Periodic table (detailed cells)
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The periodic table is a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements. It can show much information, after name, symbol and atomic number. Also, for each element mean atomic mass value for the natural isotopic composition of each element can be noted. The two layout forms originate from two graphic forms of presentation of the same periodic table. Historically, when the f-block was identified it was drawn below the existing table, with markings for its in-table location (this page uses dots or asterisks). Also, a common presentation is to put all 15 lanthanide and actinide columns below, while the f-block only has 14 columns. One lanthanide and actinide each are d-block elements, belonging to group 3 with scandium and yttrium, though whether these are the first of each series (lanthanum and actinium) or the last (lutetium and lawrencium) has been disputed. The tables below show lanthanum and actinium as group 3 elements, as this is the more common form in the literature.
Although precursors to this table exist, its invention is generally credited to Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869. Mendeleev invented the table to illustrate recurring ("periodic") trends in the properties of the elements. The layout of the table has been refined and extended over time, as new elements have been discovered, and new theoretical models have been developed to explain chemical behavior.
- "The periodic table of the elements". International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2007-07-22. Archived from the original on 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
- Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
- IUPAC 2016, Table 1.
- IUPAC 2016, Table 2, 3 combined.
- IUPAC periodic table (Retrieved 15 October 2017)
- WebElements Periodic table (professional edition) (Retrieved 20 June 2005)
- Atomic Weights of the Elements 2001, Pure Appl. Chem. 75(8), 1107–1122, 2003
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- IUPAC Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry Third Edition