An xray 2 years after placement then 7 years later in a heavy smoker. Shows progression of peri-implantitis
Peri-implantitis is the destructive inflammatory process affecting the soft and hard tissues surrounding dental implants. The array of periodontal pathogens found around failing implants (those affected by peri-implantitis) are very similar to those found in association with various forms of periodontal disease. In compound implants (two stage implants), between the actual implant and the superstructure (abutment) are gaps and cavities into which bacteria can penetrate from the oral cavity. Later these bacteria can return into the adjacent tissue and can cause periimplantitis. As prophylaxis these implant interior spaces should be sealed.
^Mombelli, A. "Microbiology and antimicrobial therapy of peri-implantitis," Periodontology 2000 2002;28:177–189.
^Listgarten and Lai (2000), AAP In-Service Exam, 2008-B12
^Fritzemeier, C. U., W. Schmüdderich: Periimplantitisprophylaxe durch Versiegelung der Implantatinnenräume, Implantologie 2007;15(1):71-80
^Hsu, A; Kim, JW (2014). "How to manage a patient with peri-implantitis.". Journal (Canadian Dental Association)79: e24. PMID24598326.
^Pedrazzi, V; Escobar, EC; Cortelli, JR; Haas, AN; Andrade, AK; Pannuti, CM; Almeida, ER; Costa, FO; Cortelli, SC; Rode Sde, M (2014). "Antimicrobial mouthrinse use as an adjunct method in peri-implant biofilm control.". Brazilian oral research. 28 Spec. PMID25003787.
^Renvert, S; Roos-Jansåker, AM; Claffey, N (September 2008). "Non-surgical treatment of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis: a literature review.". Journal of clinical periodontology35 (8 Suppl): 305–15. PMID18724858.