Real fluids are "sticky" and contain (and conduct) heat. Perfect fluids are idealized models in which these possibilities are neglected. Specifically, perfect fluids have no shear stresses, viscosity, or heat conduction.
This takes on a particularly simple form in the rest frame
where is the energy density and is the pressure of the fluid.
Perfect fluids admit a Lagrangian formulation, which allows the techniques used in field theory, in particular, quantization, to be applied to fluids. This formulation can be generalized, but unfortunately, heat conduction and anisotropic stresses cannot be treated in these generalized formulations.[why?]
Perfect fluids are often used in general relativity to model idealized distributions of matter, such as the interior of a star or an isotropic universe. In the latter case, the equation of state of the perfect fluid may be used in Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker equations to describe the evolution of the universe.
- The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time, by S.W.Hawking and G.F.R.Ellis, Cambridge University Press, 1973. ISBN 0-521-20016-4, ISBN 0-521-09906-4 (pbk.)
- Mark D. Roberts, [A Fluid Generalization of Membranes http://www.arXiv.org/abs/hep-th/0406164 hep-th/0406164].
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