Peopling of India
The peopling of India refers to the migration of Humans and Humanoids into India. Evidence of humanoid population in India may stretch as far back as 1,500,000 years before today.
Modern humans settled India in multiple waves of migrations, over tens of millennia. The first migrants came with the Southern Coastal dispersal, ca. 60,000 years ago, whereafter complex migrations within south and southeast Asia took place. With the onset of farming the population of India changed significantly by the migration of Dravidians and the Indo-European, while the migrations of the Munda people and the Tibeto-Burmese speaking people also added new elements.
- 1 Early hominins of Acheulean period
- 2 Ancestral Components in the Indian population
- 3 Paleolithic
- 4 Holocene
- 5 Debate
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Sources
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Early hominins of Acheulean period
Ancestral Components in the Indian population
Ancestral South Indians and Ancestral North Indians
Reich et al. (2009) discerned two major ancestral components in India, namely the Ancestral North Indians (ANI) which is "genetically close to Middle Easterners, Central Asians, and Europeans," and the Ancestral South Indians (ASI) which is clearly distinct from ANI and "not closely related to groups outside the subcontinent." According to Basu et al. (2016), the ASI are earliest settlers in India, possibly arriving on the southern exit wave out of Africa. These two groups mixed in India between 4,200 and 1,900 years ago (2200 BCE-100 CE), whereafter a shift to endogamy took place, possibly by the enforcement of "social values and norms" by the "Hindu Gupta rulers."
Moorjani et al. (2013) describe three scenarios regarding the bringing together of the two groups:
- Migrations before the development of agriculture (8,000–9,000 years before present BP).
- Migration of western Asian people together with the spread of agriculture, maybe up to 4,600 years BP.
- Migrations of western Eurasians from 3,000 to 4,000 years BP.
According to Moorjani et al. (2013), the ANI and the ASI were plausibly present "unmixed" in India before 2,200 BC.
According to Basu et al. (2016), mainland India harbors two additional distinct ancestral components which have contributed to the gene pools of the Indian subcontinent,[note 1] namely Ancestral Austro-Asiatic (AAA) and Ancestral Tibeto-Burman (ATB). According to Basu et al. (2016), the populations of the Andaman Islands archipelago form a distinct, fifth ancestry, which is "coancestral to Oceanic populations." According to Reich et al. (2009), "the indigenous Andaman Islanders are unique in being ASI-related groups without ANI ancestry."
First modern human settlers
Pre- or post-Toba
The dating of the earliest successful migration modern humans out of Africa is a matter of dispute. It may have happened either pre- or post-Toba, a catastrophic volcanic eruption that took place between 69,000 and 77,000 years ago at the site of present-day Lake Toba. Stone tools discovered below the layers of ash disposed in India at Jwalapuram, Andhra Pradesh, may point to a pre-Toba dispersal, but the exact source of these tools is disputed. An indication for post-Toba is haplo-group L3, that originated before the dispersal of humans out of Africa, and can be dated to 60,000–70,000 years ago, "suggesting that humanity left Africa a few thousand years after Toba."
It has been hypothesized that the Toba supereruption about 74,000 years ago destroyed much of India's central forests, covering it with a layer of volcanic ash, and may have brought humans worldwide to a state of near-extinction by suddenly plunging the planet into an ice-age that could have lasted for up to 1,800 years. If true, this may "explain the apparent bottleneck in human populations that geneticists believe occurred between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago" and the relative "lack of genetic diversity among humans alive today."
Since the Toba event is believed to have had such a harsh impact and "specifically blanketed the Indian subcontinent in a deep layer of ash," it was "difficult to see how India's first colonists could have survived this greatest of all disasters." Therefore, it was believed that all humans previously present in India went extinct during, or shortly after, this event and these first Indians left "no trace of their DNA in present-day humans" - a theory seemingly backed by genetic studies.
Research published in 2009 by a team led by Michael Petraglia of the University of Oxford suggested that some humans may have survived the hypothesized catastrophe on the Indian mainland. Undertaking "Pompeii-like excavations" under the layer of Toba ash, the team discovered tools and human habitations from both before and after the eruption. However, human fossils have not been found from this period, and nothing is known of the ethnicity of these early humans in India. Recent research also by Macauly et al. (2005) and Posth et al. (2016), also argue for a post-Toba dispersal.
Post-Toba Southern Coastal dispersal
By some 70,000 years ago, during the last glacial period (Würm glaciation) and at the onset of the socalled Paleolithic revolution, a part of the bearers of mitochondrial haplogroup L3 migrated from East Africa into the Near East.
It has been estimated that from a population of 2,000 to 5,000 individuals in Africa, only a small group, possibly as few as 150 to 1,000 people, crossed the Red Sea. The group that crossed the Red Sea travelled along the coastal route around the coast of Arabia and Persia until reaching India, which appears to be the first major settling point. Geneticist Spencer Wells says that the early travellers followed the southern coastline of Asia, crossed about 250 kilometres (155 mi) of sea, and colonized Australia by around 50,000 years ago. The Aborigines of Australia, Wells says, are the descendants of the first wave of migrations.
Hypothised "negrito" substrates
"Negritos" is a term used to characterize some tribal populations in southern India, including the Andamanese adivasis of today, who share physical similarities with Africans. Because of these similarities, the "negritos" were thought to be direct descendents from the first African settlers.
The appropriateness of using the label 'Negrito' to bundle together peoples of different ethnicity based on similarities in stature and complexion has been challenged. The Negrito peoples are more likely descended from the Australoid-Melanesian settlers of Southeast Asia. Vishwanathan et al. (2004) conclude that "the tribal groups of southern India share a common ancestry, regardless of phenotypic characteristics, and are more closely related to other Indian groups than to African groups." According to Vishwanathan et al. (2004), the typical "negrito" features could also hav ebeen developed by convergent evolution. According to Chaubey and Endicott (2013), "At the current level of genetic resolution, however, there is no evidence of a single ancestral population for the different groups traditionally defined as 'negritos."
The Andaman islanders are grouped among the "negritos." According to Reich et al. (2009), ASI, 'Proto-East-Asia' and Andaman islanders split around 1,700 generations ago.[note 2] Yet, according to Chaubey and Endicott (2013), the Andaman Islands were settled less than 26,000 years ago, by people who were not direct descendants of the first migrants out of Africa.[note 3] According to Wang et al. (2011),
...the Andaman archipelago was likely settled by modern humans from northeast India via the land-bridge which connected the Andaman archipelago and Myanmar around the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), a scenario in well agreement with the evidence from linguistic and palaeoclimate studies.
After the last Glacial maximum, human populations started to grow and migrate. With the invention of agriculture, the socalled Neolithic revolution, larger amounts of people could be sustained. The use of metals (copper, bronze, iron) further changed human ways of life, giving an initial advance to early users, and aiding further migrations, and admixture.
According to David McAlpin, the Dravidian languages were brought to India by immigration into India from Elam. According to Renfrew and Cavalli-Sforza, proto-Dravidian was brought to India by farmers from the Iranian part of the Fertile Crescent.[note 4] According to Mikhail Andronov, Dravidian languages were brought to India at the beginning of the third millennium BCE.
Kivisild et al. (1999) note that "a small fraction of the West Eurasian mtDNA lineages found in Indian populations can be ascribed to a relatively recent admixture." at ca. 9,300 ± 3,000 years before present, which coincides with "the arrival to India of cereals domesticated in the Fertile Crescent" and "lends credence to the suggested linguistic connection between the Elamite and Dravidic populations."
According to Gallego Romero et al. (2011), their research on lactose tolerance in India suggests that "the west Eurasian genetic contribution identified by Reich et al. (2009) principally reflects gene flow from Iran and the Middle East." Gallego Romero notes that Indians who are lactose-tolerant show a genetic pattern regarding this tolerance which is "characteristic of the common European mutation." According to Romero, this suggests that "the most common lactose tolerance mutation made a two-way migration out of the Middle East less than 10,000 years ago. While the mutation spread across Europe, another explorer must have brought the mutation eastward to India – likely traveling along the coast of the Persian Gulf where other pockets of the same mutation have been found."
According to Palanichamy et al. (2015), "The presence of mtDNA haplogroups (HV14 and U1a) and Y-chromosome haplogroup (L1) in Dravidian populations indicates the spread of the Dravidian language into India from west Asia."
Asko Parpola, who regards the Harappans to have been Dravidian, notes that Mehrgarh (7000 BCE to c. 2500 BCE), to the west of the Indus River valley, is a precursor of the Indus Valley Civilisation, whose inhabitants migrated into the Indus Valley and became the Indus Valley Civilisation. It is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming and herding in South Asia. According to Lukacs and Hemphill, while there is a strong continuity between the neolithic and chalcolithic (Copper Age) cultures of Mehrgarh, dental evidence shows that the chalcolithic population did not descend from the neolithic population of Mehrgarh, which "suggests moderate levels of gene flow." They further noted that "the direct lineal descendents of the Neolithic inhabitants of Mehrgarh are to be found to the south and the east of Mehrgarh, in northwestern India and the western edge of the Deccan plateau," with neolithic Mehrgarh showing greater affinity with chalocolithic Inamgaon, south of Mehrgarh, than with chalcolithic Mehrgarh.
According to Ness, there are three broad theories on the origins of the Austroasiatic speakers, namely northeastern India, central or southern China, or southeast Asia. Multiple researches indicate that the Austroasiatic populations in India are derived from (male) migrations from southeast Asia during the Holocene.[note 5] According to Van Driem (2007),
...the mitochondrial picture indicates that the Munda maternal lineage derives from the earliest human settlers on the Subcontinent, whilst the predominant Y chromosome haplogroup argues for a Southeast Asian paternal homeland for Austroasiatic language communities in India.
According to Chaubey et al. (2011), "AA speakers in India today are derived from dispersal from Southeast Asia, followed by extensive sex-specific admixture with local Indian populations."[note 6] According to Zhang et al. (2015), Austroasiatic (male) migrations from southeast Asia into India took place after the lates Glacial maximum, circa 10,000 years ago. According to Arunkumar et al. (2015), Y-chromosomal haplogroup O2a1-M95, which is typical for Austrosiatic speaking peoples, clearly decreases from Laos to east India, with "a serial decrease in expansion time from east to west," namely "5.7 ± 0.3 Kya in Laos, 5.2 ± 0.6 in Northeast India, and 4.3 ± 0.2 in East India." This suggests "a late Neolithic east to west spread of the lineage O2a1-M95 from Laos."
According to Riccio et al. (2011), the Munda people are likely descended from Austroasiatic migrants from southeast Asia. According to Ness, the Khasi probably migrated into India in the first millennium BCE.
The Indo-Aryan migration theory[note 7] explains the introduction of the Indo-Aryan languages in the Indian subcontinent by proposing migrations from the Sintashta culture through Bactria-Margiana Culture and into the northern Indian subcontinent (modern day India, Pakistan and Nepal). It is based on linguistic similarities between northern Indian and western European languages, and supported by archeological and anthropological research. They form part of a complex genetical puzzle on the origin and spread of the various components of the Indian population.
The Indo-Aryan migrations started in approximately 1,800 BCE, after the invention of the war chariot, and also brought Indo-Aryan languages into the Levant and possibly Inner Asia. It was part of the diffusion of Indo-European languages from the proto-Indo-European homeland at the Pontic steppe, a large area of grasslands in far Eastern Europe, which started in the 5th to 4th millennia BCE, and the Indo-European migrations out of the Eurasian steppes, which started approximately in 2,000 BCE.
The theory posits that these Indo-Aryan speaking people may have been a genetically diverse group of people who were united by shared cultural norms and language, referred to as aryā, "noble." Diffusion of this culture and language took place by patron-client systems, which allowed for the absorption and acculturalisation of other groups into this culture, and explains the strong influence on other cultures with which it interacted.
The idea of an Indo-Aryan immigration was developed shortly after the discovery of the Indo-European language family in the late 18th century, when similarities between western and Indian languages had been noted. Given these similarities, a single source or origin was proposed, which was diffused by migrations from some original homeland. This linguistic argument is complemented with archaeological, literary, and cultural evidence, and research and discussions on it continue.
The Proto-Indo-Iranians, from which the Indo-Aryans developed, are identified with the Sintashta culture (2100–1800 BCE), and the Andronovo culture, which flourished ca. 1800–1400 BCE in the steppes around the Aral sea, present-day Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The proto-Indo-Iranians were influenced by the Bactria-Margiana Culture, south of the Andronovo culture, from which they borrowed their distinctive religious beliefs and practices. The Indo-Aryans split off around 1800-1600 BCE from the Iranians, whereafter the Indo-Aryans migrated into the Levant and north-western India.
According to Cordaux et al. (2004), the Tibeto-Burmans possibly came from the Himalayan and north-eastern borders of the subcontinent within the past 4,200 years.
A wide variety of Tibeto-Burman languages are spoken on the southern slopes of the Himalayas. Sizable groups that have been identified are the West Himalayish languages of Himachal Pradesh and western Nepal, the Tamangic languages of western Nepal, including Tamang with one million speakers, and the Kiranti languages of eastern Nepal. The remaining groups are small, with several isolates.
The Newar language (Nepal Bhasa) of central Nepal has a million speakers and a literature dating from the 12th century, and nearly a million people speak Magaric languages, but the rest have small speech communities. Other isolates and small groups in Nepal are Dura, Raji–Raute, Chepangic and Dhimalish. Lepcha is spoken in an area from eastern Nepal to western Bhutan. Most of the languages of Bhutan are Bodish, but it also has three small isolates, 'Ole ("Black Mountain Monpa"), Lhokpu and Gongduk and a larger community of speakers of Tshangla.
Crossovers in languages and ethnicity
One complication in studying various population groups is that ethnic origins and linguistic affiliations in India match only inexactly: while the Oraon adivasis are classified as an Australoid group, their language, called Kurukh, is Dravidian. Nicobarese is considered to be Mongoloid groups and the Munda and Santals Adivasi are Australoid groups, but all four speak Austro-Asiatic languages. The Bhils and Gonds Adivasi are frequently classified as Australoid groups, yet Bhil languages are Indo-European and the Gondi language is Dravidian.
- Genetics and archaeogenetics of South Asia
- Early human migrations
- Australoid race
- Indo-Aryan migration hypothesis
- Basu et al. (2016): "By sampling populations, especially the autochthonous tribal populations, which represent the geographical, ethnic, and linguistic diversity of India, we have inferred that at least four distinct ancestral components—not two, as estimated earlier have contributed to the gene pools of extant populations of mainland India."
- According to Basu et al. (2016): "The Andaman archipelago was peopled by members of a distinct, fifth ancestry," yet they also state that "ADMIXTURE analysis with K = 3 shows ASI plus AAA to be a single population."
- Chaubey and Endicott (2013):
* "these estimates suggest that the Andamans were settled less than ~26 ka and that differentiation between the ancestors of the Onge and Great Andamanese commenced in the Terminal Pleistocene." (p.167)
* "In conclusion, we find no support for the settlement of the Andaman Islands by a population descending from the initial out-of-Africa migration of humans, or their immediate descendants in South Asia. It is clear that, overall, the Onge are more closely related to Southeast Asians than they are to present-day South Asians." (p.167)
- Derenko: "The spread of these new technologies has been associated with the dispersal of Dravidian and Indo-European languages in southern Asia. It is hypothesized that the proto-Elamo-Dravidian language, most likely originated in the Elam province in southwestern Iran, spread eastwards with the movement of farmers to the Indus Valley and the Indian sub-continent."
Derenko refers to:
* Renfrew (1987), Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins
* Renfrew (1996), Language families and the spread of farming. In: Harris DR, editor, The origins and spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia, pp. 70–92
* Cavalli-Sforza, Menozzi, Piazza (1994), The History and Geography of Human Genes.
- Nevertheless, according to Basu et al. (2016), the AAA were early settlers in India, related to the ASI: "The absence of significant resemblance with any of the neighboring populations is indicative of the ASI and the AAA being early settlers in India, possibly arriving on the “southern exit” wave out of Africa. Differentiation between the ASI and the AAA possibly took place after their arrival in India (ADMIXTURE analysis with K = 3 shows ASI plus AAA to be a single population in SI Appendix, Fig. S2).
- See also:
* Dienekes Anthropology Blog, Origin of Indian Austroasiatic speakers
* Razib Khan (2010), Sons of the conquerors: the story of India?
* Razib Khan (2013), Phylogenetics implies Austro-Asiatic are intrusive to India
- The term "invasion" is only being used nowadays by opponents of the Indo-Aryan Migration theory. The term "invasion" does not reflect the contemporary scholarly understanding of the Indo-Aryan migrations, and is merely being used in a polemical and distractive way.
- Edwin Bryant & Laurie L. Patton (2005), The Indo-Aryan Controversy, Routledge, ISBN 0-7007-1462-6, retrieved 2008-11-25,
... we now exist in an era where one's use of evidence is inevitably suspect of being linked to nationalist, colonialist, or cultural agendas ... No issue is more illustrative of this impasse than the debate about Aryan origins ...
- Early Pleistocene Presence of Acheulian Hominins in South India
- Reich et al. 2009.
- Metspalu et al. 2011.
- Moorjani et al. 2013.
- Moorjani 2013.
- Basu 2016.
- Basu et al. 2016, p. 1598.
- Moorjani et al. 2013, p. 422-423.
- Basu 2016, p. 1598.
- Basu 2016, p. 1594.
- Reich 2009, p. 489.
- Appenzeller 2015.
- "Supervolcano Eruption - In Sumatra - Deforested India 73,000 Years Ago", ScienceDaily, Nov 24, 2009, retrieved Mar 1, 2011,
... new study provides "incontrovertible evidence" that the volcanic super-eruption of Toba on the island of Sumatra about 73,000 years ago deforested much of central India, some 3,000 miles from the epicenter ... initiating an "Instant Ice Age" that - according to evidence in ice cores taken in Greenland - lasted about 1,800 years ...
- Stephen Oppenheimer (2004), Out of Eden: the peopling of the world, Robinson, 2004, ISBN 978-1-84119-894-1,
... The Toba event specifically blanketed the Indian subcontinent in a deep layer of ash. It is difficult to see how India's first colonists could have survived this greatest of all disasters. So, we could predict a broad human extinction ...
- Michael D. Petraglia; Bridget Allchin (2007-05-22), The evolution and history of human populations in South Asia: Inter-disciplinary Studies in Archaeology, Biological Anthropology, Linguistics and Genetics, Springer, 2007, ISBN 978-1-4020-5561-4,
... had H. sapiens colonized India before the eruption? The majority of genetic evidence seems to suggest that the initial colonization of India took place soon after the Toba event. It should be noted, however, that on the basis of this evidence, the hypothesis that modern human populations inhabited India before ~74ka and underwent extinction as a result of Toba cannot be ruled out. If population extinction occurred, there would be no trace of their DNA in present-day humans ...
- New evidence shows populations survived the Toba super-eruption 74,000 years ago, University of Oxford, Feb 22, 2009, retrieved Mar 1, 2011,
... Newly discovered archaeological sites in southern and northern India have revealed how people lived before and after the colossal Toba volcanic eruption 74,000 years ago. The international, multidisciplinary research team, led by Oxford University in collaboration with Indian institutions, has uncovered what it calls ‘Pompeii-like excavations’ beneath the Toba ash ... suggests that human populations were present in India prior to 74,000 years ago, or about 15,000 years earlier than expected based on some genetic clocks,’ said project director Dr Michael Petraglia ...
- Macauly 2005.
- Bradshaw Foundation, Human Migration
- Posth 2016.
- K. Kris Hirst, Southern Dispersal Route - Early Modern Humans Leave Africa
- Zhivotovsky; Rosenberg, NA; Feldman, MW; et al. (2003). "Features of Evolution and Expansion of Modern Humans, Inferred from Genomewide Microsatellite Markers". American Journal of Human Genetics 72 (5): 1171–86. doi:10.1086/375120. PMC 1180270. PMID 12690579.
- Stix, Gary (2008). "The Migration History of Humans: DNA Study Traces Human Origins Across the Continents". Retrieved 2011-06-14.
- Metspalu M, Kivisild T, Metspalu E, Parik J, Hudjashov G, Kaldma K, Serk P, Karmin M, Behar DM, Gilbert MT, Endicott P, Mastana S, Papiha SS, Skorecki K, Torroni A, Villems R (August 2004). "Most of the extant mtDNA boundaries in south and southwest Asia were likely shaped during the initial settlement of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans". BMC Genet. 5: 26. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-5-26. PMC 516768. PMID 15339343.
- Rincon, Paul (April 24, 2008). "Human line 'nearly split in two'". BBC News. Retrieved 2009-12-31.
- Vishwanathan 2004.
- Manickham 2009.
- Chaubey and Endicott (2013), The Andaman Islanders in a Regional Genetic Context: Reexamining the Evidence for an Early Peopling of the Archipelago from South Asia, Human Biology 85 (1-3)
- Reich 2009a, p. 40.
- Wang et al. (2011), Mitochondrial DNA evidence supports northeast Indian origin of the aboriginal Andamanese in the Late Paleolithic, Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Volume 38, Issue 3, 20 March 2011, Pages 117–122
- Revathi Rajkumar et al., Phylogeny and antiquity of M macrohaplogroup inferred from complete mt DNA sequence of Indian specific lineages, BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005, 5:26 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-5-26
- David McAlpin, "Toward Proto-Elamo-Dravidian", Language vol. 50 no. 1 (1974); David McAlpin: "Elamite and Dravidian, Further Evidence of Relationships", Current Anthropology vol. 16 no. 1 (1975); David McAlpin: "Linguistic prehistory: the Dravidian situation", in Madhav M. Deshpande and Peter Edwin Hook: Aryan and Non-Aryan in India, Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (1979); David McAlpin, "Proto-Elamo-Dravidian: The Evidence and its Implications", Transactions of the American Philosophical Society vol. 71 pt. 3, (1981)
- Dhavendra Kumar (2004), Genetic Disorders of the Indian Subcontinent, Springer, ISBN 1-4020-1215-2, retrieved 2008-11-25,
... The analysis of two Y chromosome variants, Hgr9 and Hgr3 provides interesting data (Quintan-Murci et al., 2001). Microsatellite variation of Hgr9 among Iranians, Pakistanis and Indians indicate an expansion of populations to around 9000 YBP in Iran and then to 6,000 YBP in India. This migration originated in what was historically termed Elam in south-west Iran to the Indus valley, and may have been associated with the spread of Dravidian languages from south-west Iran (Quintan-Murci et al., 2001). ...
- Cavalli-Sforza 1994, p. 221-222.
- Namita Mukherjee, Almut Nebel, Ariella Oppenheim and Partha P. Majumder (December 2001), "High-resolution analysis of Y-chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from central Asia and West Asia into India" (PDF), Journal of Genetics (Springer India) 80 (3): 125–35, doi:10.1007/BF02717908, PMID 11988631, retrieved 2008-11-25,
... More recently, about 15,000-10,000 years before present (ybp), when agriculture developed in the Fertile Crescent region that extends from Israel through northern Syria to western Iran, there was another eastward wave of human migration (Cavalli-Sforza et al., 1994; Renfrew 1987), a part of which also appears to have entered India. This wave has been postulated to have brought the Dravidian languages into India (Renfrew 1987). Subsequently, the Indo-European (Aryan) language family was introduced into India about 4,000 ybp ...
- Derenko 2013.
- Andronov 2003, p. 299.
- Kivisild 1999, p. 1331.
- Kivisild 1999, p. 1333.
- Gallego Romero 202011, p. 9.
- Rob Mitchum (2011), Lactose Tolerance in the Indian Dairyland, ScienceLife
- Palanichamy (2015), p. 645.
- "Stone age man used dentist drill".
- Parpola 2015, p. 17.
- UNESCO World Heritage. 2004. ". Archaeological Site of Mehrgarh
- Hirst, K. Kris. 2005. "Mehrgarh". Guide to Archaeology
- Coningham & Young 2015, p. 114.
- Ness 2014, p. 265.
- van Driem 2007a.
- Chaubey 2010.
- Riccio et al. (2011), The Austroasiatic Munda population from India and Its enigmatic origin: a HLA diversity study.
- Zhang 2015.
- Arunkumar 2015.
- van Driem 2007a, p. 7.
- Miguel Vilar (2015), DNA Reveals Unknown Ancient Migration Into India, National Geographic
- The Language Gulper, Austroasiatic Languages
- Beckwith 2009, p. 30.
- Witzel 2005, p. 348.
- Anthony 2007, pp. 408–411.
- Kuz'mina 2007, p. 222.
- Beckwith 2009, p. 33.
- Bryant 2001.
- Anthony 2009, p. 390 (fig. 15.9), 405-411.
- Anthony 2009, p. 49.
- Anthony 2007, p. 408.
- Richard Cordaux , Gunter Weiss, Nilmani Saha and Mark Stoneking (2004), "The Northeast Indian Passageway: A Barrier or Corridor for Human Migrations?", Molecular Biology and Evolution (Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution) 21: 1525–33, doi:10.1093/molbev/msh151, PMID 15128876, retrieved 2008-11-25,
... Our coalescence analysis suggests that the expansion of Tibeto-Burman speakers to northeast India most likely took place within the past 4,200 years ...
- van Driem (2007), p. 296.
- van Driem (2011a).
- Jim Cummins & David Corson (1999), Bilingual Education, Springer, ISBN 0792348060, retrieved 2008-11-25,
... over one million speakers each: Bhili (Indo-Aryan) 4.5 million; Santali (Austric) 4.2 m; Gondi (Dravidian) 2.0 m; and Kurukh (Dravidian) 1.3 million ...
- R. Khongsdier; Nandita Mukherjee (2003), "Growth and nutritional status of Khasi boys in Northeast India relating to exogamous marriages and socioeconomic classes", American Journal of Physical Anthropology 122 (2): 162–70, doi:10.1002/ajpa.10305, PMID 12949836, retrieved 2008-11-25,
... The Khasis are one of the Indo-Mongoloid tribes in Northeast India. They speak the Monkhmer language, which belongs to the Austro-Asiatic group (Das, 1978) ...
- Govinda Chandra Rath (2006), Tribal Development in India: The Contemporary Debate, SAGE, ISBN 0761934235, retrieved 2008-11-25,
... The Car Nicobarese are of Mongoloid stock ... The Nicobarese speak different languages of the Nicobarese group, which belongs to an Austro-Asiatic language sub-family ...
- Malini Srivastava (2007), "The Sacred Complex of Munda Tribe" (PDF), Anthropologist, retrieved 2008-11-25,
... Racially, they are proto-australoid and speak Mundari dialect of Austro-Asiatic ...
- A. B. Chaudhuri (1993), State Formation Among Tribals: A Quest for Santal Identity, Gyan Publishing House, ISBN 8121204224, retrieved 2008-11-25,
... The Santal is a large Proto-Australoid tribe found in West Bengal, northern Orissa, Bihar, Assam as also in Bangladesh ... The solidarity having been broken, the Santals are gradually adopting languages of the areas inhabited, like Oriya in Orissa, Hindi in Bihar and Bengali in West Bengal and Bangladesh ...
- A. B. Chaudhuri (1949), Tribal Heritage: A Study of the Santals, Lutterworth Press, retrieved 2008-11-25,
... The Santals belong to his second "main race", the Proto-Australoid, which he considers arrived in India soon after the Negritos ...
- U. Shankarkumar (2003), "A Correlative Study of HLA, Sickle Cell Gene and G6PD Deficiency with Splenomegaly and Malaria Incidence Among Bhils and Pawra Tribes from Dhadgon, Dhule, Maharastra" (PDF), Studies of Tribes and Tribals 1 (2): 91–94, retrieved 2008-11-25,
... The Bhils are one of the largest tribes concentrated mainly in Western Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Eastern Gujarat and Northern Maharastra. Racially they were classified as Gondids, Malids or Proto-Australoid, but their social history is still a mystery (Bhatia and Rao, 1986) ...
- Andronov, Mikhail Sergeevich (2003). A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-04455-4.
- Anthony, David W. (2007), The Horse The Wheel And Language. How Bronze-Age Riders From the Eurasian Steppes Shaped The Modern World, Princeton University Press
- Appenzeller, Tim (2012). "Human migrations: Eastern odyssey. Humans had spread across Asia by 50,000 years ago. Everything else about our original exodus from Africa is up for debate.". Nature 485 (7396).
- Arunkumar; et al. (2015), "A late Neolithic expansion of Y chromosomal haplogroup O2a1-M95 from east to west", Journal of Systematics and Evolution 53 (6): 546–560, doi:10.1111/jse.12147
- Basu, Analabha; Sarkar-Roya, Neeta; Majumder, Partha P. (February 9, 2016), "Genomic reconstruction of the history of extant populations of India reveals five distinct ancestral components and a complex structure", PNAS 113 (6)
- Beckwith, Christopher I. (16 March 2009), Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present, Princeton University Press, ISBN 1-4008-2994-1, retrieved 30 December 2014
- Bryant, Edwin (2001), The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The Indo-Aryan Migration Debate, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-513777-9.
- Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca; Menozzi, Paolo; Piazza, Alberto (1994), The History and Geography of Human Genes, Princeton University Press
- Chaubey; et al. (2011), "Population Genetic Structure in Indian Austroasiatic Speakers: The Role of Landscape Barriers and Sex-Specific Admixture", Mol Biol Evol 28 (2): 1013–1024, doi:10.1093/molbev/msq288
- Coningham, Robin; Young, Ruth (2015), The Archaeology of South Asia: From the Indus to Asoka, c.6500 BCE–200 CE, Cambridge University Press
- Derenko, Miroslava (2013), "Complete Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Iranians", PLoS ONE 8 (11): e80673, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080673
- van Driem, George L. (2007), "South Asia and the Middle East", in Moseley, Christopher, Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages, Routledge, pp. 283–347, ISBN 978-0-7007-1197-0
- van Driem, Goerge L. (2007b), Austroasiatic phylogeny and the Austroasiatic homeland in light of recent population genetic studies (PDF)
- van Driem, George L. (2011a), "Tibeto-Burman subgroups and historical grammar", Himalayan Linguistics Journal 10 (1): 31–39
- Kivisild; et al. (1999), "Deep common ancestry of Indian and western-Eurasian mitochondrial DNA lineages" (PDF), Curr. Biol. 9: 1331–1334
- Kuz'mina, Elena Efimovna (2007), J. P. Mallory, ed., The Origin of the Indo-Iranians, Brill, ISBN 90-04-16054-X
- Manickham, Sandra Khor (2009), "Africans in Asia: The Discourse of 'Negritos' in Early Nineteenth-century Southeast Asia", in Hägerdal, Hans, Responding to the West: Essays on Colonial Domination and Asian Agency, Amsterdam University Press, pp. 69–79, ISBN 978-90-8964-093-2
- Metspalu, Mait; Romero, Irene Gallego; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Mallick, Chandana Basu; Hudjashov, Georgi; Nelis, Mari; Mägi, Reedik; Metspalu, Ene; Remm, Maido; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas (2011), "Shared and Unique Components of Human Population Structure and Genome-Wide Signals of Positive Selection in South Asia", The American Journal of Human Genetics 89 (6): 731–744, doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.11.010, ISSN 0002-9297
- Moorjani, P.; Thangaraj, K.; Patterson, N.; Lipson, M.; Loh, P. R.; Govindaraj, P.; Singh, L. (2013), "Genetic evidence for recent population mixture in India", The American Journal of Human Genetics 93 (3): 422–438, doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.07.006, PMC 3769933, PMID 23932107
- Ness, Immanuel (2014), The Global Prehistory of Human Migration, The Global Prehistory of Human Migration
- Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder (2015), "West Eurasian mtDNA lineages in India: an insight into the spread of the Dravidian language and the origins of the caste system", Human Genetics 134 (6): 637–647, doi:10.1007/s00439-015-1547-4
- Posth, Cosimo (2016). "Pleistocene Mitochondrial Genomes Suggest a Single Major Dispersal of Non-Africans and a Late Glacial Population Turnover in Europe". Current Biology.
- Ruhlen, Merritt (1991), A Guide to the World's Languages: Classification, Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0-8047-1894-3.
- Parpola, Asko (2010), A Dravidian solution to the Indus script problem (PDF), World Classical Tamil Conference
- Parpola, Asko (2015), The Roots of Hinduism. The Early Arians and the Indus Civilization, Oxford University Press
- Reich, David; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.; Singh, Lalji (2009), "Reconstructing Indian population history", Nature 461 (7263): 489–494, Bibcode:2009Natur.461..489R, doi:10.1038/nature08365, ISSN 0028-0836, PMC 2842210, PMID 19779445
- Reich, David; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.; Singh, Lalji (2009b), "Reconstructing Indian population history: Supplementary material" (PDF), Nature
- Vishwanathan, H.; Deepa, E.; Cordaux, R.; Stoneking, M.; Usha Rani, M. V.; Majumder, P. P. (2004), "Genetic structure and affinities among tribal populations of southern India: a study of 24 autosomal DNA markers", Annals of Human Genetics 68 (2): 128–138, doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2003.00083.x/full#ss4
- Wells, Spencer (2002), The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-11532-X
- Witzel, Michael (2005), "Indocentrism", in Bryant, Edwin; Patton, Laurie L., TheE Indo-Aryan Controversy. Evidence and inference in Indian history (PDF), Routledge
- Zhang; et al. (2015), "Y-chromosome diversity suggests southern origin and Paleolithic backwave migration of Austro-Asiatic speakers from eastern Asia to the Indian subcontinent", Nature Scientific Reports 5: 15486, Bibcode:2015NatSR...515486Z, doi:10.1038/srep15486
- Ness, Immanuel (2014), The Global Prehistory of Human Migration, The Global Prehistory of Human Migration