Enhanced Indonesian Spelling System

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"EYD" redirects here. For the dance competition, see Eurovision Young Dancers.

The Enhanced Indonesian Spelling System (Indonesian: Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan, abbreviated EYD), also called the Perfected Spelling System (PSS), was an Indonesian spelling system which was released in 1972 to replace the Soewandi Spelling System (SSS). The aim was greater harmonization of the Indonesian and Malaysian alphabets. It was replaced by Indonesian spelling (EBI) system in 2015.


Soewandi-to-EYD letter changes[edit]

Changes Soewandi EYD English Meaning
//: tj becomes c tjuma, katjang cuma, kacang only, peanuts
//: dj becomes j djual, edjaan jual, ejaan sell, spelling
/j/: j becomes y ajam, pajung ayam, payung chicken, umbrella
/ɲ/: nj becomes ny njonja, banjak nyonya, banyak madam, many
/ʃ/: sj becomes sy sjair, masjarakat syair, masyarakat poem, people
/x/: ch becomes kh tarich, achir tarikh, akhir era, end

Foreign loan letters[edit]

Letters that have previously been included in the Soewandi Spelling as foreign loan letters are officially used in the EYD Spelling.[1]

Letters Example English Meaning
f maaf, fakir sorry, poor
v valuta, universitas currency, university
z zeni, lezat engineer, delicious

Q and X[edit]

The letters "q" and "x" are still only used in scientific subjects.[1]


  • a:b=p:q
  • Sinar-X (X-ray)

Affixes and prepositions[edit]

The writing of di- and ke- (affixes) can be distinguished from di and ke (prepositions), where di- and ke- is written together with the words that follow it, for example diambil, kehendak (is being taken, desire), while di and ke is written separately with the words that follow it, for example di rumah, ke pasar (at home, to the market). This is different from the former Soewandi Spelling, where both di- and di are written together with the words following it.[1]

Repeated words[edit]

Repeated words, mostly used in plural form of words, have to be fully written with letters, so the use of number "2" as used in the Soewandi Spelling is no longer valid.[1] (In informal usage, however, the practice remains common.)

Soewandi EYD English Meaning
anak2 anak-anak children
ber-main2 bermain-main to play around
ke-barat2-an kebarat-baratan westernized


  1. ^ a b c d Tasai, S Amran and E. Zaenal Arifin (2000). Cermat Berbahasa Indonesia: Untuk Perguruan Tinggi.