Perkin reaction

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Perkin reaction
Named after William Henry Perkin
Reaction type Condensation reaction
Reaction
Aromatic aldehyde
+
Aliphatic Acid anhydride
+
Alkali salt of the acid
Cinnamic acid derivatives
Identifiers
RSC ontology ID RXNO:0000003 YesY
 YesY(what is this?)  (verify)

The Perkin reaction is an organic reaction developed by English chemist William Henry Perkin that is used to make cinnamic acids. It gives an α,β-unsaturated aromatic acid by the aldol condensation of an aromatic aldehyde and an acid anhydride, in the presence of an alkali salt of the acid.[1][2] The alkali salt acts as a base catalyst, and other bases can be used instead.[3]

The Perkin reaction

Several reviews have been written.[4][5][6]

Reaction mechanism[edit]

The Perkin reaction

The above mechanism is not universally accepted, as several other versions exist, including decarboxylation without acetic group transfer.[7]

Applications[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Perkin, W. H. (1868). "On the artificial production of coumarin and formation of its homologues". Journal of the Chemical Society. 21: 53–61. doi:10.1039/js8682100053. 
  2. ^ Perkin, W. H. (1877). "On some hydrocarbons obtained from the homologues of cinnamic acid; and on anethol and its homologues". Journal of the Chemical Society. 32: 660–674. doi:10.1039/js8773200660. 
  3. ^ Dippy, J. F. J.; Evans, R. M. (1950). "The nature of the catalyst in the Perkin condensation". J. Org. Chem. 15 (3): 451–456. doi:10.1021/jo01149a001. 
  4. ^ Johnson, J. R. (1942). "The Perkin Reaction and Related Reactions". Org. React. 1: 210. doi:10.1002/0471264180.or001.08. ISBN 0471264180. 
  5. ^ House, H. O. (1972) Modern Synthetic Reactions, W. A. Benjamin, Menlo Park, California, 2nd ed, pp. 660–663
  6. ^ Rosen, T. (1991). "The Perkin Reaction". Comp. Org. Syn. 2: 395–408. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-052349-1.00034-2. ISBN 978-0-08-052349-1. 
  7. ^ Bansal, Raj K. (1998) Organic Reaction Mechanisms, Tata McGraw Hill, 3rd Edition , pp. 199–201, ISBN 9780470858585 doi:10.1002/0470858583.
  8. ^ Solladié, Guy; Pasturel-Jacopé, Yacine; Maignan, Jean (2003). "A re-investigation of resveratrol synthesis by Perkins reaction. Application to the synthesis of aryl cinnamic acids". Tetrahedron. 59 (18): 3315–3321. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(03)00405-8. ISSN 0040-4020.