"Pepa" is a hornpipe which has been used during Bihu celebrations since ancient times. It was mostly blown by the Deori priests in olden times to imitate the music needed to summon Tian gods, much like the Shofar used by Jews. The Tibetans and ancient Chinese also used similar instruments named Rwa-dun for religious rituals. Later, it was used as a musical instrument for festive occasions like Bihu.
As the buffalo population is dwindling gradually in Assam due to shrinking pastoral lands, getting a pepa is currently very difficult. Cost of a pepa in market has even reached ₹2500 in recent years.
- Dilip Ranjan Barthakur (2003). The Music and Musical Instruments of North Eastern India. Mittal Publications. pp. 116–. ISBN 978-81-7099-881-5.