Absolute pitch (AP), widely referred to as perfect pitch, is a rare auditory phenomenon characterized by the ability of a person to identify or re-create a given musical note without the benefit of a reference tone.
AP can be demonstrated via linguistic labeling ("naming" a note), auditory imagery,[clarification needed] or sensorimotor responses. For example, an AP possessor can accurately reproduce a heard tone on a musical instrument without "hunting" for the correct pitch. Researchers estimate the occurrence of AP to be 1 in 10,000 people.
Generally, absolute pitch implies some or all of the following abilities, achieved without a reference tone:
- Identify by name individual pitches (e.g. F♯, A, G, C) played on various instruments.
- Name the key of a given piece of tonal music.
- Reproduce a piece of tonal music in the correct key days after hearing it.
- Identify and name all the tones of a given chord or other tonal mass.
- Accurately sing a named pitch.
- Name the pitches of common everyday sounds such as car horns and alarms.
People may have absolute pitch along with the ability of relative pitch, and relative and absolute pitch work together in actual musical listening and practice, but strategies in using each skill vary. Those with absolute pitch may train their relative pitch, but there are no reported cases of an adult obtaining absolute pitch ability through musical training; adults who possess relative pitch but do not already have absolute pitch can learn "pseudo-absolute pitch" and become able to identify notes in a way that superficially resembles absolute pitch. Moreover, training pseudo-absolute pitch requires considerable motivation, time, and effort, and learning is not retained without constant practice and reinforcement.
- 1 Scientific studies
- 2 Correlation with musical talent
- 3 Relative pitch
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
History of study and terminologies
Scientific study of absolute pitch appears to have commenced in the 19th century, focusing on the phenomenon of musical pitch and methods of measuring it. It would have been difficult for any notion of absolute pitch to have formed earlier because pitch references were not consistent. For example, the note now known as 'A' varied in different local or national musical traditions between what would now be considered as G sharp and B flat before the standardisation of the late 19th century. While the term absolute pitch, or absolute ear, was in use by the late 19th century by both British and German researchers, its application was not universal; other terms such as musical ear, absolute tone consciousness, or positive pitch were also used to refer to the ability. The skill is not exclusively musical, or limited to human perception; absolute pitch has been demonstrated in animals such as bats, wolves, gerbils, and birds, for whom specific pitches facilitate identification of mates or meals.
Difference in cognition, not elementary sensation
Physically and functionally, the auditory system of an absolute listener does not appear to be different from a non-absolute listener. Rather, "it reflects a particular ability to analyze frequency information, presumably involving high-level cortical processing." Absolute pitch is an act of cognition, needing memory of the frequency, a label for the frequency (such as "B-flat"), and exposure to the range of sound encompassed by that categorical label. Absolute pitch may be directly analogous to recognizing colors, phonemes (speech sounds) or other categorical perception of sensory stimuli. Just as most people have learned to recognize and name the color blue by the frequencies of the electromagnetic radiation that is perceived as light, it is possible that those who have been exposed to musical notes together with their names early in life will be more likely to identify, for example, the note C. Absolute pitch may also be related to certain genes, possibly an autosomal dominant genetic trait, though it "might be nothing more than a general human capacity whose expression is strongly biased by the level and type of exposure to music that people experience in a given culture."
Influence by music experience
Absolute pitch sense appears to be influenced by cultural exposure to music, especially in the familiarization of the equal-tempered C-major scale. Most of the absolute listeners that were tested in this respect identified the C-major tones more reliably and, except for B, more quickly than the five "black key" tones, which corresponds to the higher prevalence of these tones in ordinary musical experience. One study of Dutch non-musicians also demonstrated a bias toward using C-major tones in ordinary speech, especially on syllables related to emphasis.
Absolute pitch is more common among speakers of tonal languages such as most dialects of Chinese or Vietnamese, which often depend on pitch variation as the means of distinguishing words that otherwise sound the same; e.g. Mandarin with four possible tonal variations, Cantonese with six, Southern Min with seven or eight (depending on dialect), and Vietnamese with six. Speakers of Sino-Tibetan languages have been reported to speak a word in the same absolute pitch (within a quarter-tone) on different days; it has therefore been suggested that absolute pitch may be acquired by infants when they learn to speak a tonal language (and possibly also by infants when they learn to speak a pitch-accent language). However, the brains of tonal-language speakers do not naturally process musical sound as language; perhaps such speakers are more likely to acquire absolute pitch for musical tones when they later receive musical training. Many native speakers of a tone language, even those with little musical training, are observed to sing a given song consistently with regard to pitch. Among music students of East Asian ethnic heritage, those who speak a tone language very fluently have a much higher prevalence of absolute pitch than those who do not speak a tone language.
It is possible that African level-tone languages—such as Yoruba, with three pitch levels, and Mambila, with four—may be better suited to study the role of absolute pitch in speech than the pitch and contour tone languages of East Asia.
Speakers of European languages have been found to make subconscious use of an absolute pitch memory when speaking.
Absolute pitch is the ability to perceive pitch class and to mentally categorize sounds according to perceived pitch class. A pitch class is a set of all pitches that are a whole number of octaves apart. While the boundaries of musical pitch categories vary among human cultures, the recognition of octave relationships is a natural characteristic of the mammalian auditory system. Accordingly, absolute pitch is not the ability to estimate a pitch value from the dimension of pitch evoking frequency (30–5000 Hz), but to identify a pitch class category within the dimension of pitch class (e.g., C-C♯-D ... B-C).
An absolute listener's sense of hearing is typically no keener than that of a non-absolute ("normal") listener. Absolute pitch does not depend upon a refined ability to perceive and discriminate gradations of sound frequencies, but upon detecting and categorizing a subjective perceptual quality typically referred to as "chroma".[clarification needed] The two tasks— of identification (recognizing and naming a pitch) and discrimination (detecting changes or differences in rate of vibration)— are accomplished with different brain mechanisms.
The prevalence of absolute pitch is higher among those who are blind from birth as a result of optic nerve hypoplasia.
Absolute pitch is considerably more common among those whose early childhood was spent in East Asia. This might seem to be a genetic difference; however, people of East Asian ancestry who are reared in North America are significantly less likely to develop absolute pitch than those raised in East Asia, so the difference is more probably explained by experience. The language that is spoken may be an important factor; many East Asians speak tonal languages such as Mandarin and Cantonese, while others (such as those in Japan and certain provinces of Korea) speak pitch-accent languages, and the prevalence of absolute pitch may be partly explained by exposure to pitches together with meaningful musical labels very early in life.
Absolute pitch ability has higher prevalence among those with Williams Syndrome and those with an autism spectrum disorder, with rates as high as 30% claimed, stating that the rate among musicians in general is far lower.[clarification needed] A non-verbal piano-matching method resulted in a correlation of 97% between[clarification needed] autism and absolute pitch, with a 53% correlation in non-autistic observers[clarification needed].
Nature vs. nurture
Absolute pitch might be achievable by any human being during a critical period of auditory development, after which period cognitive strategies favor global and relational processing. Proponents of the critical-period theory agree that the presence of absolute pitch ability is dependent on learning, but there is disagreement about whether training causes absolute skills to occur or lack of training causes absolute perception to be overwhelmed and obliterated by relative perception of musical intervals.
There may be a genetic locus for absolute pitch ability, which locus would suggest a genetic basis for its presence or absence. A genetic basis, should it exist, might represent either a predisposition for learning the ability or signal the likelihood of its spontaneous occurrence.
Researchers have been trying to teach absolute pitch ability in laboratory settings for more than a century, and various commercial absolute-pitch training courses have been offered to the public since the early 1900s. However, no adult has ever been documented to have acquired absolute listening ability, because all adults who have been formally tested after AP training have failed to demonstrate "an unqualified level of accuracy... comparable to that of AP possessors".
While very few people have the ability to name a pitch with no external reference, pitch memory can be activated by repeated exposure. People who are not skilled singers will often sing popular songs in the correct key, and can usually recognize when TV themes have been shifted into the wrong key. Members of the Venda culture in South Africa also sing familiar children's songs in the key in which the songs were learned.
This phenomenon is apparently unrelated to musical training. The skill may be associated more closely with vocal production. Violin students learning the Suzuki method are required to memorize each composition in a fixed key and play it from memory on their instrument, but they are not required to sing. When tested, these students did not succeed in singing the memorized Suzuki songs in the original, fixed key.
Musicians with absolute perception may experience difficulties which do not exist for other musicians. Because absolute listeners are capable of recognizing that a musical composition has been transposed from its original key, or that a pitch is being produced at a nonstandard frequency (either sharp or flat), a musician with absolute pitch may become distressed upon perceiving tones they believe to be "wrong" or hearing a piece of music "in the wrong key." This can especially apply to Baroque music that is recorded in Baroque tuning (usually A = 415 Hz as opposed to 440 Hz, i.e., roughly a half step or semitone lower than standard concert pitch). An absolute listener may also use absolute strategies for tasks which are more efficiently accomplished with relative strategies, such as transposition or producing harmony for tones whose frequencies do not match standard equal temperament. It is also possible for some musicians to have displaced absolute pitch, where all notes are slightly flat or slightly sharp of their respective pitch as defined by a given convention. This may arise from learning the pitch names from an instrument that was tuned to a concert pitch convention other than the one in use, e.g., A = 435 Hz (the Paris Opera convention of the late 19th and early 20th centuries) as opposed to the Anglo-American modern standard A = 440 Hz. When playing in groups with other musicians, this may lead to playing in a tonality that is slightly different from that of the rest of the group.
Absolute pitch shows a genetic overlap with synesthesia/ideasthesia,[clarification needed] and some individuals with music-related synesthesia also have perfect pitch. They may associate certain notes or keys with different colors, enabling them to tell what any note or key is. It is unknown how many people with perfect pitch are also synesthetes.
Correlation with musical talent
Absolute pitch is not a prerequisite for skilled musical performance or composition. However, musicians with absolute pitch tend to perform better on musical transcription tasks (controlling for age of onset and amount of musical training) compared with those without absolute pitch. It has been argued that musicians with absolute pitch perform worse than those without absolute pitch on recognition of musical intervals. However, experiments on which this conclusion was based contained an artifact[clarification needed], and when this artifact was removed, absolute pitch possessors were found to perform better than nonpossessors on recognition of musical intervals.
Owing to uncertainty in the historical record, it is often impossible to determine whether notable composers and musicians of the past had absolute pitch. Since absolute pitch is rare in European musical culture, claims that any particular musician possessed it are difficult to evaluate. Among composers of the Baroque and Classical eras, evidence is available only for Mozart, who is documented to have demonstrated the ability at age 7. Experts have only surmised that Beethoven had it, as indicated from some excerpts from his letters. By the 19th century, it became more common for the presence of absolute pitch to be recorded, identifying the ability to be present in musicians such as Camille Saint-Saëns and John Philip Sousa.
Many musicians have quite good relative pitch, a skill that can be learned through ear training. With practice, it is possible to listen to a single known pitch once (from a pitch pipe or a tuning fork) and then have stable, reliable pitch identification by comparing the notes heard to the stored memory of the tonic pitch. Unlike absolute pitch, this skill is dependent on a recently perceived tonal center.
- Deutsch, D. (2013). "Absolute pitch In D. Deutsch (Ed.)". The psychology of music, 3rd Edition: 141–182. ISBN 9780123814609. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-381460-9.00005-5. PDF Document
- Ward, W.D. (1998). "Absolute Pitch". In D. Deutsch. The Psychology of Music (Second Edition). San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 265–298. ISBN 0-12-213564-4.
- Zatorre, Robert; Beckett, Christine (1989). "Multiple coding strategies in the retention of musical tones by possessors of absolute pitch". Memory & Cognition. 17 (5): 582–589. doi:10.3758/BF03197081.
- Zatorre, Robert (July 2003). "Absolute pitch: a model for understanding the influence of genes and development on neural and cognitive function". Nature Neuroscience. 6 (7): 692–695. PMID 12830161. doi:10.1038/nn1085.
- Oliver Sacks; Schlaug; Jancke; Huang; Steinmetz (May 1995). "Letters: Musical Ability". Science. 268 (5211): 621–622. Bibcode:1995Sci...268..621S. PMID 7732360. doi:10.1126/science.7732360.
- Parncutt, R.; Levitin, D. J. (2001). "Absolute Pitch". In Sadie, S. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. London: Macmillan. ISBN 1-56159-239-0.
- Miyazaki, Ken'ichi (June 2004). "How well do we understand absolute pitch?" (PDF). Acoustical Science and Technology. 25 (6): 270–282. doi:10.1250/ast.25.426.[permanent dead link]
- Levitin, D.J. (2008). "Absolute pitch: Both a curse and a blessing". In Clockars, M.; Peltomaa, M. Music Meets Medicine, Proceedings of the Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation. Helsinki, Finland: Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation. pp. 124–132.
- Meyer, M (1956). "On memorizing absolute pitch". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 28 (4): 718–719. Bibcode:1956ASAJ...28..718M. doi:10.1121/1.1908465.
- Ellis, Alexander J (November 6, 1876). "On the Sensitiveness of the Ear to Pitch and Change of Pitch in Music" (PDF). Journal of the Royal Musical Association. (published until 1945 as Proceedings of the Musical Association). 3 (1): 1. doi:10.1093/jrma/3.1.1. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
- Bosanquet, R.H.M (1876). "An Elementary Treaties on Musical Intervals and Temperament". with an Account of an Enharmonic Harmonium Exhibited in the Loan Collection of Scientific Instruments. London: Macmillan and Co: xiv (n17 in electronic page field). Retrieved 24 August 2010.
- von Kries, J (1892). "Über das absolute Gehör (About the perfect pitch)". Zeitschrift für Psychologie (in German). 3: 257–79. Retrieved 24 August 2010. Translation by Christopher Aruffo, www.acousticlearning.com
- Abraham, O (1907). "Das absolute Tonbewußtsein und die Musik (Absolute tone consciousness and music)". Sammelbände der Internationalen Musikgesellschaft (in German). 8: 486–91. Retrieved 25 August 2010. Translation by Christopher Aruffo, www.acousticlearning.com
- Copp, E.F. (1916). "Musical Ability". Journal of Heredity. 7: 297–305.
- Brown, Kathryn (4 December 1999). "Striking the Right Note". New Scientist. 164 (2215): 38–41.
- Sergeant, D. (1969). "Experimental investigation of absolute pitch". Journal of Research in Music Education. Journal of Research in Music Education, Vol. 17, No. 1. 17 (1): 135–143. JSTOR 3344200. doi:10.2307/3344200.
- Gregersen, P. K. (1998). "Instant Recognition: The Genetics of Pitch Perception". American Journal of Human Genetics. 62 (2): 221–223. PMC . PMID 9463341. doi:10.1086/301734.
- Takeuchi, A. H.; Hulse, S. H. (1993). "Absolute pitch". Psychological Bulletin. 113 (2): 345–361. PMID 8451339. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.113.2.345.
- Profita, J.; Bidder, T. G. (1988). "Perfect pitch". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 29 (4): 763–771. PMID 3400722. doi:10.1002/ajmg.1320290405.
- Baharloo, S.; Johnston, P. A.; Service, S. K.; Gitschier, J. & Freimer, N. B. (1998). "Absolute pitch: An approach for identification of genetic and nongenetic components" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics. 62 (2): 224–231. PMC . PMID 9463312. doi:10.1086/301704.
- Wallin, N.L.; Merker, B.; Brown, S. (2000). The Origins of Music. A. Bradford. p. 13. ISBN 9780262731430. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- Miyazaki, K. (1990). "The speed of musical pitch identification by absolute-pitch possessors". Music Perception. 8: 177–188. doi:10.2307/40285495.
- Braun, M. (2002). "Absolute pitch in emphasized speech". Acoustics Research Letters Online. 3 (2): 77–82. doi:10.1121/1.1472336.
- Deutsch, D.; Henthorn, T.; Dolson, M. (1999). "Tone Language Speakers Possess Absolute Pitch". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 106: 2267. Bibcode:1999ASAJ..106.2267D. doi:10.1121/1.427738. Lay summary – Acoustics.org.
- Deutsch, D.; Henthorn, T.; Marvin, E.; Xu, H. (2005). "Perfect Pitch in Tone Language Speakers Carries Over to Music". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 116: 2580. Bibcode:2004ASAJ..116.2580D. doi:10.1121/1.4808626. Lay summary – AIP.
- Deutsch, D.; Henthorn T.; Dolson, M. (2004). "Absolute pitch, speech, and tone language: Some experiments and a proposed framework" (PDF). Music Perception. 21 (3): 339–356. doi:10.1525/mp.2004.21.3.339.
- Gandour, J; Wong, D. & Hutchins, G. (1998). "Pitch processing in the human brain is influenced by language experience" (PDF). NeuroReport. 9 (9): 2115–2119. PMID 9674604. doi:10.1097/00001756-199806220-00038. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-09-12.
- Deutsch, D.; Henthorn, T.; Marvin, E. & Xu H-S (2006). "Absolute pitch among American and Chinese conservatory students: Prevalence differences, and evidence for a speech-related critical period" (PDF). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 119 (2): 719–722. Bibcode:2006ASAJ..119..719D. PMID 16521731. doi:10.1121/1.2151799.
- Deutsch, D.; Dooley, K.; Henthorn, T.; Head, B. (2009). "Absolute pitch among students in an American music conservatory: Association with tone language fluency" (PDF). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 125 (4): 2398–2403. Bibcode:2009ASAJ..125.2398D. PMID 19354413. doi:10.1121/1.3081389.
- Deutsch, D.; Li, X. & Shen, J. (2013). "Absolute pitch among students at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music: A large-scale direct-test study" (PDF). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 134: 3853–3859. Bibcode:2013ASAJ..134.3853D. doi:10.1121/1.4824450.
- Connell, B.; Ladd, D. R. (1990). "Aspects of pitch realization in Yoruba". Phonology. 7: 1–29. doi:10.1017/S095267570000110X.
- Connell, B. (2000). "The perception of lexical tone in Mambila". Language and Speech. 43 (2): 163–182. PMID 11064955. doi:10.1177/00238309000430020201.
- Braun, M. (2001). "Speech mirrors norm-tones: Absolute pitch as a normal but precognitive trait" (PDF). Acoustical Society of America: Acoustics Research Letters Online. 2 (3): 85–90. doi:10.1121/1.1376728.
- Rakowski, A. (1993). "Categorical perception in absolute pitch". Archives of Acoustics Quarterly. 18: 515–523.
- Morest, D.K. (1965). "The laminar structure of the medial geniculate body of the cat". J. Anat. 99: 143–160. PMC . PMID 14245341.
- Cetas, J.S.; Price, R.O.; Crowe, J.J.; Velenovsky, D.S.; McMullen, N.T. (2003). "Dendritic orientation and laminar architecture in the rabbit auditory thalamus". J. Comp. Neurol. 458 (3): 307–317. PMID 12619083. doi:10.1002/cne.10595.
- Imig, T.J.; Morel, A. (1985). "Tonotopic organization in ventral nucleus of medial geniculate body in the cat". J Neurophysiol. 53 (1): 309–340. PMID 3973661.
- Cetas, J.S.; Velenovsky, D.S.; Price, R.O.; Sinex, D.G.; McMullen, N.T. (2001). "Frequency organization and cellular lamination in the medial geniculate body of the rabbit". Hear. Res. 155 (1–2): 113–123. PMID 11335081. doi:10.1016/S0378-5955(01)00257-X.
- Wright, A.A.; Rivera, J.J.; Hulse, S.H.; Shyan, M.; Neiworth, J.J. (2000). "Music perception and octave generalization in rhesus monkeys". J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 129 (3): 291–307. PMID 11006902. doi:10.1037/0096-34220.127.116.111.
- Braun, M.; Chaloupka, V. (2005). "Carbamazepine induced pitch shift and octave space representation". Hear. Res. 210 (1–2): 85–92. PMID 16181754. doi:10.1016/j.heares.2005.05.015.
- Fujisaki, W.; Kashino, M. (2002). "The basic hearing abilities of absolute pitch possessors". Acoustic Science and Technology. 23 (2): 77–83. doi:10.1250/ast.23.77.
- Oakes, W. F. (1955). "An experimental study of pitch naming and pitch discrimination reactions". Journal of Genetic Psychology. 86 (2): 237–259. PMID 13263528. doi:10.1080/00221325.1955.10532197.
- Bachem, A. (1937). "Various types of absolute pitch". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 9 (2): 146–151. Bibcode:1937ASAJ....9..146B. doi:10.1121/1.1915919.
- Tervaniemi, M.; Alho, K.; Paavilainen, P.; Sams, M. & Näätänen, R. (1993). "Absolute pitch and event-related brain potentials". Music Perception. 10: 305–316. doi:10.2307/40285572.
- P. K. Gregersen; E. Kowalsky; N. Kohn; E. Marvin (2000). "Early childhood music education and predisposition to absolute pitch". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 98 (3): 280–282. PMID 11169569. doi:10.1002/1096-8628(20010122)98:3<280::AID-AJMG1083>3.0.CO;2-6.
- D. Deutsch; T. Henthorn; E. W. Marvin; H.-S. Xu (2006). "Absolute pitch among American and Chinese conservatory students: Prevalence differences, and evidence for a speech-related critical period (L)a)" (PDF). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119 (2): 719–722. Bibcode:2006ASAJ..119..719D. PMID 16521731. doi:10.1121/1.2151799.
- Deutsch, D (2006). "The enigma of absolute pitch" (PDF). Acoustics Today. 2 (4): 11–19. doi:10.1121/1.2961141.
- Henthorn, T. & Deutsch, D. (2007). "Ethnicity versus Early Environment: Comment on 'Early childhood music education and predisposition to absolute pitch: Teasing apart genes and environment' by Peter K. Gregersen, Elena Kowalsky, Nina Kohn, and Elizabeth West Marvin (2000)" (PDF). American Journal of Medical Genetics. 143A (1): 102–103. PMID 17163519. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.31596.
- Zatorre, R. "Absolute Pitch: A model for understanding the influence of genes and development on neural and cognitive function" (PDF).
- Deutsch, D.; Henthorn, T. & Dolson, M. (2004). "Absolute pitch, speech, and tone language: Some experiments and a proposed framework" (PDF). Music Perception. 21 (3): 339–356. doi:10.1525/mp.2004.21.3.339.
- Lenhoff, H. M.; Perales, O. & Hickok, G. (2001). "Absolute pitch in Williams syndrome". Music Perception. 18 (4): 491–503. doi:10.1525/mp.2001.18.4.491.
- Sacks, O. (2007). Musicophilia: Tales of Music and the Brain. New York: Knopf. ISBN 1-4000-4081-7.
- Heaton, P.; Hermelin, B. & Pring, L. (1998). "Autism and pitch processing: A precursor for savant musical ability". Music Perception. 15 (3): 291–305. JSTOR 40285769. doi:10.2307/40285769.
- Frith, U. How Cognitive Theories Can Help Us Explain Autism. Speech. UC Davis Mind Institute. Video available, 4/5 down the list: http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/mindinstitute/videos/video_autism.html
- Kupferstein, H.; Walsh, B. (2014). "Non-Verbal Paradigm for Assessing Individuals for Absolute Pitch". World Futures: 1. doi:10.1080/02604027.2014.989780.
- Sakakibara, A. (2004). "Why are people able to acquire absolute pitch only during early childhood?: Training age and acquisition of absolute pitch". Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology. 52: 485–496.
- Chin, C. (2003). "The development of absolute pitch". Psychology of Music. 31 (2): 155–171. doi:10.1177/0305735603031002292.
- Oura, Y.; Eguchi, K. (1982). "Absolute pitch training program for children". Music Education Research. 32: 162–171.
- Sakakibara, A. (1999). "A longitudinal study of a process for acquiring absolute pitch". Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology. 47.
- Miyazaki, K.; Ogawa, Yoko (2006). "Learning of absolute pitch by children". Music Perception. 24 (1): 63. doi:10.1525/mp.2006.24.1.63.
- Lau, C.K. (2004). "The acquisition of absolute pitch for the mainstreamed, special educational needs and academically talented under Lau Chiu Kay Music Educatherapy". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 116 (4): 2580. Bibcode:2004ASAJ..116.2580L. doi:10.1121/1.4785301. Abstract
- Abraham, O. (1901). "Das absolute tonbewußtsein". Sammelbände der Internationalen Musikgesellschaft. 3: 1–86.Full text Full text (English)
- Saffran, J. R. & Griepentrog, G. J. (2001). "Absolute pitch in infant auditory learning: Evidence for developmental reorganization" (PDF). Developmental Psychology. 37 (1): 74–85. PMID 11206435. doi:10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.168.
- Theusch, E.; Basu, A. & Gitschier, J. (2009). "Genome-wide Study of Families with Absolute Pitch Reveals Linkage to 8q24.21 and Locus Heterogeneity". American Journal of Human Genetics. 85 (1): 112–119. PMC . PMID 19576568. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.06.010.
- Gregersen, P.K.; Kowalsky, E.; Lee, A.; Baron-Cohen, S.; Fisher, S.E.; Asher, J.E.; Ballard, D.; Freudenberg, J. & Li, W. (2013). "Absolute pitch exhibits phenotypic and genetic overlap with synesthesia". Human Molecular Genetics. 22 (10): 2097–104. PMC . PMID 23406871. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddt059.
- Drayna, D.; Manichaikul, A.; DeLange, M.; Snieder, H. & Spector, T. (2001). "Genetic correlates of musical pitch recognition in humans". Science. 291 (5510): 1969–1972. Bibcode:2001Sci...291.1969D. PMID 11239158. doi:10.1126/science.291.5510.1969.
- Meyer, M. (1899). "Is the memory of absolute pitch capable of development by training?". Psychological Review. 6 (5): 514–516. doi:10.1037/h0069034.
- Maryon, E. (1924). The Science of Tone-Color (PDF). Boston: C. C. Birchard & Co.
- Levitin, D. J. & Rogers, S. E. (2005). "Absolute pitch: Perception, coding, and controversies" (PDF). Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 9 (1): 26–33. PMID 15639438. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2004.11.007.
- Takeuchi, A. H. & Hulse, S. H. (1993). "Absolute pitch". Psychological Bulletin. 113 (2): 358. PMID 8451339. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.113.2.345.
- Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Eitan, Zohar; Chajut, Eran (Feb 2014). "Pitch memory and exposure effects". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 40 (1): 24–32. PMID 23875573. doi:10.1037/a0033583. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- Levitin, D. (1994). "Absolute memory for musical pitch: evidence from production of learned melodies" (PDF). Perception and Psychophysics. 56 (4): 414–423. PMID 7984397. doi:10.3758/BF03206733. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-06.
- Schellenberg, E. Glenn & Trehub, Sandra E. (2003). "Good pitch memory is widespread". Psychological Science. 14: 262–266. PMID 12741751. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.03432.Full text[permanent dead link]
- Blacking, John (1995). "Music and Historical Process in Vendaland". In Reginald Byron. Music Culture and Experience. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 136. ISBN 0-226-08829-4.
- Saah, Victoria; Marvin, Elizabeth West (2004). "Absolute memory of learned melodies in children trained by the Suzuki violin method" (PDF). Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition: 736–739. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-10.
- Miyazaki, K. (1993). "Absolute pitch as an inability: Identification of musical intervals in a tonal context". Music Perception. 11: 55–72. JSTOR 40285599. doi:10.2307/40285599.
- Harris, G. B. (1974). Categorical perception and absolute pitch. Ontario: University of Western Ontario.
- Dooley, K. & Deutsch, D. (2010). "Absolute pitch correlates with high performance on musical dictation". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 128 (2): 890–3. Bibcode:2010ASAJ..128..890D. PMID 20707458. doi:10.1121/1.3458848. PDF Document
- Miyazaki K. (1995). "Perception of relative pitch with different references: Some absolute-pitch listeners can't tell musical interval names". Perception and Psychophysics. 57 (7): 962–970. PMID 8532499. doi:10.3758/bf03205455. PDF Document
- Dooley, K.; Deutsch, D. (2011). "Absolute pitch correlates with high performance on interval naming tasks". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 130 (6): 4097–4104. Bibcode:2011ASAJ..130.4097D. PMID 22225064. doi:10.1121/1.3652861. PDF Document
- Deutsch, D. (2006). "The Enigma of Absolute Pitch". Acoustics Today. 2 (4): 11–18. doi:10.1121/1.2961141. PDF Document
- Brady, P. T. (1970). "Fixed-scale mechanism of absolute pitch". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 48 (4): 883–887. Bibcode:1970ASAJ...48..883B. PMID 5480385. doi:10.1121/1.1912227.