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Per mille

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Per mille
In UnicodeU+2030 PER MILLE SIGN (‰)
See alsoU+0025 % PERCENT SIGN
U+2031 PER TEN THOUSAND SIGN (Basis point)

The phrase per mille (from Latin per mīlle 'in each thousand')[1] indicates parts per thousand.[2] The associated symbol is , similar to a per cent sign % but with an extra zero in the divisor.

Major dictionaries do not agree on the spelling,[1][2][3] giving other options of per mil,[2] per mill,[1][3] permil,[1][4] permill,[1] permille.[5][6]

The word promille is the cognate in Dutch, German, Finnish and Swedish, and is sometimes seen as a loanword in English with the same meaning as per mille.[7][4]

Computer systems


The code point for the glyph is included in the General Punctuation block of Unicode characters: U+2030 PER MILLE SIGN.[5] It may be typed using Alt+0137, Compose%o,[a] Ctrl+⇧ Shift+u 2030, or ⌥ Option+⇧ Shift+r according to operating system.



Blood alcohol concentration


Promille and permille are likely best known as shorthand terms for Blood Alcohol Concentration, where 1 promille corresponds to 1 gram of alcohol per liter of blood.[9] Promille is used in the legal limits of blood-alcohol content for driving a road vehicle in some countries: for example: 0.5‰ or 0.8‰.[10]

Cost per mille


Sales and marketing


Cost per mille (CPM), the price of 1000 units, may be used for views of banner and display advertising, and for emails delivered by email service providers.



In UK insurance usage, the cost per mille is the rate per £1000 of insured value.[11] In India, the premium per mille is the rate expressed as thousandths of the sum assured.[12]


A railroad distance and gradient sign in Gdańsk, Poland. The 50‰ grade is equivalent to 5%.
A tram and gradient sign in Gdańsk, Poland. The 50‰ grade is equivalent to 50 m/km or 5%.

Gradients (in some countries in Europe) may be expressed as mm/m or m/km, and written with the per mille symbol.[13][14]

Isotope ratios


Per mille may be used to express stable-isotope ratios—for example: "δ13C was measured at −3.5‰"



Charity fraction


In Italy, it is possible to nominate a charity or charities to receive "five per mille" (5‰) of personal taxation payments.[15]

Property tax


Property taxation rates may be expressed as the millage rate (U.S.) or mill rate (Canada), from mill (currency), one thousandth of a dollar.



Permille may also be used to express a 1000-quantile ("999th permille"),[16][17] but this usage is rare and largely obsolete. Modern publications instead use fractional percentiles ("99.9th percentile").[18]



Seawater salinity is often expressed per mille. Average marine salinity is about 35 parts per thousand or 35‰ (3.5%).[19]

Visualisation of 1%, 1‰, 1‱, 1 pcm and 1 ppm as fractions of the large block (larger version)

See also



  1. ^ The sequence the percent key (%) is followed by lower case letter o and not, as might be expected, by digit 0.[8]


  1. ^ a b c d e "per mil". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  2. ^ a b c "per mille". Cambridge Dictionary. Business English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2020-06-08. per mille adverb (also per mil)
  3. ^ a b "per mill". Oxford Dictionaries: The American Dictionary. Archived from the original on August 9, 2013. Retrieved 2014-08-01.
  4. ^ a b Heinz Gamsjäger; John W. Lorimer; Pirketta Scharlin; David G. Shaw (2008). "Glossary of terms related to solubility". Pure Appl. Chem. 80 (2): 233–276. doi:10.1351/pac200880020233. (Page 258)
  5. ^ a b Unicode. "General Punctuation". 2014. Accessed 5 Aug 2014.
  6. ^ "per mille". Longman Business Dictionary. Retrieved 2020-07-01.
  7. ^ "Promille in English". Cambridge German – English Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
  8. ^ Monniaux, David. "UTF-8 (Unicode) compose sequence". Retrieved 2015-07-15.
  9. ^ "Promille vs BAC: the difference and how much promille is 1 BAC". AlcoSafe. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
  10. ^ "Blood alcohol level (BAL)". Health Research Board (Ireland).
  11. ^ Jonathan Law; John Smullen (eds.). "Per mille". A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (4 ed.).
  12. ^ "Avoidable loss due to imprudent underwriting of Group Personal Accident Policy" (PDF). Comptroller and Auditor General of India. March 2019.
  13. ^ Michael W. Sayers; Thomas D. Gillespie; William D.O. Paterson (January 1986). "Directives pour la mesure de l'uni des routes et l'étalonnage des appareils" (PDF) (in French). World Bank. p. 2. L'indice IRI est une mesure de l'uni des routes standardisée, apparentée aux mesures obtenues à l'aide des appareils de type-réponse. Les unités recommandées sont : les mètres par kilomètres (m/km) =millimètres par mètres (mm/m) = pente x 1000.
  14. ^ ZEMBA, Baowendzooda Joël (July 2015). "ETUDE D'AVANT-PROJET DETAILLE DE L'AMENAGEMENT D'UN PERIMETRE IRRIGUE DE 100 HA À BAGRE EN RIVE DROITE DU NAKANBE (BURKINA FASO)" (in French). p. 37. Archived from the original on 19 November 2023. Pente longitudinale i (m/km ou ‰): 0.4
  15. ^ "Five per thousand—how does it work and how is it calculated?". N26 (bank). 22 June 2021. Retrieved 19 November 2023.
  16. ^ Walker, Helen Mary; Lev, Joseph (1969). Elementary Statistical Methods. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 978-0-03-081130-2.
  17. ^ Valentijn, Floris Arnold (21 September 2022). Senescent cell accumulation & Research-based undergraduate education (Thesis). Utrecht University. doi:10.33540/1121.
  18. ^ Knoppert, Sebastiaan N; Keijzer‐Veen, Mandy G; Valentijn, Floris A; van den Heuvel‐Eibrink, Marry M; Lilien, Marc R; van den Berg, Gerrit; Haveman, Lianne M; Stokman, Marijn F; Janssens, Geert O; van Kempen, Sven; Broekhuizen, Roel; Goldschmeding, Roel; Nguyen, Tri Q (December 2023). "Cellular senescence in kidney biopsies is associated with tubular dysfunction and predicts CKD progression in childhood cancer patients with karyomegalic interstitial nephropathy". The Journal of Pathology. 261 (4): 455–464. doi:10.1002/path.6202.
  19. ^ "Per mille". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. 2022.
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