|Yellow perch (Perca flavescens)|
The Percidae are a family of perciform fish found in fresh and brackish waters of the Northern Hemisphere. The majority are Nearctic, but there are also Palearctic species. The family contains about 200 species in 10 genera. The darters, perches, and their relatives are in this family; well-known species include the walleye, sauger, ruffe, and three species of perch. However, small fish known as darters are also a part of this family.
This family is characterized by a greater or lesser degree of armour about the head, caused by the presence of teeth or spines on the cheeks and opercles (gill covers) or their edges, and by two narrow bands of numerous close-set teeth on the sides (palatines). Also, many percid fish have a heart-shaped plate of teeth on the roof of the mouth (vomer). The shape of these fish is usually somewhat slender and laterally compressed. Their scales are generally harsh and rough to the feel, or ciliate. Percid fish are among the most beautiful of the freshwater fish due to their brilliant colors (red, brown, orange, and yellow are the most predominant tints).
FishBase lists 204 species in 10 genera:
- Genus Ammocrypta (sand darters) (6 species)
- Genus Crystallaria (2 species)
- Genus Etheostoma (smoothbelly darters) (157 species)
- Genus Gymnocephalus (Eurasian ruffes) (4 species)
- Genus Perca (European perches) (3 species)
- Genus Percarina (2 species)
- Genus Percina (roughbelly darters and logperches, about 45 species)
- Genus Romanichthys
- Asprete, R. valsanicola Dumitrescu, Banarescu & Stoica, 1957
- Genus Sander (pike-perches) (5 species)
- Genus Zingel (4 species)
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