The hour-long set contains one original song and several covers. "I Don't Need No Doctor" was the biggest hit from the album, having been issued as an edited single and reaching #73 on the Billboard Hot 100 in October 1971.
The song listed as "Four Day Creep", and attributed to classic blues singer Ida Cox, bears no melodic or lyrical resemblance to her self-recorded composition of that title. The single version of "I Don't Need No Doctor" was backed with "A Song for Jenny" from the Rock On album, which Marriott wrote for his first wife, Jenny Rylance.
Shortly before the album's release, guitarist Peter Frampton left due to growing friction between him and Marriott.
The album's steady sales helped Performance: Rockin' the Fillmore to become the band's first RIAA gold record. Its popularity helped the band's previous album, Rock On, reach gold album status.
On October 29, 2013, Omnivore Recordings released all four sets recorded that weekend as a four CD set "Performance: Rockin' the Fillmore-Complete Recordings".