Enhanced Indonesian Spelling System
The Enhanced Indonesian Spelling System (Indonesian: Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan, abbreviated EYD), also called the Perfected Spelling System (PSS), is the spelling system used for the Indonesian language. It is an orthography that was released in 1972 to replace the Republican Spelling System (RSS, also called the Soewandi Spelling System, SSS).[clarification needed] The aim was greater harmonization of the Indonesian and Malay-language orthographies.
The adoption of the new EYD system, to begin on the anniversary of Indonesian Independence 17 August 1972, was announced by president Soeharto on 16 August 1972. Government departments were instructed to begin using the EYD system on 1 January 1973. In October 1972, the Indonesian Department of Education and Culture (Department Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan) published Pedoman Buku Ejaan Bahasa Indonesia Yang Disempurnakan [A Guide to Improved Indonesian] which provided a detailed explanation of the changes proposed in the new system. In 2000 a revised guide to the EYD was published as Pedoman Umum Ejaan Bahasa Indonesia Yang Disempurnakan [General Guide to Improved Indonesian].
Republican-to-EYD letter changes
|/tʃ/: tj becomes c||tjuma, katjang||cuma, kacang||only, peanuts|
|/dʒ/: dj becomes j||djual, edjaan||jual, ejaan||sell, spelling|
|/j/: j becomes y||ajam, pajung||ayam, payung||chicken, umbrella|
|/ɲ/: nj becomes ny||njonja, banjak||nyonya, banyak||madam, many|
|/ʃ/: sj becomes sy||sjair, masjarakat||syair, masyarakat||poem, people|
|/x/: ch becomes kh||tarich, achir||tarikh, akhir||era, end|
Foreign loan letters
Letters that have previously been included in the Republican Spelling as foreign loan letters are officially used in the EYD Spelling.
|f||maaf, fakir||(I am) sorry, poor|
|v||valuta, universitas||currency, university|
|z||zeni, lezat||engineer, delicious|
Q and X
The letters "q" and "x" are still only used in scientific subjects.
- Sinar-X (X-ray)
Affixes and prepositions
The writing of di- and ke- (affixes) can be distinguished from di and ke (prepositions), where di- and ke- is written together with the words that follow it, for example diambil, kehendak (is being taken, desire), while di and ke is written separately with the words that follow it, for example di rumah, ke pasar (at home, to the market). This is different from the former Republican Spelling, where both di- and di are written together with the words following it.
Reduplication, mostly used in plural form of words, has to be fully written with letters, so the use of the number "2" as used in the Republican Spelling is no longer valid. (The practice remains common in informal usage such as in text messaging.)
|ber-main2||bermain-main||to play around|
- Presidential Decision No 57 of 1972, Jakarta, 1972.
- Tasai, S Amran and E. Zaenal Arifin (2000). Cermat Berbahasa Indonesia: Untuk Perguruan Tinggi.