Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the Council of Europe

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The Council of Europe granted observer status to the Holy See on 7 March 1970, having maintained a lesser relationship since 1962,[1] when the Apostolic Nuncio to Belgium was given the additional title Apostolic Delegate to the Council for Cultural Cooperation of the Council of Europe.[2][a]

In 1970, the Holy See established a diplomatic relationship with the European Economic Community and on 10 November appointed Archbishop Eugenio Cardinale[b] as Nuncio to the Common Market. He was given a second charge and title as "special envoy and permanent representative to the Council of Europe, the European consultative assembly in Strasbourg".[4] The nature and status of that position has evolved as the Vatican explored how best to manage its relationship with such international bodies and how to integrate such positions into its traditional hierarchy of representatives, delegates, and nuncios. Until 2019, Cardinale's successors representing the Holy See to the Council were not bishops, nor did they have the title nuncio or other responsibilities. Bressan in 1983 was named "Special Envoy" to the Council,[5] and his successors were named "Special Envoy with the role of Permanent Observer"[6] until the simpler formula was adopted in 2004: "Special Envoy, Permanent Representative".[7][c]

Full membership in the Council is likely precluded by the Holy See's lack of democracy and human rights guarantees.[10] In 2007, the Holy See described its role vis-à-vis international organizations:[11]

In accordance with its special character and mission, the Holy See ... acts as an admonishing ethical force, encouraging [the international organization] to respect, in their policies, principles of justice and solidarity which make for peaceful coexistence and co-operation between peoples. Its character is manifest in what it is, and also in what it does.

It successfully argued that the Council’s review of observer states recognize its "special mission" and remove language that said "Its lack of democratic institutions and its position on certain human rights matters makes [sic] it a special case".[12]

Permanent Observers

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Holy See signed the European Cultural Convention on 10 December 1962.[3]
  2. ^ Cardinale was named Nuncio to Belgium on 19 April 1969 and the assignments to the European Economic Community and the Council of Europe were additional responsibilities.
  3. ^ In 2019, Pope Francis gave Paolo Rudelli, the permanent observer since 2014, the title of nuncio and set in motion his ordination as a bishop,[8] but Rudelli was replaced as permanent observer before being ordained bishop, leaving the status of the permanent observer unchanged.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Holy See / Observer State". The Council of Europe. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  2. ^ "Azione per la Pace e per lo Sviluppo". La Civiltà cattolica (in Italian). 121 (2891): 476–7. 5 December 1970. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  3. ^ Vorbeck, Michael (2005). "Perceptions of the Churches by the European Institutions". In Barnett, James (ed.). A Theology for Europe: The Churches and the European Institutions. Peter Lang Publishing. p. 200.
  4. ^ "Vatican Establishes Ties With the Common Market". New York Times. 11 November 1970. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  5. ^ a b c "Gli auguri di Bressan: 'Felice per la nomina'". Giornale Trentino (in Italian). 11 February 2016. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  6. ^ a b c "Rinunce e Nomine, 16.07.2009" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 16 July 2009. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  7. ^ a b "Rinunce e Nomine, 27.01.2004" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 27 January 2004. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  8. ^ "Resignations and Appointments, 03.09.2019" (Press release). Holy See Press Office. 3 September 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  9. ^ a b c "Rinunce e Nomine, 21.09.2019" (Press release). Holy See Press Office. 21 September 2019. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
  10. ^ Duursma, Jorri C. (1986). Fragmentation and the International Relations of Micro-states: Self-determination and Statehood. Cambridge University Press. p. 409. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  11. ^ "Comments from the Holy See, 7 December 2007". Parliamentary Assembly - Working Papers- 2008 Ordinary Session 21-25 January 2008: First Part. Council of Europe. 2008. p. 35. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  12. ^ "Amendment No. 22, 22 January 2008". Parliamentary Assembly - Working Papers- 2008 Ordinary Session 21-25 January 2008: First Part. Council of Europe. 2008. p. 25. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  13. ^ "Archbishop Igino Cardinale". New York Times. 26 March 1983. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  14. ^ a b "Rinunce e Nomine, 30.10.2002" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 30 October 2002. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  15. ^ a b c "Rinunce e Nomine, 18.08.2000" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 18 August 2000. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  16. ^ "Rinunce e Nomine, 22.01.2004" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 22 January 2004. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  17. ^ "Rinunce e Nomine, 12.06.2007" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 12 June 2007. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  18. ^ "Rinunce e Nomine, 07.06.2008" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 7 June 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  19. ^ "Rinunce e nomine, 26.10.2013" (Press release). Holy See Press Office. 26 October 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  20. ^ "Rinunce e Nomine, 20.08.2014" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 20 September 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2019.