotary engine||Felix Wankel|
|Route 66||Cyrus Avery|
|Traffic safety||William Phelps Eno|
|Trolleybus (Electromote)||Werner von Siemens|
|Turbocharged engine||Paul Rosche||A lifetime employee of BMW, he evolutionized the turbocharged engine into automobile use. He also developed the first European turbocharged car, the racing 1969 BMW 2002 TiK that evolved into the production 1972 2002 Turbo.|
|Yellow school bus||Frank W. Cyr|
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One of the most important mechanical inventions in the history of humankind was the crankshaft, invented by the Muslim engineer Al-Jazari. He devised it to raise water for irrigation. He also invented or refined the use of valves and pistons, and was the father of robotics.
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Others gave amusement and aesthetic pleasure to the members of royal circles, which led him to invent the first programmable humanoid robot in 1206. Al-Jazari's robot was a boat with four automatic musicians that floated on a lake to entertain guests at royal drinking parties (Margaret 2006; Franchi and Güzeldere 2005).
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The modern school bus began in a conference in 1939 called by Frank W. Cyr, the 'Father of the Yellow School' bus, who was a professor at Teachers College, Columbia University. At that meeting, Cyr urged the standardization of the school bus. Participants came up with the standard yellow color and some basic construction standards. Cyr had... found that children were riding in all sorts of vehicles—one district, he found, was painting their buses red, white, and blue to instill patriotism.