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Pera glabrata fruits.jpg
Fruits of Pera glabrata
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Peraceae

Peraceae Klotzsch[1] is a family of flowering plants in the eudicot order Malpighiales. The family was recognized in only a few systems of plant taxonomy, and was not recognized in the most widely accepted modern system, the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III, although it is accepted in APG IV (2016). The family was segregated from the Euphorbiaceae by Johann Friedrich Klotzsch in 1859, and its uniqueness was affirmed by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew's Euphorbiaceae expert, Airy Shaw. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group APG III system considers that the recognition of the family may be necessary for a monophyletic Euphorbiaceae, but also that a formal recognition awaited additional molecular and morphological studies of the family.[2]

The family includes 127 species in five genera:[3] Chaetocarpus, Clutia, Pera, Pogonophora and Trigonopleura, based on molecular and morphological characteristics.[4][5][6]


  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
  2. ^ Secco, Ricardo de S.; Inês Cordeiro; Luci de Senna-Vale; Margareth F. de Sales; Letícia Ribes de Lima; Débora Medeiros; Bárbara de Sá Haiad; Arline Souza de Oliveira; Maria Beatriz Rossi Caruzo; Daniela Carneiro-Torres; Narcisio C. Bigio (2012). "An overview of recent taxonomic studies on Euphorbiaceae s.l. in Brazil". Rodriguésia. 63 (1): 227–242.
  3. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M.; Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
  4. ^ Annals of Botany, doi:10.1093/aob/mct056, Advances in the floral structural characterization of the major subclades of Malpighiales, one of the largest orders of flowering plants, Peter K. Endress, Charles C. Davis and Merran L. Matthews
  5. ^ Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 onwards. The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. Version: 19 December 2012.
  6. ^ Wurdack & Davis, Malpighiales phylogenetics: gaining ground on one of the most recalcitrant clades in the angiosperm tree of life. American Journal of Botany, 96(8):1551-1570. 2009.