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|Perlis Indera Kayangan|
|Anthem: Amin amin ya Rabaljalil|
|• Raja||Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin|
|• Menteri Besar||Azlan Man (BN)|
|• Total||821 km2 (317 sq mi)|
|• Density||280/km2 (720/sq mi)|
|Human Development Index|
|• HDI (2010)||0.714 (high) (9th)|
|Postal code||01xxx to 02xxx|
Perlis is the smallest state in Malaysia. It lies at the northern part of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and has the Satun and Songkhla Provinces of Thailand on its northern border. It is bordered by the state of Kedah to the south. The formal name for Perlis is Perlis Indera Kayangan. It was called Palit (Thai: ปะลิส) by the Siamese when it was under their influence.
Perlis has a population of 227,025 as of 2010.
The capital of Perlis is Kangar and the Royal capital is Arau. Another important town is Padang Besar, at the Malaysian-Thailand border. The main port and ferry terminal is at the small village of Kuala Perlis, linking mostly to Langkawi Island. Perlis has a famous snake farm and research centre at Sungai Batu Pahat, and Gua Kelam and Perlis State Park are tourist attractions. .
Perlis was originally part of Kedah, although it occasionally came under rule by Siam or Aceh. After the Siamese conquered Kedah in 1821, the British felt their interests in Perak to be threatened. This resulted in the 1826 Burney and Low Treaties formalising relations between the two Malay states and Siam, their nominal overlord. In the Burney Treaty, the exiled Kedah sultan Ahmad Tajuddin was not restored to his throne. Sultan Ahmad and his armed supporters then fought unsuccessfully for his restoration over twelve years (1830–1842).
In 1842, the Sultan finally agreed to accept Siamese terms, and was restored to his throne of Kedah. However, Siam separated Perlis into a separate principality directly vassal to Bangkok. The Siamese made Raja Long Krok as the Governor of Siam in Perlis while Syed (or Sayyid) Hussain Jamalullail as deputy governor. Finally, on 20th May 1843, the Siamese made Sayyid Hussain Jamalulail, the paternal grandson of a Hadhrami Arab Sayyid immigrant and maternal grandson of the Sultan of Kedah, became the first Raja of Perlis. This made Perlis as a sovereign state. His descendants still rule Perlis, but as rajas, instead of as sultans.
As with Kedah, the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 forced Siam to relinquish its southern Malay vassal states to Great Britain. The British installed a Resident in the Perlis Royal capital of Arau. Perlis was returned to Siam in World War II as a reward for Siam's alliance with Japan, but this brief annexation ended with the Japanese surrender. After World War II, Perlis returned to British rule until it became part of the Malayan Union, then the Federation of Malaya in 1957 and lastly the Federation of Malaysia in 1963.
Since 2000, the Raja or hereditary monarch has been Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin. He was the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia from 2001 to 2006. Tuanku Syed Faizuddin Putra was the Regent of Perlis during the five-year period when Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin was Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The Chief Executive or Menteri Besar is Datuk Seri Dr Md Isa Sabu of Barisan Nasional.
The Coat of Arms of Perlis consists of a sturdy green wreath of padi, indicating the wealth of the kingdom and the chief economic activity of the people. The shield in the centre represents the pride of the people. Inside the shield is a ring of golden rice surrounding the name "Perlis" written in the Jawi script.
Outdoor Rock Climbing in the limestone hills of Bukit Keteri with over 50 sport climbing routes that are bolted by the world's climbing team Mammut & Camp5; the crags split into 2 next to each other and the rockfaces rising up about 150m. The range of difficulty is from beginner to expert and many varieties of climbs are available.
- "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. p. 27. Archived from the original on 2010-12-27. Retrieved 2011-01-24.
- "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. p. iv. Archived from the original on 2010-12-27. Retrieved 2011-01-24.
- PERLIS2. Royalark.net (2004-05-09). Retrieved on 2013-09-27.
- Ulrike Freitag, W. G. Clarence-Smith (1997). Power Hadhrami Traders, Scholars, and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s-1960s. BRILL. pp. 85–7. ISBN 90-04-10771-1.
- "2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Retrieved 2012-06-17. p. 13
||Satun Province, Thailand||Songkhla Province, Thailand|
|Straits of Malacca||Kedah|