Perilla

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This article is about perilla as herb and spice. For the cultivated species more broadly, see Perilla frutescens. For the genus including wild species, see Perilla (plant). For other uses, see Perilla (disambiguation).
green shiso leaves
Shiso leaves are sometimes called perilla leaves, but so are the similar looking but differently flavored "sesame leaves" of Korea (see below)

Perilla is a herb[citation needed] of the mint family, Lamiaceae. Though known to several cultures by different names, the disparate varieties are now classified under the single species Perilla frutescens. The plant[ambiguous] overall resembles the stinging nettle, though the leaves are somewhat rounder.

Culinary overview[edit]

Korean cuisine uses green leaves of the deulkkae(P. frutescens var. frutescens). It also uses the perilla seeds, a source of perilla oil rich in ALA omega-3 fatty acids.

Japanese cuisine uses the leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds of shiso(P. frutescens var. crispa) as a condiment or spice.

Cultivation[edit]

In temperate climates, the plant[ambiguous] is self-sowing, but the seeds[ambiguous] are not viable after long storage, and germination rates are low after a year.

Perilla frutescens[ambiguous] has been widely naturalized in parts of the United States and Canada, from Texas and Florida north to Connecticut and into Ontario, and west to Nebraska. It can be weedy or invasive in some of these regions.[1]

The weedy types have often lost the characteristic shiso fragrance and are not suited for eating (cf. perilla ketone). Also, the red leaves are not ordinarily served raw.

China[edit]

In Chinese, Perilla is called zisu (simplified Chinese: 紫苏; traditional Chinese: 紫蘇; pinyin: zǐsū). Perilla is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and is indicated to ease the symptoms of the common cold. Perilla has been shown to stimulate interferon activity[2] and thus, the body's immune system. In Chinese cuisine, Perilla is fried in oil with garlic or ginger in the wok, and eaten as a dish with meals. During the Qing dynasty, theManchu people's festival of "Food Extermination Day" (绝粮日) perilla was traditionally eaten by the Manchu bannermen under the Eight Banners system.

Bannermen accompanying an Imperial hunting party, c. 17th Century. The banner armies were considered the elite forces of the Qing military.

The in the name zisu was the namesake for Mount Gusu, the peak which gave Suzhou its name.

Japan[edit]

Perilla leaves also occur in red varieties, (akajiso), and the flower stalks are used as garnish as well
Main article: shiso

The Japanese name for the variety of perilla normally used in Japanese cuisine (Perilla frutescens var. crispa) is shiso (紫蘇?). This name is already commonplace in US mass media's coverage of Japanese restaurants and cuisine. The Japanese call the green type aojiso (青紫蘇?), or ooba ("big leaf"), and often eat the fresh leaves with sashimi (sliced raw fish) or cut them into thin strips in salads, spaghetti, and meat and fish dishes. It is also used as a savory herb in a variety of dishes, even as a pizza topping (initially it was used in place of basil). In the summer of 2009, Pepsi Japan released a new seasonal flavored beverage, Pepsi Shiso.[3]

The purple form is called akajiso (赤紫蘇?, red shiso), and is used to dye umeboshi (pickled ume) red or combined with ume paste in sushi to make umeshiso maki. It can also be used to make a sweet, red juice to enjoy during summer.

An inflorescence of shiso, called hojiso (ear shiso), is typically used as garnish on a sashimi plate; the individual flowers can be stripped off the stem using the chopstick, adding its flavor to the soy sauce dip. The fruits of the shiso (shiso-no-mi), containing fine seed (mericarp) about 1 mm or less in diameter (about the size of mustard seed), can be preserved in salt and used as a spice or condiment. Young leaves and flower buds are used for pickling in Japan and Taiwan.

The other type of edible perilla (Perilla frutescens var. frutescens or var. japonica) called egoma (荏胡麻?) is of limited culinary importance in Japan, though this is the variety commonly used in nearby Korea. The cultivar is known regionally as jūnen in the Tohoku (northeast) regions of Japan. The term means "ten years", supposedly because it adds this many years to one's lifespan. A local preparation in Fukushima prefecture, called shingorō, consists of half-pounded unsweet rice patties, which are skewered, smeared with miso, blended with roasted and ground jūnen seeds, and roasted over charcoal. The oil pressed from this plant was once used to fuel lamps in the Middle Ages. The warlord Saitō Dōsan, who started out in various occupations, was a peddler of this type of oil, rather than the more familiar rapeseed oil, according to a story by historical novelist Ryōtarō Shiba.

Korea[edit]

Main article: Deulkkae

Deulkkae seeds are either toasted and grounded into powder called dulkkaetgaru(들깻가루) or used to make perilla oil called deulgireum(들기름). Both the powder and the oil is used as imortant condiments in Korean cuisine.

The leaves, kkaennip(깻잎) is used fresh, dried or pickled. Kkaennip can be used as a herb or as a vegetable ingredient in the preparation of many dishes. It somtimes substitutes basil in Korean-style western food.

Laos[edit]

The purple leaves, called pak maengda (ຜັກແມງດາ), are strong in fragrance, but not ruffled. Lao also used them for Lao rice vermicelli, khao poon (ເຂົ້າປຸ້ນ), which is very similar to the Vietnamese bún. They are used as part of the dish for their fragrance.

Vietnam[edit]

Main article: Tía tô

Vietnamese cuisine uses a variety similar to the Japanese perilla, but with greenish bronze on the top face and purple on the opposite face. The leaves are smaller and have a much stronger fragrance. In Vietnamese, it is called tía tô, derived from the characters () whose standard pronunciation in Vietnamese is tử tô. It is usually eaten as a garnish in rice vermicelli dishes called bún and a number of stews and simmered dishes.

South Asia[edit]

Silam plant in Panchkhal, Nepal

In Nepal, Kumaun, and parts of India, it[ambiguous] is called silam (सिलाम), thoiding (meitei), chhawhchhi (Mizo) and bhangira. Its[ambiguous] seeds are roasted and ground with salt, chilis, and tomatoes to make a savoury dip/side dish or chutney.

Chemistry[edit]

The pronounced flavor and aroma of shiso derives from perillaldehyde,[4] but this substance is lacking in the "wild sesame" and "sesame leaf" variety. Other aromatic essential oils present are limonene,[4] caryophyllene,[4] and farnesene.[citation needed]

Perilla oil is a very rich source of the essential nutritional omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid, and its use as an edible oil is more for its medicinal benefit than its flavor.

Many forms are rich in perilla ketone, which is a potent lung toxin to some livestock,[5] though effects on humans remains to be studied.[5]

The artificial sweetener perillartine can be synthesized from perillaldehyde, but it is used in Japan only for sweetening tobacco,[6] despite being 2000 times sweeter than sucrose, owing to its bitterness and aftertaste, and insolubility in water.[7]

Nutritional value[edit]

Perilla leaves[ambiguous] are rich in dietary fiber, dietary minerals, such as calcium, iron and potassium, and vitamins A, C and riboflavin.[8] Perilla leaf[ambiguous] components are under preliminary research for potential anti-inflammatory properties,[9] and may be used to preserve foods.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ PLANTS Profile for Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton beefsteakplant | USDA Plants
  2. ^ http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4419349.html
  3. ^ http://www.japanprobe.com/2009/05/27/pepsi-shiso/
  4. ^ a b c Ito 2008
  5. ^ a b Tucker & DeBaggio, p. 389
  6. ^ O'Brien-Nabors & 2011 p-235
  7. ^ O'Brien-Nabors & 2011 p-235 citing Kinghorn and Compadre, 2001.
  8. ^ Duke 1978, p.77
  9. ^ Chang HH, Chen CS, Lin JY; Chen; Lin (2008). "Dietary perilla oil inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of ovalbumin-challenged mice". Lipids. 43 (6): 499–506. doi:10.1007/s11745-008-3171-8. PMID 18386091. 

Further reading[edit]