Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, also perfluorinated alkylated substances) are synthetic organofluorine chemical compounds that have multiple fluorine atoms attached to an alkyl chain. As such, they contain at least one perfluoroalkyl moiety, –CnF2n–. According to OECD, there are at least 4730 different PFASs with at least three perfluorinated carbons. A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) toxicity database, DSSTox, even lists 8163 PFASs. A subgroup, the fluorosurfactants or fluorinated surfactants, have a fluorinated “tail” and a hydrophilic “head” and are thus surfactants. They are more effective at reducing the surface tension of water than comparable hydrocarbon surfactants. They include the perfluorosulfonic acids such as the perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and the perfluorocarboxylic acids such as the perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). PFOS and PFOA are persistent organic pollutants and are detected in humans and wildlife.
Physical and chemical properties of fluorosurfactants
Fluorosurfactants can reduce the surface tension of water down to a value half of what is attainable by using hydrocarbon surfactants. This ability is due to the lipophobic nature of fluorocarbons, as fluorosurfactants tend to concentrate at the liquid-air interface. They are not as susceptible to the London dispersion force, a factor contributing to lipophilicity, because the electronegativity of fluorine reduces the polarizability of the surfactants' fluorinated molecular surface. Therefore, the attractive interactions resulting from the "fleeting dipoles" are reduced, in comparison to hydrocarbon surfactants. Fluorosurfactants are more stable and fit for harsh conditions than hydrocarbon surfactants because of the stability of the carbon–fluorine bond. Likewise, perfluorinated surfactants persist in the environment for that reason.
PFASs play a key economic role for companies such as DuPont, 3M, and W. L. Gore & Associates because they are used in emulsion polymerization to produce fluoropolymers. They have two main markets: a $1 billion annual market for use in stain repellents, and a $100 million annual market for use in polishes, paints, and coatings.
Health and environmental concerns
Human health concerns associated with PFASs
On their introduction in the 1940s, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were considered inert molecules since they lacked a chemically active group. In fact, early occupational studies revealed elevated levels of fluorochemicals, including PFOS and PFOA, in the blood of exposed industrial workers but cited no ill health effects. These results were consistent with the measured serum concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in 3M plant workers ranging from 0.04 to 10.06 ppm and 0.01-12.70 ppm respectively, well below toxic and carcinogenic levels cited in animal studies. However, given the "forever chemical" property of PFASs (serum elimination half-life 4–5 years) and widespread environmental contamination, molecules have been shown to accumulate in humans to such a degree that adverse health outcomes have resulted.
In 2021, consumer advocate Erin Brockovich wrote about research by epidemiologist Shanna Swan, Icahn School of Medicine, linking hormone-disrupting chemicals, including PFAS, with rapid declines in human fertility.
The most comprehensive epidemiological studies linking[vague] adverse human health effects to PFASs, particularly PFOA, come from the C8 Science Panel. The panel was formed as part of a contingency to a class action lawsuit brought by communities in the Ohio River Valley against DuPont in response to landfill and wastewater dumping of PFAS laden material from the West Virginia Washington Works Plant. The panel measured PFOA (also known as C8) serum concentration in 69,000 individuals from around DuPont's Washington Works Plant and found a mean concentration of 83.0 ng/mL, compared to 4 ng/mL in a standard population of Americans. From this panel, 35 studies investigating probable links[vague] between elevated C8 blood concentration and specific health outcomes were determined by measures of association and are summarized below.
Animal studies in the 1990s and early 2000s primarily aimed to investigate the effect of two widely used long-chain PFASs, perfluorooctane acid (PFOA, C8) and perfluorooctane sulphonic acid (PFOS, C8), on peroxisome proliferation in rat livers. These studies determined that PFOA and PFOS acted as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists, increasing lipid metabolism. A paradoxical response is observed in humans where elevated PFOS levels were significantly associated with[vague] elevated total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, highlighting significantly reduced PPAR expression and alluding to PPAR independent pathways predominating over lipid metabolism in humans compared to rodents.
PFOA and PFOS have been shown to significantly alter immune and inflammatory responses in human and animal species. In particular, IgA, IgE (in females only) and C-reactive protein have been shown to decrease whereas antinuclear antibodies increase as PFOA serum concentrations increase. These cytokine variations allude to immune response aberrations resulting in autoimmunity. One proposed mechanism is a shift towards anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages and/or T-helper (TH2) response in intestinal epithelial tissue which allows sulfate-reducing bacteria to flourish. Elevated levels of hydrogen sulfide result which reduce beta-oxidation and thus nutrient production leading to a breakdown of the colonic epithelial barrier.
Hypothyroidism is the most common thyroid abnormality associated with[vague] PFAS exposure. PFASs have been shown to decrease thyroid peroxidase, resulting in decreased production and activation of thyroid hormones in vivo. Other proposed mechanisms include alterations in thyroid hormone signaling, metabolism and excretion as well as function of nuclear hormone receptor.
Rat studies investigating the carcinogenicity of PFASs reported significant correlation with liver adenomas, Leydig cell tumors of the testis and pancreatic acinar cell tumors and dietary PFOA consumption. Naturally, The C8 Science Panel investigated the potential relationship between PFAS exposure and these three cancer types as well as 18 other cancer types in their epidemiological studies. Contrary to the animal studies, the C8 studies did not find a probable link[vague] between elevated C8 exposure and liver adenomas or pancreatic acinar cell tumors; however, a probable link[vague] was found with regards to testis and kidney cancer. Two mechanisms have been proposed by which PFOA could cause Leydig cell tumors. Both mechanisms start by proposing that PROA exposure results in increased PPAR alpha activation in the liver which increases hepatic aromatase concentration and subsequent serum estrogen levels. The mechanisms now diverge, with one pathway suggesting elevated estradiol levels increase Tissue Growth Factor alpha (TGF alpha) which prompts Leydig cell proliferation. The other pathway suggests that aromatization of testosterone to estradiol reduces serum testosterone levels resulting in increased release of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland which directly results in Leydig Cell tumorgenesis. A mechanism has not yet been proposed to explain how kidney cancer could be caused by C8 exposure as no in vivo animal studies have been able to model this epidemiological outcome.
Pregnancy-induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia
Pregnancy-induced hypertension is diagnosed when maternal systolic blood pressure (SBP) exceeds 140mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) exceeds 90mmHg after 20 weeks gestation. Diagnostic criteria is the same for pre-eclampsia as pregnancy-induced hypertension; however, it also confers proteinuria. Mechanisms by which pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia could be caused by PFAS exposure have remained elusive and are largely speculative to date. One proposed mechanism highlights alterations in immune function leading to disruption of placentation, specifically as it pertains to natural killer (NK) cell infiltration of the placenta to facilitate trophoblastic integration with placental blood supply. Another mechanism refers to agonism of PPARs contributing to alterations in cholesterol, triglyceride and uric acid levels which may lead to vascular inflammation and elevated blood pressure.
Other adverse health outcomes that have been attributed to elevated PFAS exposure but were not found to be probable links[vague] in the C8 studies are decreased antibody response to vaccines, asthma, decreased mammary gland development, low birth weight (-0.7oz per 1 ng/mL increase in blood PFOA or PFOS level), decreased bone mineral density and neurodevelopmental abnormalities.
The total annual health-related costs associated with human exposure to PFASs was found to be at least €52-€84 billion in the EEA countries. Aggregated annual costs covering environmental screening, monitoring where contamination is found, water treatment, soil remediation and health assessment are totalling to €821 million-€170 billion in the EEA plus Switzerland.
Fluorosurfactants such as perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) have caught the attention of regulatory agencies because of their persistence, toxicity, and widespread occurrence in the blood of general populations and wildlife. In 2009, PFASs were listed as persistent organic pollutants under the Stockholm Convention, due to their ubiquitous, persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic nature. PFAS chemicals were dubbed the "Forever Chemicals" following a 2018 op-ed. The nickname was derived by combining the two dominant attributes of this class of chemicals: 1) PFAS chemicals are characterized by a carbon-fluorine (C-F) backbone (the "F-C" in "Forever Chemicals"); and 2) the carbon fluorine bond is one of the strongest bonds in organic chemistry, which gives these chemicals an extremely long environmental half-life (the "Forever" in "Forever Chemicals"). The Forever Chemicals name is now commonly used in media outlets in addition to the more technical name of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances, or PFASs. Their production has been regulated or phased out by manufacturers, such as 3M, DuPont, Daikin, and Miteni in the US, Japan, and Europe. In 2006 3M replaced PFOS and PFOA with short-chain PFASs, such as perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorobutanesulfonic acid and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS). Shorter fluorosurfactants may be less prone to accumulating in mammals; there is still concern that they may be harmful to both humans, and the environment at large. A majority of PFAS are either not covered by European legislation or are excluded from registration obligations under REACH (which is the European flagship chemical legislation). Several PFASs have been detected in drinking water, municipal wastewater and landfill leachates, worldwide.
In 2017, the ABC's current affairs programme Four Corners reported that the storage and use of firefighting foams containing perfluorinated surfactants at Australian Defence Force facilities around Australia had contaminated nearby water resources. In 2019, remediation efforts at RAAF Base Tindal and the adjacent town of Katherine were ongoing.
Although PFASs are not manufactured in Canada, they may be present in imported goods and products. In 2008, Canada prohibited the import, sale, or use of PFOS or PFOS-containing products, with some exceptions for products used in firefighting, in the military, and in some forms of ink and photo media.
Health Canada has published drinking water guidelines for maximum concentrations of PFOS and PFOA. The guidelines were established to protect the health of Canadians, including children, over a lifetime's exposure to these substances. The maximum allowable concentration for PFOS under the guidelines is 0.0002 milligrams per litre. The maximum allowable concentration for PFOA is 0.0006 milligrams per litre.
Although it is recognized that they may also cause disease, for example through absorption via drinking water, water companies in the United Kingdom do not test for PFASs.
Certain PFASs are no longer manufactured in the United States, as a result of phase-outs including the PFOA Stewardship Program, in which eight major chemical manufacturers agreed to eliminate the use of PFOA and PFOA-related chemicals in their products and as emissions from their facilities. Although PFOA and PFOS are no longer manufactured in the United States, they are still produced internationally and can be imported into the United States in consumer goods such as carpet, leather and apparel, textiles, paper and packaging, coatings, rubber and plastics. There are an estimated 26,000 PFAS-contaminated sites across the United States, and scientists have estimated that at least six million Americans have PFAS-contaminated drinking water above the existing safe limits recommended by EPA.
In 2020, manufacturers and the FDA announced an agreement to phase out some types of PFAS which are used in food packaging by 2024.
EPA published non-enforceable drinking water health advisories for PFOA and PFOS in 2016, but as of early 2021 has not issued drinking water regulations for any of the PFASs. In March 2021 EPA announced that it will develop national drinking water standards for PFOA and PFOS. EPA also proposed that drinking water utilities begin to conduct monitoring for 29 PFAS compounds. EPA would use the monitoring data to possibly develop additional regulations.
Launched in 2017, the Michigan PFAS Action Response Team (MPART) is the first multi-agency action team of its kind in the nation. Agencies representing health, environment and other branches of state government have joined together to investigate sources and locations of PFAS contamination in the state, take action to protect people's drinking water, and keep the public informed.
Groundwater is tested at locations throughout the state by various parties to ensure safety, compliance with regulations, and to proactively detect and remedy potential problems. In 2010, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) discovered levels of PFASs in groundwater monitoring wells at the former Wurtsmith Air Force Base. As additional information became available from other national testing, Michigan expanded its investigations into other locations where PFAS compounds were potentially used.
In 2018, the MDEQ's Remediation and Redevelopment Division (RRD) established cleanup criteria for groundwater used as drinking water of 70 ppt of PFOA and PFOS, individually or combined. The RRD staff are responsible for implementing these criteria as part of their ongoing efforts to clean-up sites of environmental contamination. The RRD staff are the lead investigators at most of the PFAS sites on the MPART website and also conduct interim response activities, such as coordinating bottled water or filter installations with local health departments at sites under investigation or with known PFAS concerns. Most of the groundwater sampling at PFAS sites under RRD's lead is conducted by contractors familiar with PFAS sampling techniques. The RRD also has a Geologic Services Unit, with staff who install monitoring wells and are also well versed with PFAS sampling techniques.
The MDEQ has been conducting environmental clean-up of regulated contaminants for decades. Due to the evolving nature of PFAS regulations as new science becomes available, the RRD is evaluating the need for regular PFAS sampling at Superfund sites and is including an evaluation of PFAS sampling needs as part of a Baseline Environmental Assessment review.
Earlier this year, the RRD purchased lab equipment that will allow the MDEQ Environmental Lab to conduct analyses of certain PFAS samples. (Currently, most samples are shipped to one of the few labs in the country that conduct PFAS analysis, in California, although private labs in other parts of the country, including Michigan, are starting to offer these services.) As of August 2018, RRD has hired additional staff to work on developing the methodology and conducting PFAS analyses.
In February 2018, 3M settled a lawsuit for $850 million related to contaminated drinking water in Minnesota.
In 2018 the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) published a drinking water standard for PFNA. Public water systems in New Jersey are required to meet a maximum contaminant level (MCL) standard of 13 ppt. In 2020 the state set a PFOA standard at 14 ppt and a PFOS standard at 13 ppt.
In 2019 NJDEP filed lawsuits against the owners of two plants that had manufactured PFASs, and two plants that were cited for water pollution from other chemicals. The companies cited are DuPont, Chemours and 3M. NJDEP also declared five companies to be financially responsible for statewide remediation of the chemicals. Among the companies accused were Arkema and Solvay in regard to a West Deptford Facility in Gloucester County, where Arkema manufactured PFASs, but Solvay claims to have never manufactured but only handled PFASs. The companies denied liability, and contested the directive.
Class action lawsuits
In October 2018, a class action suit was filed by an Ohio firefighter against several producers of fluorosurfactants, including the 3M and DuPont corporations, on behalf of all US residents who may have adverse health effects from exposure to PFASs. Five New Jersey companies were declared to be financially responsible for statewide remediation of the chemicals in a directive from the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection in March 2019.
In February 2017, DuPont and Chemours (a DuPont spin-off) agreed to pay $671 million to settle lawsuits arising from 3,550 personal injury claims related to releasing of PFASs from their Parkersburg, West Virginia plant, into the drinking water of several thousand residents. This was after a court-created independent scientific panel, "The C8 Science Panel", found a 'probable link' between C8 exposure and six illnesses: kidney and testicular cancer, ulcerative colitis, thyroid disease, pregnancy-induced hypertension and high cholesterol.
Corporate and federal government suppression of information
Starting in the 1970s, 3M scientists learned that PFOS and PFOA were toxic to humans, documenting damage to the human immune system. Also in the 1970s, 3M scientists found that these substances accumulate over time in the human body. However, 3M suppressed revelation of these facts to the public or to regulators.
Water contamination by U.S. military bases
The water in and around at least 126 U.S. military bases has been contaminated by high levels of PFASs, according to a study by the U.S. Department of Defense. Of these, 90 bases reported PFAS contamination that had spread to drinking water or ground water off the base. The chemical is correlated with cancer and birth defects.
Occupational exposure to PFASs occurs in numerous industries due to the widespread use of PFASs in products and as an element of industrial process streams. PFASs are used in more than 200 different ways in industries as diverse as electronics and equipment manufacturing, plastic and rubber production, food and textile production, and building and construction. Occupational exposure to PFASs can occur at fluorochemical facilities that produce PFASs and other manufacturing facilities that use PFASs for industrial processing like the chrome plating industry. Workers who handle PFAS-containing products can also be exposed during their work. Examples include people who install PFAS-containing carpets and leather furniture with PFAS coatings, professional ski-waxers using PFAS-based waxes, and fire-fighters who use PFAS-containing foam and wear flame-resistant protective gear impregnated with PFASs.
People who are exposed to PFASs through their jobs typically have higher levels of PFASs in their blood than the general population. Additionally, while the general population is exposed to PFASs through ingested food and water, occupational exposure includes both accidental ingestion and inhalation exposure in settings where a PFAS becomes volatilized. There has been increased attention to the health risks associated with exposure to PFASs, which can affect the immune system, increase cholesterol, and increase the risk of cancer. The severity of PFAS-associated health effects can vary based on the length of exposure, level of exposure, and health status. In 2009, under decision SC-4/17, certain PFASs (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, its salts and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride) were listed in Annex B of the 2009 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, dictating acceptable purposes and specific exemptions to the chemical usage. Among these exemptions are numerous uses in manufacturing as well as firefighting foams.
Professional ski wax technicians
Professional ski wax technicians are disproportionately exposed to PFASs from the glide wax used to coat the bottom of skis to reduce the friction between the skis and snow. During this process, the wax is heated to 130-220 °C, which releases fumes and airborne fluorinated compounds. Exposure to aerosolized PFASs is associated with alveolic edema, polymer fume fever, severe dyspnea, decreased pulmonary function, and respiratory distress syndrome in those chronically exposed. In a 2010 study, blood serum levels of PFOA were significantly higher in ski wax technicians compared to levels of the general Swedish population. Serum levels of PFOA in ski wax technicians was positively correlated with years spent working, suggesting bioaccumulation of PFOA over time.
People who work at fluorochemical production plants and in manufacturing industries that use PFASs in the industrial process can be exposed to PFASs in the workplace. Much of what we know about PFASs exposure and health effects began with medical surveillance studies of workers exposed to PFASs at fluorochemical production facilities. These studies began in the 1940s and were conducted primarily at U.S. and European manufacturing sites. Between the 1940s and 2000s, thousands of workers exposed to PFASs participated in research studies that advanced scientific understanding of exposure pathways, toxicokinetic properties, and adverse health effects associated with exposure.
The first research study to report elevated organic fluorine levels in the blood of fluorochemical workers was published in 1980. This study established inhalation as a potential route of occupational PFAS exposure by reporting measurable levels of organic fluorine in air samples at the facility. Workers at fluorochemical production facilities have higher levels of PFOA and PFOS in their blood than the general population. Serum PFOA levels in fluorochemical workers are generally below 20,000 ng/mL but have been reported as high as 100,000 ng/mL whereas the mean PFOA concentration among non-occupationally exposed cohorts in the same time frame was 4.9 ng/mL. Among fluorochemical workers, those with direct contact with PFASs have higher PFASs concentrations in their blood than those with intermittent contact and those with no direct PFAS contact. Further, blood PFAS levels decline when direct contact ceases. Levels of PFOA and PFOS have declined in US and European fluorochemical workers due to improved facilities, increased usage of personal protective equipment, and the phase out of these chemicals from production. However, occupational exposure to PFASs in manufacturing continues to be an active area of study in China with numerous investigations linking worker exposure to various PFASs.
PFASs are commonly used in Class B firefighting foams due to their hydrophobic and lipophobic properties as well as the stability of the chemicals when exposed to high heat. Due to firefighters’ potential for exposure to PFASs through these aqueous film forming foams (AFFF), studies raise concerns that there are high levels of bioaccumulation of PFASs in firefighters who work and train with these substances.
Research into occupational exposure for firefighters is emergent, though frequently limited by underpowered study designs. A 2011 cross-sectional analysis of the C8 Health Studies found higher levels of PFHxS in firefighters compared to the sample group of the region, with other PFASs at elevated levels, without reaching statistical significance. A 2014 study in Finland studying eight firefighters over three training sessions observed select PFASs (PFHxS and PFNA) increase in blood samples following each training event. Due to this small sample size, a test of significance was not conducted. A 2015 cross-sectional study conducted in Australia found that accumulation of PFOS and PFHxS was positively associated with years of occupational AFFF exposure through firefighting.
Due to their use in training and testing, recent studies indicate occupational risk for military members and firefighters, as higher levels of PFASs in exposure were indicated in military members and firefighters when compared to the general population. Further, exposure to PFASs is prevalent among firefighters not only due to its use in emergencies but because it is also used in personal protective equipment. In support of these findings, states like Washington and Colorado have moved to restrict and penalize the use of Class B firefighting foam which contains PFAS for firefighter training and testing.
Exposure after World Trade Center terrorist attacks
The September 11, 2001 collapse of the World Trade Center buildings in New York City resulted in the release of chemicals from the destruction of construction and electrical material and long-term chemical fires. This collapse caused the release of several toxic chemicals, including fluorinated surfactants used as soil- and stain-resistant coatings on various materials. First responders to this incident were exposed to PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS, through inhalation of dust and smoke released during and after the collapse of the World Trade Center.
Fire responders who were working at or near ground zero were assessed for respiratory and other health effects from exposure to emissions at the World Trade Center. Early clinical testing showed high prevalence of respiratory health effects. Early symptoms of exposure often presented with persistent coughing and wheezing. PFOA and PFHxS levels were present in both smoke and dust exposure. Yet, first responders with smoke exposures had higher concentrations of PFOA and PFHxS than those with dust exposures.
Several technologies are currently available for remediating PFASs in liquids. These technologies can be applied to drinking water supplies, groundwater, industrial wastewater, surface water, and other miscellaneous applications (such as landfill leachate). Influent concentrations of PFASs can vary by orders of magnitude for specific media or applications. These influent values, along with other general water quality parameters (for example, pH) can influence the performance and operating costs for the treatment technologies. The technologies are:
- Granular activated carbon
- Ion exchange
- Redox manipulation (chemical oxidation and reduction technologies)
- Membrane filtration
- Reverse osmosis
Private and public sector applications of one or more of these methodologies above is being applied to remediation sites throughout the United States and other international locations. Most solutions involve on-site treatment systems, while others are leveraging off-site infrastructure and facilities, such as a centralized industrial wastewater treatment facility, to treat and dispose of the PFAS pool of compounds.
Theoretical and early stage solutions
The Michigan State University-Fraunhofer team has a viable solution to treat PFAS-contaminated wastewater that, in 2018, was reported to be ready for a pilot-scale investigation. The electrochemical oxidation system used boron-doped diamond electrodes, in a process breaking down the contaminants’ formidable molecular bonds and cleaning the water while systematically destroying the hazardous compounds.
"EO, or electrochemical oxidation, is a simple, clean and effective method for destruction of PFAS and other co-contaminants as a complementary procedure to other wastewater treatment processes," said Cory Rusinek, electrochemist at MSU-Fraunhofer. "If we can remove it from wastewater, we can reduce its occurrence in surface waters."
In September 2019 it was reported Acidimicrobium sp. strain A6 could be a potential remediator.
|Name||Abbreviation||Structural formula||Molecular weight (g/mol)||CAS No.|
|Name||Abbreviation||Structural formula||Molecular weight (g/mol)||CAS No.|
- Timeline of events related to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)
- Entegris, formerly Fluoroware, of Chaska, MN, manufacturer of teflon components for health and semiconductor Fabs.
- FSI International, now TEL FSI
- Fluoropolymer - another class of polyfluoroalkyl substances
- Buck RC, Franklin J, Berger U, Conder JM, Cousins IT, de Voogt P, et al. (October 2011). "Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the environment: terminology, classification, and origins". Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. 7 (4): 513–41. doi:10.1002/ieam.258. PMC 3214619. PMID 21793199.
- Ritscher A, Wang Z, Scheringer M, Boucher JM, Ahrens L, Berger U, et al. (August 2018). "Zürich Statement on Future Actions on Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)". Environmental Health Perspectives. 126 (8): 84502. doi:10.1289/EHP4158. PMC 6375385. PMID 30235423.
- Toward a New Comprehensive Global Database of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs): Summary Report on Updating the OECD 2007 List of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) (Report). Series on Risk Management No. 39. OECD.
- "PFAS structures in DSSTox (update August 2020)". CompTox Chemicals Dashboard. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Proteciton Agency (EPA). Retrieved November 19, 2020. " List consists of all DTXSID records with a structure assigned, and using a set of substructural filters based on community input."
- Houde M, Martin JW, Letcher RJ, Solomon KR, Muir DC (June 2006). "Biological monitoring of polyfluoroalkyl substances: A review". Environmental Science & Technology. 40 (11): 3463–73. Bibcode:2006EnST...40.3463H. doi:10.1021/es052580b. PMID 16786681. Supporting Information (PDF).
- Salager J (2002). "Surfactants-Types and Uses" (PDF). FIRP Booklet # 300-A. Universidad de los Andes Laboratory of Formulation, Interfaces Rheology, and Processes: 45. Retrieved September 7, 2008. Cite journal requires
- "Fluorosurfactant — Structure / Function". Mason Chemical Company. 2007. Archived from the original on July 5, 2008. Retrieved November 1, 2008.
- Renner R (January 2006). "The long and the short of perfluorinated replacements". Environmental Science & Technology. 40 (1): 12–3. Bibcode:2006EnST...40...12R. doi:10.1021/es062612a. PMID 16433328.
- "Guide to PFAS in our environment debuts". C&EN Global Enterprise. 97 (21): 12. May 27, 2019. doi:10.1021/cen-09721-polcon2. ISSN 2474-7408.
- "Preliminary Lists of PFOS, PFAS, PFOA and Related Compounds and Chemicals that May Degrade to PFCA". OECD Papers. 6 (11): 1–194. October 25, 2006. doi:10.1787/oecd_papers-v6-art38-en. ISSN 1609-1914.
- Ubel FA, Sorenson SD, Roach DE (August 1980). "Health status of plant workers exposed to fluorochemicals--a preliminary report". American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 41 (8): 584–9. doi:10.1080/15298668091425310. PMID 7405826.
- Olsen GW, Burris JM, Burlew MM, Mandel JH (March 2003). "Epidemiologic assessment of worker serum perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations and medical surveillance examinations". Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 45 (3): 260–70. doi:10.1097/01.jom.0000052958.59271.10. PMID 12661183. S2CID 11648767.
- Emerging chemical risks in Europe — 'PFAS', European Environment Agency, 2019
- Toxicological profile for Perfluoroalkyls, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2018.
- Some Chemicals Used as Solvents and in Polymer Manufacture, IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Volume 110, 2016.
- Barry V, Winquist A, Steenland K (2013). "Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposures and incident cancers among adults living near a chemical plant". Environmental Health Perspectives. 121 (11–12): 1313–8. doi:10.1289/ehp.1306615. PMC 3855514. PMID 24007715.
- Fenton SE, Reiner JL, Nakayama SF, Delinsky AD, Stanko JP, Hines EP, et al. (June 2009). "Analysis of PFOA in dosed CD-1 mice. Part 2. Disposition of PFOA in tissues and fluids from pregnant and lactating mice and their pups". Reproductive Toxicology. 27 (3–4): 365–372. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2009.02.012. PMC 3446208. PMID 19429407.
- White SS, Stanko JP, Kato K, Calafat AM, Hines EP, Fenton SE (August 2011). "Gestational and chronic low-dose PFOA exposures and mammary gland growth and differentiation in three generations of CD-1 mice". Environmental Health Perspectives. 119 (8): 1070–6. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002741. PMC 3237341. PMID 21501981.
- Brockovich, Erin (March 18, 2021). "Plummeting sperm counts, shrinking penises: toxic chemicals threaten humanity". The Guardian. London, United Kingdom. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved March 18, 2021.
- Swan, Shanna H; Colino, Stacey (February 2021). Count down: how our modern world is threatening sperm counts, altering male and female reproductive development, and imperiling the future of the human race. New York, USA: Scribner. ISBN 978-1-9821-1366-7.
- "C8 Science Panel Website". www.c8sciencepanel.org. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
- Steenland K, Jin C, MacNeil J, Lally C, Ducatman A, Vieira V, Fletcher T (July 2009). "Predictors of PFOA levels in a community surrounding a chemical plant". Environmental Health Perspectives. 117 (7): 1083–8. doi:10.1289/ehp.0800294. PMC 2717134. PMID 19654917.
- Hosokawa M, Satoh T (October 1993). "Differences in the induction of carboxylesterase isozymes in rat liver microsomes by perfluorinated fatty acids". Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems. 23 (10): 1125–33. doi:10.3109/00498259309059427. PMID 8259694.
- DeWitt JC, Shnyra A, Badr MZ, Loveless SE, Hoban D, Frame SR, et al. (January 8, 2009). "Immunotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha". Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 39 (1): 76–94. doi:10.1080/10408440802209804. PMID 18802816. S2CID 96896603.
- DeWitt JC, Peden-Adams MM, Keller JM, Germolec DR (November 22, 2011). "Immunotoxicity of perfluorinated compounds: recent developments". Toxicologic Pathology. 40 (2): 300–11. doi:10.1177/0192623311428473. PMID 22109712. S2CID 35549835.
- Steenland K, Zhao L, Winquist A, Parks C (August 2013). "Ulcerative colitis and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in a highly exposed population of community residents and workers in the mid-Ohio valley". Environmental Health Perspectives. 121 (8): 900–5. doi:10.1289/ehp.1206449. PMC 3734500. PMID 23735465.
- Lee JE, Choi K (March 2017). "Perfluoroalkyl substances exposure and thyroid hormones in humans: epidemiological observations and implications". Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism. 22 (1): 6–14. doi:10.6065/apem.2017.22.1.6. PMC 5401824. PMID 28443254.
- Song M, Kim YJ, Park YK, Ryu JC (August 2012). "Changes in thyroid peroxidase activity in response to various chemicals". Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 14 (8): 2121–6. doi:10.1039/c2em30106g. PMID 22699773.
- Barry V, Winquist A, Steenland K (2013). "Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposures and incident cancers among adults living near a chemical plant". Environmental Health Perspectives. 121 (11–12): 1313–8. doi:10.1289/ehp.1306615. PMC 3855514. PMID 24007715.
- Klaunig JE, Hocevar BA, Kamendulis LM (July 2012). "Mode of Action analysis of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) tumorigenicity and Human Relevance". Reproductive Toxicology. 33 (4): 410–418. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2011.10.014. PMID 22120428.
- Li K, Gao P, Xiang P, Zhang X, Cui X, Ma LQ (February 2017). "Molecular mechanisms of PFOA-induced toxicity in animals and humans: Implications for health risks". Environment International. 99: 43–54. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2016.11.014. PMID 27871799.
- Tonks, D. L. (September 1994). "Percolation wave propagation, and void link-up effects in ductile fracture". Le Journal de Physique IV. 04 (C8): C8–665-C8-670. Bibcode:1994STIN...9511209T. doi:10.1051/jp4:19948101. ISSN 1155-4339.
- Starling, A.P. (2013). Perflourylalkyl substances in pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Thesis). pp. 1–215. doi:10.17615/qhqh-4265.
- "Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)", Health Care Policy and Politics a to Z, CQ Press, 2009, doi:10.4135/9781452240121.n18, ISBN 9780872897762
- Hu Y, Liu G, Rood J, Liang L, Bray GA, de Jonge L, et al. (December 2019). "Perfluoroalkyl substances and changes in bone mineral density: A prospective analysis in the POUNDS-LOST study". Environmental Research. 179 (Pt A): 108775. Bibcode:2019ER....179j8775H. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2019.108775. PMC 6905427. PMID 31593837.
- Donauer S, Chen A, Xu Y, Calafat AM, Sjodin A, Yolton K (March 2015). "Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and infant neurobehavior". The Journal of Pediatrics. 166 (3): 736–42. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.11.021. PMC 4344877. PMID 25524317.
- Calafat AM, Wong LY, Kuklenyik Z, Reidy JA, Needham LL (November 2007). "Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in the U.S. population: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 and comparisons with NHANES 1999-2000". Environmental Health Perspectives. 115 (11): 1596–602. doi:10.1289/ehp.10598. PMC 2072821. PMID 18007991.
- Wang Z, Cousins IT, Berger U, Hungerbühler K, Scheringer M (2016). "Comparative assessment of the environmental hazards of and exposure to perfluoroalkyl phosphonic and phosphinic acids (PFPAs and PFPiAs): Current knowledge, gaps, challenges and research needs". Environment International. 89–90: 235–47. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2016.01.023. PMID 26922149.
- Blum A, Balan SA, Scheringer M, Trier X, Goldenman G, Cousins IT, et al. (May 2015). "The Madrid Statement on Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)". Environmental Health Perspectives. 123 (5): A107-11. doi:10.1289/ehp.1509934. PMC 4421777. PMID 25932614.
- "Stockholm Convention Clearing". chm.pops.int. Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
- "Opinion | These toxic chemicals are everywhere — even in your body. And they won't ever go away". Washington Post. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
- Turkewitz J (February 22, 2019). "Toxic 'Forever Chemicals' in Drinking Water Leave Military Families Reeling". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
- Kounang N. "FDA confirms PFAS chemicals are in the US food supply". CNN. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
- "Critics say EPA action plan on toxic 'forever chemicals' falls short". The Washington Post. February 14, 2019.
- Companies deny responsibility for toxic ‘forever chemicals’ contamination The Guardian, 2019
- Wang Z, Cousins IT, Scheringer M, Hungerbuehler K (February 2015). "Hazard assessment of fluorinated alternatives to long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors: status quo, ongoing challenges and possible solutions". Environment International. 75: 172–9. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2014.11.013. PMID 25461427.
- Birnbaum LS, Grandjean P (May 2015). "Alternatives to PFASs: perspectives on the science". Environmental Health Perspectives. 123 (5): A104-5. doi:10.1289/ehp.1509944. PMC 4421778. PMID 25932670.
- Perry MJ, Nguyen GN, Porter ND (2016). "The Current Epidemiologic Evidence on Exposures to Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) and Male Reproductive Health". Current Epidemiology Reports. 3 (1): 19–26. doi:10.1007/s40471-016-0071-y. ISSN 2196-2995. S2CID 88276945.
- Scheringer M, Trier X, Cousins IT, de Voogt P, Fletcher T, Wang Z, Webster TF (November 2014). "Helsingør statement on poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs)". Chemosphere. 114: 337–9. Bibcode:2014Chmsp.114..337S. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.05.044. PMID 24938172.
- "The "forever chemicals" that are harming our health: PFAS". Health and Environment Alliance. February 4, 2020. Archived from the original on February 6, 2020. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- Thomaidi VS, Tsahouridou A, Matsoukas C, Stasinakis AS, Petreas M, Kalantzi OI (April 2020). "Risk assessment of PFASs in drinking water using a probabilistic risk quotient methodology". The Science of the Total Environment. 712: 136485. Bibcode:2020ScTEn.712m6485T. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.136485. PMID 31927447.
- Arvaniti OS, Stasinakis AS (August 2015). "Review on the occurrence, fate and removal of perfluorinated compounds during wastewater treatment". The Science of the Total Environment. 524–525: 81–92. Bibcode:2015ScTEn.524...81A. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.04.023. PMID 25889547.
- Nika MC, Ntaiou K, Elytis K, Thomaidi VS, Gatidou G, Kalantzi OI, et al. (July 2020). "Wide-scope target analysis of emerging contaminants in landfill leachates and risk assessment using Risk Quotient methodology". Journal of Hazardous Materials. 394: 122493. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122493. PMID 32240898.
- "'Shocked and disgusted' Katherine residents demand action on PFAS contamination". ABC News. October 10, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
- McLennan, Chris (December 5, 2019). "Tindal's PFAS hot spots record startling results". Katherine Times. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
- O'Keeffe, Juliette. "Keeping Drinking Water Safe: New Guidelines for PFAS in Canada". National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health. National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
- "Perfluoroalkylated substances in drinking water". canada.ca. Government of Canada. April 2019. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
- Salvidge, Rachel (March 25, 2021). "UK 'flying blind' on levels of toxic chemicals in tap water". The Guardian. Retrieved March 27, 2021.
- "Fact Sheet: 2010/2015 PFOA Stewardship Program". Assessing and Managing Chemicals under TSCA. EPA. August 9, 2018.
- "Basic Information on PFAS". EPA. December 6, 2018.
- Timmis A (January 2018). "Using Dredged Materials to Improve a Salt Marsh". The Military Engineer. 110 (712): 61.
- Hu XC, Andrews DQ, Lindstrom AB, Bruton TA, Schaider LA, Grandjean P, et al. (October 2016). "Detection of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in U.S. Drinking Water Linked to Industrial Sites, Military Fire Training Areas, and Wastewater Treatment Plants". Environmental Science & Technology Letters. 3 (10): 344–350. doi:10.1021/acs.estlett.6b00260. PMC 5062567. PMID 27752509.
- Hahn, Stephen M. (July 31, 2020). "FDA Announces Voluntary Agreement with Manufacturers to Phase Out Certain Short-Chain PFAS Used in Food Packaging". FDA. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
- "Drinking Water Health Advisories for PFOA and PFOS". EPA. December 9, 2020.
- "Fact Sheet; PFOA & PFOS Drinking Water Health Advisories". November 2016. EPA 800-F-16-003.
- "PFAS laws and Regulations". EPA. November 17, 2020.
- EPA (2021-03-03). "Announcement of Final Regulatory Determinations for Contaminants on the Fourth Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List." Federal Register, 86 FR 12272
- EPA (2021-03-11). "Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5) for Public Water Systems and Announcement of Public Meeting; Proposed rule." Federal Register, 86 FR 13846
- "Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5) for Public Water Systems". EPA. December 2020. Fact Sheet for the Proposed Rule. EPA 815-F-20-004.
- "FY 2020 Fast Facts". Michigan PFAS Action Response Team. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy. Retrieved March 27, 2021.
- "3M Settles Minnesota Lawsuit for $850 Million". Bloomberg. June 7, 2019. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
- Fallon, Scott (September 6, 2018). "New Jersey becomes first state to regulate dangerous chemical PFNA in drinking water". North Jersey Record. Woodland Park, NJ.
- "Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for Perfluorononanoic Acid and 1,2,3-Trichloropropane; Private Well Testing for Arsenic, Gross Alpha Particle Activity, and Certain Synthetic Organic Compounds". Trenton, NJ: New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP). September 4, 2018. 50 N.J.R. 1939(a).
- "Adoption of ground water quality standards and maximum contaminant levels for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS)". NJDEP. June 1, 2020.
- "AG Grewal, DEP Commissioner Announce 4 New Environmental Lawsuits Focused on Contamination Allegedly Linked to DuPont, Chemours, 3M". Totowa, NJ: New Jersey Office of the Attorney General. March 27, 2019. Press release.
- Norton, Gerard P. (April 17, 2019). "Re: Statewide PFAS Directive, Information Request and Notice to Insurers". Letter to Shawn LaTourette – via Internet Archive.
- Warren, Michael Sol (May 13, 2019). "State ordered chemical companies to pay for pollution clean-up. They say, no way!". NJ.com. NJ Advance Media. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
- Sharon Lerner (October 6, 2018). "Nationwide class action lawsuit targets Dupont, Chemours, 3M, and other makers of PFAS chemicals". The Intercept. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
- "DuPont settles lawsuits over leak of chemical used to make Teflon". Reuters. February 13, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
- "Dark Waters Movie | Official Website | Trailers and Release Dates | Focus Features". Dark Waters Movie | Official Website | Trailers and Release Dates | Focus Features. Retrieved November 20, 2019.
- Lerner, Sharon (July 31, 2018). "3M Knew about The Dangers of PFOA and PFOS Decades Ago, Internal Documents Show". The Intercept. First Look Media Works, Inc.
- Halpern, Michael (May 16, 2018). "Bipartisan Outrage as EPA, White House Try to Cover Up Chemical Health Assessment". Cambridge, MA: Union of Concerned Scientists.
- Snider, Annie (May 14, 2018). "White House, EPA headed off chemical pollution study". Politico.
- Military Times, 26 Apr. 2018 "DoD: At Least 126 Bases Report Water Contaminants Linked to Cancer, Birth Defects"
- Glüge J, Scheringer M, Cousins IT, DeWitt JC, Goldenman G, Herzke D, et al. (October 2020). "An overview of the uses of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)". Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts. 22 (12): 2345–2373. doi:10.1039/D0EM00291G. PMC 7784712. PMID 33125022.
- Peaslee GF, Wilkinson JT, McGuinness SR, Tighe M, Caterisano N, Lee S, et al. (August 11, 2020). "Another Pathway for Firefighter Exposure to Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances: Firefighter Textiles". Environmental Science & Technology Letters. 7 (8): 594–599. doi:10.1021/acs.estlett.0c00410. ISSN 2328-8930.
- Nilsson H, Kärrman A, Westberg H, Rotander A, van Bavel B, Lindström G (March 2010). "A time trend study of significantly elevated perfluorocarboxylate levels in humans after using fluorinated ski wax". Environmental Science & Technology. 44 (6): 2150–5. Bibcode:2010EnST...44.2150N. doi:10.1021/es9034733. PMID 20158198.
- Rotander A, Toms LM, Aylward L, Kay M, Mueller JF (September 2015). "Elevated levels of PFOS and PFHxS in firefighters exposed to aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)". Environment International. 82: 28–34. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2015.05.005. PMID 26001497.
- Trowbridge J, Gerona RR, Lin T, Rudel RA, Bessonneau V, Buren H, Morello-Frosch R (March 2020). "Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances in a Cohort of Women Firefighters and Office Workers in San Francisco". Environmental Science & Technology. 54 (6): 3363–3374. Bibcode:2020EnST...54.3363T. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b05490. PMC 7244264. PMID 32100527.
- Tanner EM, Bloom MS, Wu Q, Kannan K, Yucel RM, Shrestha S, Fitzgerald EF (February 2018). "Occupational exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and serum levels of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in an aging population from upstate New York: a retrospective cohort study". International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 91 (2): 145–154. doi:10.1007/s00420-017-1267-2. PMID 29027000. S2CID 3950077.
- Fromme H, Tittlemier SA, Völkel W, Wilhelm M, Twardella D (May 2009). "Perfluorinated compounds--exposure assessment for the general population in Western countries". International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 212 (3): 239–70. doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2008.04.007. PMID 18565792.
- Kärrman A, Harada KH, Inoue K, Takasuga T, Ohi E, Koizumi A (May 2009). "Relationship between dietary exposure and serum perfluorochemical (PFC) levels--a case study". Environment International. 35 (4): 712–7. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2009.01.010. PMID 19250678.
- Costa G, Sartori S, Consonni D (March 2009). "Thirty years of medical surveillance in perfluooctanoic acid production workers". Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 51 (3): 364–72. doi:10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181965d80. PMID 19225424. S2CID 34813716.
- Olsen GW, Burris JM, Burlew MM, Mandel JH (November 2000). "Plasma cholecystokinin and hepatic enzymes, cholesterol and lipoproteins in ammonium perfluorooctanoate production workers". Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 23 (4): 603–20. doi:10.1081/DCT-100101973. PMID 11071397. S2CID 30289350.
- Olsen GW, Burris JM, Ehresman DJ, Froehlich JW, Seacat AM, Butenhoff JL, Zobel LR (September 2007). "Half-life of serum elimination of perfluorooctanesulfonate,perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in retired fluorochemical production workers". Environmental Health Perspectives. 115 (9): 1298–305. doi:10.1289/ehp.10009. PMC 1964923. PMID 17805419.
- Olsen GW, Burris JM, Mandel JH, Zobel LR (September 1999). "Serum perfluorooctane sulfonate and hepatic and lipid clinical chemistry tests in fluorochemical production employees". Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 41 (9): 799–806. doi:10.1097/00043764-199909000-00012. PMID 10491796.
- Olsen GW, Chang SC, Noker PE, Gorman GS, Ehresman DJ, Lieder PH, Butenhoff JL (February 2009). "A comparison of the pharmacokinetics of perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) in rats, monkeys, and humans". Toxicology. 256 (1–2): 65–74. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2008.11.008. PMID 19059455.
- Olsen GW, Ehresman DJ, Buehrer BD, Gibson BA, Butenhoff JL, Zobel LR (August 2012). "Longitudinal assessment of lipid and hepatic clinical parameters in workers involved with the demolition of perfluoroalkyl manufacturing facilities". Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 54 (8): 974–83. doi:10.1097/JOM.0b013e31825461d2. PMID 22842914. S2CID 11478469.
- Olsen GW, Zobel LR (November 2007). "Assessment of lipid, hepatic, and thyroid parameters with serum perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations in fluorochemical production workers". International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 81 (2): 231–46. doi:10.1007/s00420-007-0213-0. PMID 17605032. S2CID 25537444.
- Sakr CJ, Kreckmann KH, Green JW, Gillies PJ, Reynolds JL, Leonard RC (October 2007). "Cross-sectional study of lipids and liver enzymes related to a serum biomarker of exposure (ammonium perfluorooctanoate or APFO) as part of a general health survey in a cohort of occupationally exposed workers". Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 49 (10): 1086–96. doi:10.1097/JOM.0b013e318156eca3. PMID 18000414. S2CID 20124680.
- Sakr CJ, Leonard RC, Kreckmann KH, Slade MD, Cullen MR (August 2007). "Longitudinal study of serum lipids and liver enzymes in workers with occupational exposure to ammonium perfluorooctanoate". Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 49 (8): 872–9. doi:10.1097/JOM.0b013e318124a93f. PMID 17693785. S2CID 7339239.
- Sakr CJ, Symons JM, Kreckmann KH, Leonard RC (October 2009). "Ischaemic heart disease mortality study among workers with occupational exposure to ammonium perfluorooctanoate". Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 66 (10): 699–703. doi:10.1136/oem.2008.041582. PMID 19553230. S2CID 30652104.
- Steenland K, Zhao L, Winquist A (May 2015). "A cohort incidence study of workers exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)". Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 72 (5): 373–80. doi:10.1136/oemed-2014-102364. PMID 25601914. S2CID 28440634.
- Olsen GW, Gilliland FD, Burlew MM, Burris JM, Mandel JS, Mandel JH (July 1998). "An epidemiologic investigation of reproductive hormones in men with occupational exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid". Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 40 (7): 614–22. doi:10.1097/00043764-199807000-00006. PMID 9675720.
- Olsen GW, Church TR, Miller JP, Burris JM, Hansen KJ, Lundberg JK, et al. (December 2003). "Perfluorooctanesulfonate and other fluorochemicals in the serum of American Red Cross adult blood donors". Environmental Health Perspectives. 111 (16): 1892–901. doi:10.1289/ehp.6316. PMC 1241763. PMID 14644663.
- Olsen GW, Church TR, Larson EB, van Belle G, Lundberg JK, Hansen KJ, et al. (March 2004). "Serum concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate and other fluorochemicals in an elderly population from Seattle, Washington". Chemosphere. 54 (11): 1599–611. Bibcode:2004Chmsp..54.1599O. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.09.025. PMID 14675839.
- Olsen GW, Church TR, Hansen KJ, Burris JM, Butenhoff JL, Mandel JH, Zobel LR (January 1, 2004). "Quantitative Evaluation of Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and Other Fluorochemicals in the Serum of Children". Journal of Children's Health. 2 (1): 53–76. doi:10.3109/15417060490447378. ISSN 1541-7069.
- Olsen GW, Huang HY, Helzlsouer KJ, Hansen KJ, Butenhoff JL, Mandel JH (May 2005). "Historical comparison of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorooctanoate, and other fluorochemicals in human blood". Environmental Health Perspectives. 113 (5): 539–45. doi:10.1289/ehp.7544. PMC 1257544. PMID 15866760.
- Kubwabo C, Vais N, Benoit FM (June 2004). "A pilot study on the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate and other perfluorinated compounds in blood of Canadians". Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 6 (6): 540–5. doi:10.1039/b314085g. PMID 15173906.
- Kannan K, Corsolini S, Falandysz J, Fillmann G, Kumar KS, Loganathan BG, et al. (September 2004). "Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in human blood from several countries". Environmental Science & Technology. 38 (17): 4489–95. Bibcode:2004EnST...38.4489K. doi:10.1021/es0493446. PMID 15461154.
- Harada K, Saito N, Inoue K, Yoshinaga T, Watanabe T, Sasaki S, et al. (March 2004). "The influence of time, sex and geographic factors on levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in human serum over the last 25 years". Journal of Occupational Health. 46 (2): 141–7. doi:10.1539/joh.46.141. PMID 15090689. S2CID 9418835.
- Fu J, Gao Y, Cui L, Wang T, Liang Y, Qu G, et al. (December 2016). "Occurrence, temporal trends, and half-lives of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in occupational workers in China". Scientific Reports. 6 (1): 38039. Bibcode:2016NatSR...638039F. doi:10.1038/srep38039. PMC 5131319. PMID 27905562.
- Fu J, Gao Y, Wang T, Liang Y, Zhang A, Wang Y, Jiang G (March 2015). "Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in family members of occupationally exposed workers: the importance of dust transfer". Scientific Reports. 5 (1): 9313. Bibcode:2015NatSR...5E9313F. doi:10.1038/srep09313. PMC 5380130. PMID 25791573.
- Gao Y, Fu J, Cao H, Wang Y, Zhang A, Liang Y, et al. (June 2015). "Differential accumulation and elimination behavior of perfluoroalkyl Acid isomers in occupational workers in a manufactory in China". Environmental Science & Technology. 49 (11): 6953–62. Bibcode:2015EnST...49.6953G. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b00778. PMID 25927957. S2CID 23947500.
- Lu Y, Gao K, Li X, Tang Z, Xiang L, Zhao H, et al. (August 2019). "Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics Reveals Occupational Exposure to Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances Relates to Oxidative Stress, Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Disorder, and Kidney Injury in a Manufactory in China". Environmental Science & Technology. 53 (16): 9800–9809. Bibcode:2019EnST...53.9800L. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b01608. PMID 31246438.
- Wang Y, Fu J, Wang T, Liang Y, Pan Y, Cai Y, Jiang G (November 2010). "Distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate and other perfluorochemicals in the ambient environment around a manufacturing facility in China". Environmental Science & Technology. 44 (21): 8062–7. Bibcode:2010EnST...44.8062W. doi:10.1021/es101810h. PMID 20879709.
- Laitinen JA, Koponen J, Koikkalainen J, Kiviranta H (December 2014). "Firefighters' exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids and 2-butoxyethanol present in firefighting foams". Toxicology Letters. 231 (2): 227–32. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.09.007. PMID 25447453.
- Jin C, Sun Y, Islam A, Qian Y, Ducatman A (March 2011). "Perfluoroalkyl acids including perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorohexane sulfonate in firefighters". Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 53 (3): 324–8. doi:10.1097/jom.0b013e31820d1314. PMID 21346631. S2CID 41993931.
- Barton KE, Starling AP, Higgins CP, McDonough CA, Calafat AM, Adgate JL (January 2020). "Sociodemographic and behavioral determinants of serum concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in a community highly exposed to aqueous film-forming foam contaminants in drinking water". International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 223 (1): 256–266. doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2019.07.012. PMC 6878185. PMID 31444118.
- "Colorado economic impact study on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1993". November 12, 1993. doi:10.2172/10112187. Cite journal requires
- Tao L, Kannan K, Aldous KM, Mauer MP, Eadon GA (May 2008). "Biomonitoring of perfluorochemicals in plasma of New York State personnel responding to the World Trade Center disaster". Environmental Science & Technology. 42 (9): 3472–8. Bibcode:2008EnST...42.3472T. doi:10.1021/es8000079. PMID 18522136.
- "Treatment Technologies". PFAS — Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances. Washington, DC: Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC). September 2020.
- "PFAS Assessment & Mitigation". Columbus, OH: Battelle Memorial Institute. Retrieved December 18, 2018.
- "Diamond technology cleans up PFAS-contaminated wastewater". MSU Today. Retrieved December 18, 2018.
- Mandelbaum, Ryan F. (September 18, 2019). "A New Jersey Soil Bacteria Is First to Break Down Toxic 'Forever Chemical'". Gizmodo. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
- "Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS): Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control. August 22, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
- "ORD subset of PFAS with ongoing work methods; CompTox Chemicals Dashboard" (PDF). EPA. March 11, 2019.
- Lindstrom AB, Strynar MJ, Libelo EL (October 2011). "Polyfluorinated compounds: past, present, and future". Environmental Science & Technology. 45 (19): 7954–61. Bibcode:2011EnST...45.7954L. doi:10.1021/es2011622. PMID 21866930. S2CID 206946893.
- Ritter SK (2015). "The Shrinking Case For Fluorochemicals". Chemical & Engineering News. 93 (28): 27–29. doi:10.1021/cen-09328-scitech1.
- Lehmler HJ (March 2005). "Synthesis of environmentally relevant fluorinated surfactants--a review". Chemosphere. 58 (11): 1471–96. Bibcode:2005Chmsp..58.1471L. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.11.078. PMID 15694468.